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Question:What is Coding Standard?

Answer: – Organization that developed better software has their own standards of coding. Some reasons are given below for the standard of coding.

Coding process makes easy to solve errors regarding coding and helpful in reading codes of different other programs.

Coding provide a dress appearances to the codes which is written by different kind of programs.

Testing and maintenance, both processes are affected by the coding process. In comparison, testing and maintenance process takes more time than coding process. With the help of good coding style software can created which has the quality of low maintenance.

For programming style we have some rules which are defined below

Clarity and simplicity of expression – During the process of designing, the process should be simple and easy to understand. The programming of software must be designed just like that clarity should be present at every level and there should be not find any confusion about the understanding of the program.

Names – A name has a specific meaning during a program writing process. It should not be critical variable. In the process of code writing the code should be closer in the comparison of original product; with the help of this everyone can easily understand the expression. For Example if we want to calculate interest and showing the expression I = ( P* R*T)/100 . No one can easily understand this expression but instead of this if we write interest = (principle * rate * time)/ 100 . Then everyone easily understands this expression.

Go to system – We should always try to neglect this as longer its can possible because the main drawback of goto system is that it use always forward, transferred and avoided the backward jump.

Hiding information – A good programming language has a most special style which is called information hiding.

All information which is special and have a specific purpose then the collected data should be separate from the information which is used in a system.

The quality of visibility and transparency should be available in all information which is useful for the operational activities.

The system became more maintainable with the help of hidden information by decreasing the coupling between modules.

Nature of modules – A module should be treated carefully if the nature of this module is difficult. So the basic method of its adjustment is to divide into little parts which called multiples modules.

Layout of a program – The program should have the quality of understanding and readability. Program should be readable in first try and there should be find not any confusion. For getting the best output use of commas, space and marks of identifications used.

Robustness – Robustness program is that program with the help of this we can get the proper output with the wrong input. Many of times we see that the input data have so much errors or invalid data in that case normal program became fall in producing output. On the other hand Robustness program helps in this case and gives the proper output in user favor.

Internal documentation – Internal documentation plays a major role in program. It is helpful to increase the understanding and readability. It helps a lot when maintenance and editing is required for a program.

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Kerf Wooden Cases For Iphone Se

Nature provides unlimited inspiration to all – whether you are a scientist, an artist or a businessman. For centuries, man has sourced the best materials to make his life comfortable. Today, even as technology has taken our life in its lap, nature still holds her effective say in our life. Time and again, we have appreciated products made of natural resources. Once again we have got the best products from KERF – a leading smartphone case maker.

Earlier too, we have carefully examined wooden cases for iPhone 6s and iPhone 6s Plus. This time, KERF presents beautiful wood cases for the latest iPhone SE.

KerfCase is strongly rooted in a passion for craft and attention to minute details. The designers at this studio believe in precision, excellent craftsmanship, and natural materials. Therefore, they decided to bring the best wooden cases one after another.

KERF Wooden Cases for iPhone SE

There are six varieties of wood cases, which include Cherry Wood Case, Cork Case, Spalted Maple Wood Case, Walnut Wood Case, Mahogany Wood Case, and Maple Wood Case.

Pure Wood

KERF picked up pure wood to create luxurious wooden cases for iPhone SE. However, luxury doesn’t come in the way of functionality, which is given special treatment by KERF designers. If you check the materials used for making wood cases, you will be surprised that human imagination has never been so vivid that it could make an iPhone case from cherry wood, cork or spalted maple. A walnut wood case is beyond our imagination; the luxury of mahogany was impossible to achieve. But KERF makes it possible for iPhone SE users.


Elegance in any design is appreciated. KERF followed this dictum whole-heartedly and created the most beautiful design by keeping its natural color and feel. Each case is uniquely supreme as the cases are made of wood. This requires you to take immediate action if you lose your heart to any one case; you won’t find another one of the same design. Experience the rugged feel of pure wood in your hands. KERF produces wood cases that provide extra grip in your hands; this makes you worry-free when you are holding your precious iPhone SE while commuting.


