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Scriptation, a digital script annotation and distribution app, was created by BU alums Zakary Selbert (Questrom’05) (left), and Steven Vitolo (COM’05) (center). The company is run by Selbert, chief investment officer, Vitolo, chief executive officer, and Alexandra Diantgikis (COM’15), marketing and social media manager (right). Photo by Patrick Strattner
Steven Vitolo was working as a script coordinator on a television pilot in 2013 when he had a revelation. “We had two weeks before we started shooting, and every night there were revisions, so every night I was putting out a full 50-page script that would then be printed out for 100-plus people. And I’m like, this is crazy how much paper we’re going through. We’re writing the script digitally, why are we then reading it on paper?”
“I am not the first person you would think of as a green, sustainability person, which shows you how insane the waste is,” says Vitolo (COM’05), CEO of Scriptation LLC, a privately held company that has attracted well-known Hollywood names as investors, like Emmy-nominated actor-director Rob Morrow.
Vitolo founded the company in 2013 with Zakary Selbert (Questrom’05), Scriptation’s chief investment officer, and Felipe Mendez, chief technology officer. Vitolo and Selbert had friends in common at BU, but didn’t actually meet until they both were living in Los Angeles. Also on the staff are marketing and social media manager Alexandra Diantgikis (COM’15) and software engineers on contract.
The annotation app allows users to easily transfer their script notes to subsequent drafts without having to copy them over—and over, and over. The Scriptation website promises that it will end “script change hell.”
For the last two TV seasons, Vitolo has been talking up the app in his job as script coordinator for the ABC hit comedy Blackish. “The thing I’m really proud of,” he says, “is that every time somebody would move to Scriptation, they would tell the production coordinator, ‘Take me off your distribution list, I just want electronic copies.’ We went from 100 people on paper to 80 to 70—I don’t know what the final number was. But we saved tens, if not hundreds, of thousands of sheets of paper.”
Word of mouth about the app spread, and now other shows and studios have begun to use it as well. One veteran writer calls it a game-changer.
Most scripts for TV dramas and comedies are written on computer, in Final Draft or a similar program, and then printed out or exported as .pdf files for distribution. While Scriptation isn’t the first to attempt to take the distribution process digital, it’s come up with fixes to some issues that plagued previous efforts.
“I’m insane how much I mark up scripts,” says Morrow, the star of TV shows like Northern Exposure and Numb3rs and films like Quiz Show. He’s currently appearing in the NBC drama Chicago PD. As an actor, “as soon as I start working on a project, I start writing in the margins,” he says. “I write all kinds of notes, some of which I never refer to again, but it’s the way I enter into the world of the story.”
And when Morrow’s directing a show, he fills script pages with diagrams and shot ideas and notes to himself about things he wants his actors to do when the cameras start rolling. Prior to Scriptation, he says, every time a rewrite was delivered, he had to copy his notes by hand to the new pages, which he calls “a nightmare, and as a director, it’s really a nightmare, because your time is so crucial.”
“For years I’d been thinking, there’s gotta be something, and I asked my assistant and she turned me on to Scriptation,” Morrow says. “I was acting on Designated Survivor then, and I loved it. And then I thought, let me see if I can use it as a director on The Fosters, created by Peter Paige (CFA’91), assuming I would bail at some point in preproduction because I’d get overwhelmed with glitches, but I got through the whole production and didn’t have one problem. Scriptation was like a godsend to me.”
Besides the notes transfer, Scriptation has managed to leap another big hurdle: security. Leaked or stolen scripts can be a real problem for production companies and networks trying to avoid spoilers. When Vitolo and company pitched the app to studios, hoping to get whole productions on board in one fell swoop, security was the main requirement. The company has just released Scriptation Studio, which ramps up the distribution side of the platform by encrypting the documents and giving studios control over user access.
“From the Studio end we can tell if you even take a screenshot, which is admittedly creepy,” Vitolo says with a laugh. “And if your iPad is stolen or someone gets fired and goes rogue, we can instantly disable Scriptation on that device.”
Social media has also had a role in spreading the word about the app. Vitolo says actor Craig Bierko (UnREAL), an avid fan of the app, coined the hashtag #ScriptationNation, and they immediately adopted it.
Producer Clara George, who’s currently working on the Syfy series The Magicians, is another convert. She heard about Scriptation when a few people on a previous job downloaded it, and now she promotes its use on each new production.