“Luxurious products are not durable” – well, it is a passé idea. Wood is durable by nature and therefore, you can always trust its strength even if it is processed and moulded to create an iPhone case. KERF has meticulously crafted each case to impart perfection that ensures great looks and complete protection. Take a close look and you will see that all corners of your iPhone SE are completely covered; the wood cases leave no scope for any damage to your iPhone. At the same time, the case doesn’t add any extra bulk to your iPhone; this allows you to slide your iPhone SE in your pockets easily.


For any accessories maker, it would be easy to create a plastic or rubberized plastic case for iPhones. But then that case would just be another case available in the market. To capture the attention of iPhone user, one has to do something unique. KERF has successfully added that unique element to its wooden cases. Wood is inflexible and therefore, to make a case packed with multiple features demands a greater level of creativity and carefulness. During the manufacturing process, KERF has taken care of an important thing: luxury and design should not hinder the accessibility. If the case doesn’t allow users to access all the buttons and controls on iPhone SE, it is nothing but crap. Thankfully this didn’t happen in the case of KERF. Users can conveniently access every function on their iPhone SE including camera and headphone jack.

Wooden cases have always been a choice of consumers, who possess discerning taste. And for such consumers, the price may not be an issue. However, unlike other expensive wooden cases, KERF’s are available well below $100. Mahogany wood case is available at just $59, which is a good deal for a smartphone that costs you $399.

All in all, KERF wood case is your perfect choice. Go for it! Once you buy and use any of the wooden cases, please share your experience with us.

Author Profile


Jignesh Padhiyar is the co-founder of chúng tôi who has a keen eye for news, rumors, and all the unusual stuff around Apple products. During his tight schedule, Jignesh finds some moments of respite to share side-splitting content on social media.

10 Tips And Tricks For New Iphone Se Owners

With the new iPhone SE a reality, folks who haven’t owned an iPhone in years are sharing their tips for using the handset. We’ve rounded up a few common tips we think new iPhone SE customers will love. Watch our hands-in video walkthrough and learn something new today!

Seasoned iPhone users are probably familiar with these tips. We’re not expecting this tutorial to satisfy every single person, nor is that the point. The point is to surface some of the best new features of the 2023 iPhone SE and offer a few quick tips for how to use them effectively.

Video: 10 iPhone SE tips

Watch the below hands-on video walkthrough from our videographer Harris Craycraft.

Subscribe to iDownloadBlog on YouTube

List: 10 iPhone SE tips

If you didn’t have the time to run the six-minute video, here’s everything it covers.

Touch ID

Register up to five different fingers to make unlocking your iPhone easier. In order to improve the reliability of fingerprint recognition, scan the problematic finger again in a new Touch ID slot. Want to add more than five fingers to Touch ID? Be sure to tap the Home button with different fingers during a single Touch ID enrollment process.

Quick Camera mode changes

Instead of going to Settings to change shooting resolution and frame rate, you can do that from the Camera app (this requires at least the A13 Bionic chip that your iPhone SE has).

Swipe to Video at the bottom of the stock Camera app, then hit the video resolution label in the upper-right corner to switch between HD (1080p) and 4K recording. To cycle through the supported frame rates, tap the adjacent label to flip between 30 and 60 frames per second.

You can also swipe to Slo-Mo at the bottom, then tap the frame rate label to switch between HD (1080p) slow-motion recordings at 120 or 240 frames per second.

Show/hide Camera buttons

Due to its smaller form factors, the stock Camera app does not display the top and bottom row of icons all the time. Some of the common shooting features, such as LED flash and Live Photos, can be toggled on or off by tapping their respective icons near the top of the interface.

To reveal other options including crop settings, filters, timer and so forth, simply swipe up and down on the camera interface with one finger or hit that chevron at the top.