“There’ve been a lot of script apps that have all fallen short of what producers actually need,” George says. She’s found Scriptation useful for other documents, such as budgets and schedules, and with it, she says, “I’ve gone from literally a four-inch-thick binder full of pages for each hour of television to maybe five pieces of paper.”
Steven Vitolo will speak about Scriptation and Hollywood’s paper problem this weekend at the daylong Sustainable Production Forum at the Vancouver International Film Festival.
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If and when striking Hollywood writers finally get back to work, they might want to consider drawing upon some of the intriguing storylines that dominated the enterprise software industry in 2007 for inspiration.
While there was no shortage of villains, upstarts and old familiar faces to entice viewers, “Software 2007” seems like a can’t-miss proposition.
Imagine this pitch: “It’s kind of like ‘Wall Street’ meets ‘Where’s Waldo?’ with a little bit of ‘The Amazing Race’ sprinkled in. You know, billionaires circumnavigating the globe in yachts and tricked-out 767s searching for cheap labor, Shai Agassi and anyone who can provide the authoritative definition of SOA.”
Even if that would-be producer isn’t immediately laughed out of the room, he or she still won’t have an ending to the story. Instead, we’ll have to wait until next year just to find out what happens next.
Until then, here’s a look back at some of the most significant software subplots for 2007:
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Rather than locking themselves into never-ending license service contracts — to say nothing of the months or years it takes to complete an on-premise software implementation — companies of all sizes are increasingly turning to Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) (define) for their daily business applications. This has been good news for providers like chúng tôi and NetSuite.
Cisco Systems’ $3.2 billion purchase of WebEx in March now positions the network-equipment maker as serious threat to top-tier enterprise software vendors servicing corporate customers that are increasingly enamored with the SaaS model for unified communications and collaboration.
Meanwhile, Microsoft is expected to launch its CRM Live on-demand product early next year. Oracle in November announced plans to beef up its Siebel CRM On Demand service with a slew of social networking features.
But the strongest vote of confidence for the SaaS model may have come in fall, when SAP — the world’s largest business application vendor — jumped on the bandwagon with its first on-demand service, Business ByDesign.
In announcing what amounts to a sea change in the German company’s strategic direction, CEO Henning Kagermann stepped up the rhetoric when he called Business ByDesign “the most important announcement I’ve made in my career.”
That a company of SAP’s size and stature would spend more than $500 million to launch what can only be viewed as a direct challenge to chúng tôi makes it perhaps the most resounding endorsement of the SaaS model.
Believe it or not, chúng tôi which eclipsed the 1 million-subscriber threshold in 2007, is pleased by the turn of events.
NetSuite, which is majority-owned by Oracle CEO Larry Ellison, hopes to raise almost $100 million to pay down some debt and build a second datacenter.
Despite being an early mover, the company has yet to turn a profit, however.
And SaaS isn’t a sure-fire win for SAP, either. The model may have received the nod from the software giant, but it still represents a gamble.
Business ByDesign “is a big bet for SAP,” Gartner analyst Dan Sholler said in an interview with chúng tôi in August. “This has to succeed or they will have a whole host of business challenges ahead of them. No one has ever proven they can sell this type of business technology this way. SAP is betting the profitability of the company that it will be able to do it.”
Continued on Page 2: The SAP-Oracle war rages on.
The SAP-Oracle war rages on
The Hatfields and McCoys have nothing on these two. Put simply, both of these companies and their CEOs want to annihilate each other.
And things actually got worse in 2007.
Oracle’s Ellison has made it abundantly clear he wants to overtake SAP as the world’s largest business application vendor. The company has made almost four-dozen acquisitions during the past four years to build the end-to-end software platform of choice for enterprise customers.
Meanwhile, SAP keeps plugging away with its formidable installed base of more than 43,000 companies — and the recurring service and maintenance contracts that come with them. It’s also set an internal goal of achieving 100,000 customers by 2010.
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Yet with Oracle’s mounting challenge, the company also proved this year it’s open to more radical thinking. Even after having long mocked Oracle for its growth-at-any-cost strategy in favor of its own plan of organic growth, SAP took a page out of Ellison’s book when it ponied up $6.7 billion in early October to acquire Business Objects.
It didn’t take Oracle long to respond.
Less than a week after SAP broke from tradition with its Business Objects purchase, Ellison and company launched an unsolicited and (so far) unsuccessful $6.8 billion takeover bid for middleware provider BEA Systems.
For Ellison, the fact that BEA rejected Oracle’s bid and remains independent isn’t the point.
Industry watchers widely regarded the timing of the takeover bid — rumored for more than two years — as yet another dig at SAP. Not only did Oracle try to upstage SAP’s big purchase, but it swooped in on BEA knowing it was highly unlikely, if not impossible, for the German firm to mount a counteroffer less than a week after committing $6.7 billion for Business Objects.
Along with the M&A activity and both companies’ penchant for bragging about customer wins against each other, the animosity spilled over into the courtroom in March. Oracle filed a lawsuit alleging SAP, though its TomorrowNow subsidiary, had engaged in “corporate theft on a grand scale” by engaging “systematic, illegal access to — and taking from — Oracle’s computerized customer support systems.”
In September, a U.S. District judge set a trial date of Feb. 9, 2009 for the two antagonists to resolve the matter in court, unless they reach a settlement in the interim.
After showing most of TomorrowNow’s management team the door, SAP in November appeared to be ready to put the scandal behind it and announced it was considering a number of options, including the possible sale of the third-party services provider.
Continued on Page 3: What’s the deal with SOA?
What’s the deal with SOA?
When they weren’t at each other’s throats, software vendors of every shape and size spent a ridiculous amount of time this year proclaiming that their enterprise products and services were the secret sauce for a service-oriented architecture (SOA) (define).
Of course, the idea of SOA — essentially aligning IT services and business processes through loosely coupled heterogeneous services — has been around for years.
But judging from this year’s press releases and product announcements from vendors like IBM, Microsoft, SAP and Oracle, SOA is some kind of magic tonic that will revolutionize the entire organization, and each vendor is the only one that can make it happen.
It’s still unclear whether SOA will become the next evolution in IT architecture or just a interesting footnote like the Y2K scare. That will depend on how committed enterprise customers are to defining and identifying thousands upon thousands of business processes.
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Equally important, analysts and systems integrators say, is whether or not enterprise customers are willing to pay millions upfront to overhaul all their business and IT processes for some future benefit that, at this early stage, is almost impossible to quantify.
“Right now with SOA, it’s like we’re in a spaceship and looking at that big, bright star way out there,” said Don Rippert, Accenture’s chief technology officer. “That bright star is SOA. And we want to get there and see that star. But as we get closer, we realize it’s a not a star but a galaxy. There’s a logic and a gravity to it but it’s not a single thing. Just like client-server wasn’t a single thing. There’s a lot of promise. But we’re not there yet. We’re still a long way away.”
Vendors continue to promise this fantastic architecture in which pre-defined business processes are put into a modeling tool. That tool controls the software in the service, allowing companies to adjust their hardware and software on the fly, helping them meet changing business needs without touching the underlying code.
That might sound valuable. However, this all starts with identifying and defining business processes, which is no small order.
For a large retail bank, this step could involve 1,500 to 2,000 processes, including everything from opening new accounts and scheduling teller work shifts to ordering paperclips and envelopes. A global food services company might fare worse, having to go through more than 10,000 business processes.
As a result, it’s a tedious, time-consuming and expensive effort that requires executive sponsorship and buy-in throughout the organization. And it almost certainly requires breaking down the legacy systems and processes that have proliferated for decades, a process that CEOs and CIOs alike are loathe to embrace.
“That’s what we need to bridge that gulf,” Rippert said. “If it’s not bridged in the next 18 months to two years, SOA could turn into the hula hoop.”
Continued on Page 4: Virtualization frenzy
Unlike SOA, virtualization software stepped into the limelight during 2007 to help companies address a real and pressing need: finding new ways to cut datacenter costs and reduce energy consumption.
VMware, which enjoyed a fantastic initial public offering in August, stands as the clear industry leader in developing software that allows IT managers to cram multiple computing environments onto one machine. By allowing one physical server to perform the function of two or more servers, more applications and operating systems can be hosted and managed in the datacenter.
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In May, Gartner reported more than 500,000 of these virtual machines were already online and it predicts that figure to grow to more than 3 million machines by 2009.
Companies looking for a solution to the new wave of problems created by incorporating both physical and virtual servers really only have two choices.
They can hire a services provider like SunGard or IBM to host and manage snapshots of their server environment and provide additional capacity when needed, or they can do it themselves with some help from another software vendor.