QR code scanning

Yes, the new iPhone SE lets you scan QR codes with the built-in Camera and get relevant popup actions, like visiting the encoded URL, without having to use third-party apps. You can also scan QR codes and documents from the Home screen or through the Control Center, as well as use the QR code scanner to join Wi-Fi networks, scan documents in the Notes app and more.

Export Live Photos as videos

Like the previous tip, this one works on older iPhones as well. To export a Live Photo as a video, select it in Photos, hit the Share button and choose the option Save as Video.

Gesture typing

iOS 13 lets you type by swiping when using the stock keyboard (Slide to Type must be on in Settings → General → Keyboard) As you slide to type, you see suggested alternatives to the word you’re entering rather than predictions for your next word. To enter accented letters or other alternate characters, tap and hold a key and then slide to choose one of the options.

Precise cursor positioning Invest in fast charging

Due to its compact 4.7-inch design, the iPhone SE lacks enough space inside to accommodate a massive battery, which means you’re probably going to be charging it once or twice per day, depending on your particular use case. Thankfully, the phone supports fast-charging, giving you 50 percent charge in just 30 minutes — if you have the right charger and cable.

Apple puts the regular, tiny five-watt charger in the box, but it only supports super-slow charging. To fast-charge your iPhone SE, be sure it’s connected to an 18-watt or higher USB-C Power Delivery charger via a Lightning to USB-C cable (if you own an iPhone 11 or a recent MacBook model, you already have a very capable USB-C charger that can fast-charge your iPhone SE).

Disable Auto-Brightness

Your brand spanking new iPhone SE defaults to automatic brightness control to preserve battery life. If you don’t want the iPhone SE screen brightness to change automatically according to your surroundings, simply disable the Auto-Brightness setting in Settings → General → Accessibility → Display Accommodations (which should show as “On”).

Move multiple apps at once

You’re probably familiar with this one: tap and hold an icon on the Home screen until the icons start jiggling. Now use another finger to tap other icons to collect, which you can then move to a different position on the Home screen, or to another Home screen, as a bundle.

Force-restart iPhone SE

You shut down your iPhone SE like you would any other Touch ID-enabled Apple smartphone, by holding the Power button until your shit-down options appear. Force-restarting an iPhone SE is, however, slightly different from the iPhone 6s and older phones.

To force-restart your iPhone SE, quickly press the up volume button and then the down volume button and then hold the power button pressed until the phone force-restarts.

For more information about the iPhone SE, check out the official technical specifications.

Think we should have put some other features on our list?

Need help? Ask iDB!

Exploring Android Q: Adding Bubble Notifications To Your App

What are Android Q’s bubbles? Haven’t Facebook been using bubble notifications for years?

Floating bubble-style notifications aren’t a new concept for Android, as they’ve long been available in third party apps, most notably in Facebook Messenger. However, previously it was the developer’s responsibility to design and implement their own bubble notifications.

Creating a custom feature is always more time-consuming than leveraging classes and APIs that are already built into the Android platform, so now that bubbles are officially part of Android it should be much easier for developers to use this notification style. This official support will also provide a more consistent experience for users, as all bubbles should now have exactly the same behaviour, regardless of the application that generated them.

Android Q bubbles: What are the restrictions?

Bubbles are displayed on top of whatever content the user is currently viewing. If your app generates a large number of bubbles, or it creates unnecessary bubble notifications, then users are quickly going to lose patience with your app.

Someone who feels bombarded by bubbles may choose to disable the bubble feature for your application, or they may even uninstall your app entirely.

To safeguard the user experience, your bubble notifications will only be displayed if they meet at least one of the following criteria:

Your application is in the foreground when the notification is sent.

The notification has a Person added. If there are multiple people associated with a notification, then you must also mark this conversation as a group, using setGroupConversation(boolean).