“The more you put in one basket, the more things that can go wrong with that basket,” said Don Norbeck, director of product development at SunGard. “Everyone wants to lessen hardware and reduce power consumption and space. But people need to take a step back and assess their environments and infrastructures before they start their virtualization projects.”
This article was first published on chúng tôi
Remember those promises we were made, about a paperless world? Everything electronic, everything online? Since the world was failing to deliver, I decided a couple of years ago to do an experiment to find out whether it is possible to live a truly paperless life.
Two years later, the bad news is that you can’t entirely avoid the stuff. There are a few documents the government insists I keep in paper form: my passport and driving licence, for example. There are documents that still arrive in paper form, and documents I have to supply in paper form.
The good news is that you can get very, very close. Here’s how I made it work …
My first step was to investigate the legal niceties. This was a surprisingly refreshing experience. There are, I discovered, vanishingly few documents one is required to store in paper form in the UK. Passport, driving licence, car registration, car tax – those were pretty much it.
There were many more documents you’d imagine you might have to store in paper form but in fact don’t. The title deeds to your house? Obsolete: lenders and solicitors simply check the online property database to ascertain the legal owner of a property. Tax forms? Receipts? Here in the UK, the taxman is perfectly happy with scanned copies, requiring them only to be legible and to show both sides of the document where applicable.
Step two was to review my existing paperwork to decide what needed to be scanned and what could be discarded. With things like household bills, I’d simply filed each one as it arrived, but never taken the time to discard old ones. There are times when going back a year or so might be useful (for example, plugging in figures to a comparison site); knowing how much I spent on gas in 2001 probably fell into the less useful category.
This took about eight hours total, done over a couple of days. I then had:
– a 6-inch pile of papers to be scanned
My paranoia about identity theft meant I shredded absolutely everything containing any personal data at all, even a name and address.
Having documents on your computer is no use if you can’t find them, so some thought is required about how to organize them.
I was fortunate there: the majority of my documents were already stored in electronic form, and my Mac is organised into folders and sub-folders borders to within an inch of its life, so this was a straightforward process. Most paper documents would fit neatly into the existing structure, while others merely required the addition of a sub-folder here and there.
For those who are less borderline-OCD in their PC usage, I’d strongly suggest creating a logical folder structure before you go anywhere near a scanner – otherwise you’ll end up with a mess of files equivalent to putting all your papers into a single cardboard box in the loft.
You’ll want a very good backup regime in place, otherwise you could find yourself on the losing side of an argument with the taxman when seven years of receipts disappears with a stolen or damaged laptop.
As a belt-and-braces man, I have a third drive set up as a clone of my Mac drives. Carbon Copy Clone automatically updates these clones weekly (the timing deliberate – if something completely trashed my drive, I’d want a clone of an earlier state). Then as a last-ditch house-fire safeguard, I have a CrashPlan account which maintains a complete backup in the cloud. I chose CrashPlan because you can set it to back up absolutely everything, and there is no capacity limit.
The next step is to scan that 6-inch pile of paperwork. The only sane way to scan hundreds of pages is a sheet-fed scanner with a document hopper: stick in up to 50 pages at a time and get both sides scanned at around 20 pages a minute. The problem is that sheet-fed scanners cost £3-400 and you only really need them once. For ongoing scanning of the bits of paper that arrive afterwards, they are overkill.
My suggestion there is borrow or hire a sheet-fed scanner for the initial conversion from paper, then just buy a nice, compact single-sheet scanner for ongoing use (see below).
My well-organised folder structure meant I could be confident of finding documents when I needed them, so I opted for flat PDFs: fast to scan and small file-sizes. If you’re less organised with your folders, searchable PDFs may be your better bet, so that Spotlight can search the contents of the documents.
Scanning the existing paperwork is of course only half the battle: you now need to ensure you don’t start re-acquiring paper. For this, I invested in a USB-powered portable scanner. This only scans one sheet at a time, single-sided, but that’s perfect adequate when all it has to do is keep up with the few pieces of paper that I acquire on a daily basis: bank statements, bills, receipts and so on.
I have a simple rule: all incoming paperwork is scanned on arrival. So when the post arrives, anything that I don’t need to keep is binned or shredded, the things I need to keep are scanned first. That averages out at about a minute of scanning a day.