The notification is from a call to Service.startForeground, has a Person added, and falls into the CATEGORY_CALL notification category, which indicates this is a synchronous communication request, such as a voice or video call.

If none of these conditions are met, then your bubbles will be displayed as a standard notification instead. If the device is locked or its always-on display is active, then your bubbles will again only appear as standard notifications.

You should also be aware that at the time of writing, bubbles were an optional feature. When your application first tries to generate a bubble, the user will be presented with a permissions dialog and they’ll have the option to disable bubbles for your application. If the user disables the bubble feature, then your app’s bubbles will always be displayed as standard notifications, even if they fulfil all of the above criteria.

What we’ll be creating

In the subsequent window, select the “SDK Platforms” tab.

Select the latest release of “Android Q Preview.”

Switch to the “SDK Tools” tab.

Select “Android SDK Build-Tools 28,” or higher.

Note that the following tutorial was created using Android Q Beta 2, when bubble notifications were still considered an experimental feature. If you’re using a later version of Android Q, then you may encounter some minor differences.

Building our Android Q app

To get started, create a new Android project using the “Empty Activity” template, and when prompted make sure your app is targeting the latest version of Android Q.

If you’re adding bubbles to an existing application, then you’ll need to open your project’s build.gradle file and upgrade compileSdkVersion, minSdkVersion and targetSdkVersion to “android-Q.”


android { compileSdkVersion 'android-Q' defaultConfig { ... minSdkVersion 'Q' targetSdkVersion 'Q' ... } ... }

Next, open your build.gradle file and add the latest version of the Material Components for Android library to your “dependencies” block:


dependencies { implementation fileTree(dir: 'libs', include: ['*.jar']) implementation 'androidx.appcompat:appcompat:1.0.2' implementation 'androidx.constraintlayout:constraintlayout:1.1.3' implementation '' testImplementation 'junit:junit:4.12' androidTestImplementation 'androidx.test.ext:junit:1.1.0' androidTestImplementation 'androidx.test.espresso:espresso-core:3.1.1' } Creating the main user interface

Our project will eventually need two layouts: one for the main application, and one that defines the layout of our expanded bubble.

Open your project’s activity_main.xml file, and let’s create the button that’ll generate our bubble notification:

android:layout_width=”match_parent” android:orientation=”vertical” android:gravity=”center” <Button android:id=”@+id/createBubble” android:layout_width=”wrap_content” android:layout_height=”wrap_content”

Next, we need to create the bubble notification. Android Q’s bubbles are built on top of Android’s existing notification system, so if you have any previous experience of working with Android notifications, then creating a bubble should feel instantly familiar.

You create an Android Q bubble, by completing the following steps:

1. Create at least one notification channel

An ID, which must be unique to your package.

The channel’s name, which will be displayed to the user via the channel’s settings screen.


CharSequence name = "My new channel"; String description = "Description"; int importance = NotificationManager.IMPORTANCE_HIGH; channel = new NotificationChannel("1", name, importance); channel.setDescription(description); channel.setAllowBubbles(true);

You can then submit this NotificationChannel object to the NotificationManager, using the createNotificationChannel() method:


notificationManager.createNotificationChannel(channel); 2. Create the bubble intent

Later in this tutorial, we’ll create a BubbleActivity that’ll launch every time the user interacts with the bubble icon.

In the following snippet, we’re creating a PendingIntent, which specifies the Activity that’ll be displayed inside our expanded bubble:


Intent target = new Intent(MainActivity.this, BubbleActivity.class); PendingIntent bubbleIntent = PendingIntent.getActivity(MainActivity.this, 0, target, PendingIntent.FLAG_UPDATE_CURRENT /* flags */); 3. Create the BubbleMetaData

Next, you need to create a BubbleMetadata object, which will encapsulate all the data required to display our notification bubble.

You create a BubbleMetadata object by calling the Notification.BubbleMetadata.Builder constructor. We can then use setIntent() to specify the target bubble intent, which will run every time the user interacts with this bubble.


Notification.BubbleMetadata bubbleData = new Notification.BubbleMetadata.Builder() ... ... ... .setIntent(bubbleIntent)


Notification.BubbleMetadata bubbleData = new Notification.BubbleMetadata.Builder() .setDesiredHeight(600) .setIcon(Icon.createWithResource(MainActivity.this, R.drawable.ic_message)) .setIntent(bubbleIntent) .build(); 4. Add the metadata to the bubble

Next, we need to attach the BubbleMetadata object to our notification.

Android Q adds a new setBubbleMetaData() method to the notification builder class. This method takes an instance of BubbleMetadata, which is used to display your bubble’s content when it’s in an expanded state.


.setBubbleMetadata(bubbleData); The completed MainActivity

After completing all the above steps, your MainActivity should look something like this:


import; import; import; import; import; import android.content.Context; import android.content.Intent; import; import android.os.Bundle; import android.widget.Button; import android.view.View; Button createBubble; Notification.Builder builder; NotificationManager notificationManager; NotificationChannel channel; @Override protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.onCreate(savedInstanceState); setContentView(R.layout.activity_main); createBubble = findViewById(; notificationManager = (NotificationManager) getSystemService(Context.NOTIFICATION_SERVICE); CharSequence name = "My new channel"; String description = "Description"; int importance = NotificationManager.IMPORTANCE_HIGH; channel = new NotificationChannel("1", name, importance); channel.setDescription(description); channel.setAllowBubbles(true); } @Override switch (view.getId()) { case Intent target = new Intent(MainActivity.this, BubbleActivity.class); PendingIntent bubbleIntent = PendingIntent.getActivity(MainActivity.this, 0, target, PendingIntent.FLAG_UPDATE_CURRENT /* flags */); Notification.BubbleMetadata bubbleData = new Notification.BubbleMetadata.Builder() .setDesiredHeight(600) .setIcon(Icon.createWithResource(MainActivity.this, R.drawable.ic_message)) .setIntent(bubbleIntent) .build(); builder = new Notification.Builder(MainActivity.this, channel.getId()) .setSmallIcon(R.drawable.ic_message) .setBubbleMetadata(bubbleData); notificationManager.createNotificationChannel(channel); notificationManager.notify(1,; break; } } } Creating the bubble icon

Our MainActivity references a “ic_message” drawable, which will be used to represent our bubble in its initial, collapsed state. Let’s create this icon now:

Open the “Icon Type” dropdown and select “Action Bar and Tab Icons.”

Make sure the “Clip Art” button is selected.

Choose the image that’ll represent your bubble notification; I’m opting for “message.”

In the “Name” field, enter “ic_message.”

While we’re here, let’s create the other image assets that we’ll be using throughout this tutorial. Our expanded bubble will eventually use two icons to represent two distinct actions: calling the contact, and sending them a text response.

To create these drawables, repeat the above steps, but this time:

Select an image that’ll represent the bubble’s “call” action. I’m using the “mic” resource and naming it “ic_voice.”

Select an image that’ll represent the bubble’s “reply to message” action. I’m using the “reply” drawable, and naming it “ic_reply.”

Building the bubble Activity

Next, we need to create the Activity that’ll be displayed to the user every time they interact with our bubble.

In the subsequent window, name this class “BubbleActivity.”

We’ll use this class to define the bubble’s content, including any actions the user can perform by interacting with the expanded bubble. To help keep our code straightforward, I’ll simply display a toast every time the user triggers the bubble’s “sendMessage” and “voiceCall” actions.