What of those documents that get presented on the web and you need to print? No problem: OS X has a built-in PDF printer. Simply do CMD-P as usual to print, then go to the PDF drop-down bottom-left of the print dialogue and select Save As PDF.
The final piece of the puzzle was dealing with documents I might need to have to hand while away from my laptop. Those documents are stored in a Dropbox folder called iPad Transfers and I use the excellent GoodReader app to store them on my iPad.
GoodReader allows you to create a logical folder structure, so you can be as organised on your iPad as on your Mac. GoodReader also runs on the iPhone, so you can store documents there if you don’t have an iPad (or don’t habitually carry it around with you).
There are still a few holes in the paper-free dream. While most airlines these days offer electronic boarding passes, either through their own apps, in Passbook or simply as a PDF file, there are still a few exceptions.
Train companies, too, haven’t yet joined the brave new world: they still seem to expect you to hard over a piece of cardboard. Some event tickets and invitations too. But 99% paper-free? That’s easily achievable today, and I’m the living proof.
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The next release of Ubuntu Linux could have a very different interface than regular Linux desktop users are used to seeing. Ubuntu Founder Mark Shuttleworth today announced that the Ubuntu 11.04 Natty Narwal release would use the Unity interface as its default Linux desktop shell. To date, Unity has been available to Ubuntu users as a netbook-focused user interface.
Shuttleworth announced the dramatic change at the Ubuntu Developer Summit (UDS), which kicked off today in Florida. In addition to the new desktop, Shuttleworth also announced a new effort to enable Ubuntu users to sponsor open source projects with financial donations. Shuttleworth’s overall goal is to continue to improve the quality of Ubuntu Linux as well as the broader ecosystem of open source projects on which it relies.
The move to Unity on the desktop will provide Ubuntu users that have 3D capable hardware with a new desktop experience that is different than the typical GNOME desktop. Though Unity is not technically part of the GNOME project, Shuttleworth noted that Unity is a shell for GNOME and it will run all the same applications that run on GNOME today. He also stressed that Ubuntu remains committed to GNOME, and the move to use Unity for Ubuntu 11.04 should be seen in a positive light.
“We’re working hard to re-assure folks in the GNOME community that our intent is to continue to support the values of GNOME as a project,” Shuttleworth said during a press conference.
Shuttleworth added that Ubuntu today puts a tremendous amount of effort into the GNOME project. Unity in some respects is a competitive effort to the GNOME Shell project which is expected to debut in the GNOME 3 release in 2011.
“The shell is simply the piece that is used for launching applications and for switching between running applications,” Shuttleworth said. “All of the applications are the same. There are developers within GNOME that just focus on GNOME Shell and that’s the piece that we won’t be integrating, but the rest of GNOME will fit perfectly into the Unity environment.”
Shuttleworth noted that Ubuntu developers have participated in the GNOME Shell effort, though they have taken a divergent view on a number of issues including how application menus should appear in the system. As well, Shuttleworth said that GNOME Shell has taken some technical decisions in its stack that do not align with Ubuntu’s direction. Lastly, Shuttleworth said that GNOME Shell is not yet a technology that is ready for wide usage.
“GNOME Shell is somewhat behind and we couldn’t ship it in this release,” Shuttleworth said. “We needed a solution now.”
Shuttleworth also dismissed any notion that Unity could lead to an open core model for Ubuntu where proprietary software is baked into versions of the Unity interface.
“We have absolutely no plans for any proprietary extensions to Unity,” Shuttleworth said.Funding Open Source Software
With the 11.04 release, Shuttleworth also expects to debut a new system that will enable Ubuntu users to sponsor open source software projects with financial donations. The new sponsorship system will be built into the Ubuntu Software Center which was recently expanded in the 10.10 release, to enable users to purchase commercial software.
“In general we have a policy that where we are benefitting from open source and we can attribute that benefit to a particular upstream project, we share the benefits with those upstream projects,” Shuttleworth said. “This is a general mechanism for individuals to support projects and we will provide a mechanism for that flow to happen.”
Sean Michael Kerner is a senior editor at chúng tôi the news service of chúng tôi the network for technology professionals.
Google has recently overhauled its search spam report form to combat search quality issues.
The updated form is part of Google’s approach to improving user experience by addressing problematic content such as paid links, malicious behavior, and low-quality pages.An Improved User Interface
The redesigned form makes it easier for users to report a broader range of search quality issues.