Open your BubbleActivity class, and add the following:


import; import android.os.Bundle; import android.widget.ImageButton; import android.widget.Toast; import android.view.View; @Override protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.onCreate(savedInstanceState); setContentView(R.layout.activity_bubble); ImageButton voiceCall = (ImageButton) findViewById(; ImageButton sendMessage = (ImageButton) findViewById(; } @Override switch (v.getId()) { case Toast.makeText(BubbleActivity.this, "Calling contact", Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show(); break; case Toast.makeText(BubbleActivity.this, "Sending message", Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show(); break; } } } Designing the expanded bubble layout

Now, we need to create a corresponding layout for our BubbleActivity. This layout will consist of:

A RecylerView. In a real-world messaging app, this is where we’d display the newly-received message, plus any previous messages.

An EditText. This will enable the user to type their response directly into the bubble notification.

Two ImageButtons. These will display icons that the user can tap, in order to send a text response or call the person who sent this message.

<LinearLayout android:id="@+id/newMessage" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:layout_height="match_parent" <androidx.recyclerview.widget.RecyclerView android:id="@+id/messages" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:layout_height="0dp" android:layout_weight="1" <LinearLayout android:id="@+id/input_bar" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:layout_height="?attr/actionBarSize" <ImageButton android:id="@+id/voice_call" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="match_parent" android:tint="?attr/colorAccent" <EditText android:id="@+id/input" android:layout_width="0dp" android:layout_height="match_parent" android:layout_weight="1" android:hint="Enter message" <ImageButton android:id="@+id/send" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="match_parent" android:tint="?attr/colorAccent"

If Android is going to recognize BubbleActivity as an expanded bubble, then we need to open our Manifest and make a few changes to its “BubbleActivity” declaration.

1. Add multi-window support

Start by specifying that your BubbleActivity supports Android’s multi-window display:


android:resizeableActivity="true" 2. Enable allowEmbedded

Bubbles are displayed inside a container that’s owned by another Activity, so our next task is declaring that BubbleAtivity can be launched as the embedded child of another Activity:


android:allowEmbedded="true" 3. Allow multiple instances

Sometimes, your application may need to display multiple bubbles of the same type.

Since we’re creating a chat application, there’s a chance the user may receive multiple messages from different people simultaneously. To avoid confusion, it’s important we represent each conversation as its own bubble, even if that means having multiple bubbles visible onscreen.

If you want your application to display multiple bubbles of the same type, then it must be capable of launching multiple instances.

To give your app the ability to create multiple instances, add the following to your “BubbleActivity” declaration:


android:documentLaunchMode="always" The completed Manifest

After performing all of the above steps, your Manifest’s “BubbleActivity” section should look something like this:


<activity android:name=".BubbleActivity" android:label="@string/title_activity_bubble" android:allowEmbedded="true" android:documentLaunchMode="always" android:resizeableActivity="true"

To test your bubble notifications, you’ll need either a physical device that’s running the Android Q preview or higher, or an Android Virtual Device (AVD) that’s configured to support Android Q.

To create a compatible AVD:

Select “Create Virtual Device…”

To put your application to the test:

Launch your app on a compatible AVD or physical Android device.

Give the “Create a bubble notification” button a tap. A bubble should now appear onscreen.

If prompted, grant your application permission to display bubbles, by tapping “Allow.”

You can download the completed project from GitHub.

Creating automatically-expanded bubbles


Notification.BubbleMetadata bubbleData = new Notification.BubbleMetadata.Builder() .setDesiredHeight(600) .setAutoExpandBubble(true) .setIcon(Icon.createWithResource(MainActivity.this, R.drawable.ic_message)) .setIntent(bubbleIntent) .build();

Install the updated project on your AVD or Android device, and give the “Create a bubble notification” button a tap. Instead of the bubble icon appearing onscreen, your bubble should now launch in its expanded state automatically.

Getting the most out of bubbles: Best practices

As with every new feature, bubbles come with their own set of best practices.

When adding bubble notifications to your Android apps, it’s important to bear the following in mind:

1. Don’t overwhelm the user 2. Focus on simplicity

All processes that are launched from a bubble are housed within that bubble’s container, which can often be considerably smaller than a regular Activity.

To provide a good user experience, you should avoid the temptation to pack your bubbles full of information and features, and instead create bubbles that are as lightweight and straightforward as possible.

3. Test your bubbles as regular notifications

There are circumstances where your bubbles will be presented to the user as a standard notification, for example if the device is locked or the always-on display is active.

To ensure a good user experience regardless of how your bubble is presented, you should test how each of your bubbles appears and functions when it’s displayed as a bubble notification and as a regular notification.

Wrapping up

Animal Models Of Personality And Cross

So often, we have heard the term personality when referring to human nature, and it is not uncommon to use the word while describing the attributes of a human. However, have you ever wondered if non-human animals have personalities too? Can their moods, temperament, or behaviors tell us something about their personalities? Why do ants work in unity? Why do elephants have a matriarch? Why do some animals hunt in packs and others do it alone? Do these questions intrigue you? Since humans are animals, too, can models or assessments used to study human personality be applied to study animal personalities?

What are animal models of personality? Why are they used?

Animal models of personality help in understanding the evolutionary process of animals better. Cross-species examinations help in understanding their personalities better. Personality in animals can also be understood as their coping style or temperament. Further differences are also found between the species or between genders.

They are studied across various fields such as agricultural science, veterinary, zoology, forest studies, habitat studies, etc. The study of animal personality helps to understand boldness, sociability, and aggression in species of the animal kingdom. Cross-species distinctions may contribute to illuminating the reasons behind the development and persistence of within-species individual differences as well as how similar or dissimilar they are among species.

Studying personality in animals

Studying animal personalities can be a daunting and humongous task as there are many species, and defining their personalities can seem unachievable. Some scientists claim that not all species exhibit a personality, and the requirements for an animal to be given a personality are unclear. Studies of animal personalities have become increasingly popular recently. This development is closely related to a recent trend in ecology, behavior, and evolutionary biology that emphasizes how individuals differ from one another and focuses on the reasons, effects, and mechanisms underlying these differences. The best way to understand personality traits is as dispositions, which can be operationally described in particular sets of behaviors.

Examining animal behavior to understand personality

In empirical studies of animal personalities, behaviors are the different types of acts that animals exhibit and are seen, noted, quantified, categorized, or scored. Examples include ‘responding to threat by a predator, and ‘approaching an unknown object.’ Further, there are behavioral types that refer to subtypes of behavior, for instance, fast reflexes when a predator approaches.

Big five-factor model and animal personality

The big give factor traits for humans include −

openness to experience,



agreeableness, and


The model identifies personality traits at their most general degree of abstraction. It can be challenging to standardize the five-factor model’s application to animals because the assessment of personality using this model frequently uses self-reported data for humans. Naturally, not all animals exhibit the same breadth of personality as people, and the animal’s personality takes on the characteristics that are exclusive to its kind. Similarly, a species may be more likely than others to display one type of personality. The three personality characteristics that are most frequently observed in measured animals are neuroticism, agreeableness, and extraversion. Chimpanzees, for instance, show these traits.

Cross-species comparison of animal personalities

Animal cognitive and neurological adaptations have been studied through comparison. Identification of adaptations can be made by comparing closely related species that differ in a cognitive or neural characteristic with distantly related species that share the same cognitive or neural characteristic. A cross-species comparison gives three patterns to provide a framework to study psychological adaptations in humans and animals. Firstly, it identifies that specialized and generalized cognitive capacities exist, and secondly, it identifies that evolution has led to a change in the size of the brain. An experiment conducted to understand the similarities or differences in the judgments of humans and dogs found that dogs’ evaluations were just as reliable as human judgments. These results support the evolutionary continuity theory and point to a crucial conclusion often ignored by experts. This shows that personality differences do exist and can be studied.