“Now, you can report spam, paid links, malicious behavior, low quality, and other search quality issues, all in one improved form,” Google announced.
This new form introduces a feature for bulk submissions, allowing users to report up to five pages violating the same policy in a single report.
After submitting a report, users will receive a confirmation email from Google, offering help links to additional resources covering Google’s quality policy and directing them to a forum for personalized support.What Happens After Reporting?
When user feedback reaches Google, the company has a system to prioritize and address them.
While urgent problems might be addressed immediately, most issues are resolved when Google updates the algorithm.
Google’s John Mueller previously explained how the reporting system works, stating:
“The web is so gigantic, and ever-changing, and people ask us new questions every day. Because of that, our goal is generally to improve the algorithms that pull together the search results over all and not to tweak things for individual queries. This may take a bit of time, but it makes search better for everyone worldwide for the large number of searches that are done every day.”
He adds, “regardless of the contact method, make it easy for Google to recognize the scale and the scope of the problem.”
The exact timeline for Google’s response to user feedback remains unclear and likely depends on the nature and urgency of the reported issue.The Larger Picture
Overhauling Google’s search spam report form isn’t an isolated move. It comes as part of a more comprehensive effort by the tech giant to improve the quality of search results continually.
Google’s decision to allow bulk submissions of up to five pages suggests the company recognizes the scale of search quality issues and is ready to engage with them more substantially.
The enhanced reporting process can lead to cleaner, more relevant search results for everyone.In Summary
In a rapidly evolving digital landscape, Google prioritizes user feedback to enhance search results.
With the redesigned search spam report form, Google has a more streamlined avenue for reporting search quality issues.
The new form is the most recent example of Google’s commitment to maintaining high-quality SERPs.
Hard sciences are also being revolutionized by machine learning
From email to the Internet, particle physicists, the hard sciences’ experts, have historically been early users of technology, if not its creators. Therefore, it is not unexpected that researchers began training computer models to tag particles in the chaotic jets produced by collisions as early as 1997. Since then, these models have plodded along, becoming increasingly more capable—although not everyone has been pleased with this development. Particle physicists have taught algorithms to solve previously unsolvable issues and take on entirely new challenges over the past ten years, concurrently with the broader deep-learning revolution.
According to Jesse Thaler, a theoretical particle physicist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, “I felt really scared by machine learning.” He claims that at first, he believed that it imperiled his ability to characterize particle jets using human judgment. Thaler, however, has now come to accept it and has used machine learning to solve a number of issues in particle physics. He claims that machine learning is a partner.
To begin with, the data utilized in particle physics differs greatly from the conventional data used in machine learning. Though convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have excelled at categorizing photos of commonplace items like trees, kittens, and food, they’re less good at handling particle collisions. Javier Duarte, a particle physicist at the University of California, San Diego, claims that the issue is that collision data from sources like the Large Hadron Collider isn’t by nature an image. Flashy representations of LHC collisions may deceitfully fill the entire detector. In reality, a white screen with a few black pixels represents the millions of inputs that aren’t actually registering a signal. Although this weakly supplied data produces a subpar image, it can perform well in a newer architecture called graph neural networks (GNNs).
Innovation is needed to overcome additional particle physics problems. According to Daniel Whiteson, a particle physicist at the University of California, Irvine, “We’re not merely importing hammers to smash our nails.” We need to create new hammers because there are strange new types of nails. The enormous volume of data generated at the LHC—roughly one petabyte every second—is one peculiar nail. Only a limited amount of high-quality data is saved from this large volume. Researchers seek to teach a sharp-eyed algorithm to sort better than one that is hard coded in order to develop a better trigger system, which saves as much good data as possible while getting rid of low-quality data. The intention is not to connect the device or the experiment to the network and have it publish the articles without keeping them informed, according to Whiteson. He and his colleagues are attempting to have the algorithms deliver feedback in terms of what people can comprehend, but it’s possible that other individuals have communication duties as well.
However, according to Duarte, such an algorithm would need to execute in just a few microseconds in order to be efficient. Particle physicists are pushing the boundaries of machine techniques like pruning and quantization to accelerate their algorithms in order to solve these issues. Researchers are looking for ways to compress the data because the LHC needs to store 600 petabytes during the next five years of data collecting (equal to about 660,000 movies at 4K resolution or the data equivalent of 30 Libraries of Congresses).
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