The study of animal personality has recently become a subject of interest for many experts who wish to understand more about the evolution and continuity of the species in an ecosystem. Additionally, a cross-species comparison helps in understanding similarities and differences between behaviors of different species. As complex as it is to study personality in humans, it is the same in studying animals too. Research on animals offers excellent chances to understand the dynamic interaction of biological, genetic, and environmental factors on personality. Furthermore, the current body of data supporting the existence of personality traits in mammals opens the door for both animal and personality researchers to integrate personality components in their research. As a result, benefitting both researches on animals as well as personality.

Q&A: How Can We Benchmark Engagement With Our Site?

Question: I wondered whether you might be able to point me in the direction of some info on web behaviour?

We’ve recently been looking at “drop off” rates for some of our online content and seeing if we can compare it with external sites to help gauge whether the behaviours we are seeing could be considered as “typical”.

The metrics we’ve been looking at include time spent on a page (0-10, 10-20 seconds etc) and would like to compare to external websites such as BBC, YouTube, etc.

Do you know how it is possible to obtain this data, or any external websites who may have it?

We measure it, but have no external reference as to whether it is good, bad or indifferent.


Smart Insights Expert Answer: Yours is a familiar problem for all analytics users. We hear “What does good like”? “How do we compare”? questions often. So, you need some context, otherwise the answer is always “it depends”.

Metrics for evaluating initial engagement with a site

In analytics tools, the main measures for initial engagement with a site are:

2. Duration or dwell time. measured as Average Time on Page or Average time on site

3. Pages per visit. Pages viewed divided by the number of visits.

Which is the best to use to review performance of sources of traffic or the ability of a site to engage will depend on your goal. I personally find bounce rate most actionable for seeing whether your providing a good, relevant, experience. So with search marketing you can compare bounce for different keywords entering the site on different landing pages and see which are underperforming compared to others. So benchmark against your own site average – Google Analytics has a good chart for for this.

You might think that duration would be the opposite of bounce, but average time on page can be a good indication for engagement with an article like a blog post or article.

Pages per visit is better for reviewing overall engagement with content on a community site and there are some good sites on this

Benchmarks for engagement

Finally, to the main part of your question, where do we find benchmarks for these?

1. Bounce rate.

Jan 2012 Update: Google published a compilation of bounce rates by source in summer 2011 in their Analytics Enewsletter – Malcolm Coles did a summary of how bounce rates vary by source and country.

Published bounce rates aren’t widely available, but if you use Google Analytics, one option was to enable the benchmarking facility to compare to a similar sized site in your sector. Here I share ours for Smart Insights:

See the last section of this post about the danger of averages where I present some other examples of typical bounce rates.

3. Pages per visit. You can see that by dividing Page Views by  Visits we can also calculate this measure; around 5.4 in this case. You can also benchmark out of sector. For example, if your site has a community section – how does it compare to Facebook which has a typical pages per visit value of 30.

So I hope that answers your question Nicola. Clearly these engagement measures aren’t going to differ radically from week to week, there more useful for benchmarking before and after major site design or content changes. But don’t forget…

The danger of averages – you HAVE to segment for meaningful engagement

To make these engagement measures more meaningful you have to segment – these are our recommendations on the main segmentation options for online marketing and analytics. Of these, the most important ones to test and action for bounce rates are:

1. New vs returning visitors

2. Brand search (they know you – bounce rate can be less than 10%) against non-brand search (they don’t know you – bounce rate can be higher than 80% if you’re not credible)

3. Different media channels – bounce rates from Email campaigns tend to be lower

4. Customer and non-customers (if you’re using custom variables)

5. Entrance page – home page entrances tend to be lower than landing pages for example.

I would look at average bounce rates for all of these – they give you a starting point to improve on and you can focus initially on the keyphrases or pages with a high volume that don’t engage. That’s the power of bounce rate – it will vary dramatically across your referrers and pages so is highly actionable.

You may also be interested in this compilation of  average bounce rates for a range of mainly UK sites tracked with the Analytics SEO software. The average bounce rate is 48% across these sites.

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