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With all the acronyms floating around in storage discussions these days — and with new ones seemingly popping up on a daily basis — it can be quite difficult keeping on top of them all. As such, we often get emails from readers asking about many of these mysterious acronyms and what they mean to network storage. Sometimes understanding what the acronym stands for is enough to gain some understanding of the technology; other times it doesn’t help much at all. In the next two Storage Basics articles, we’re going to uncover a few of these acronyms, starting with FCIP, iFCP, SoIP, NDMP, and SMI-S.


When we spell out the acronym FCIP, Fibre Channel over IP, we get an idea of what the protocol is designed for. FCIP represents two separate technologies designed to address storage networking requirements as well as the need to network over large distances. The first component is Fibre Channel. Fibre Channel is an established technology optimized for storage-data movement, interoperability, and proven applications for localized storage networking. The second component, Internet Protocol (IP), is a mature technology with a proven ability to transport data over WAN distances.

FCIP combines the best features of both Fibre Channel and the Internet Protocol to connect distributed SANs. FCIP encapsulates Fibre Channel and transports it over a TCP socket. FCIP is considered a tunneling protocol, as it makes a transparent point-to-point connection between geographically separated SANs over IP networks. FCIP relies on TCP/IP services to establish connectivity between remote SANs over LANs, MANs, or WANs. TCP/IP is also responsible for congestion control and management, as well as for data error and data loss recovery.

Page 2: iFCP


Often confused with FCIP is the closely named iFCP. The Internet Fibre Channel Protocol (iFCP), however, is an entirely different technology. iFCP allows an organization to extend Fibre Channel storage networks over the Internet using TCP/IP. As with FCIP, TCP is responsible for managing congestion control as well as error detection and recovery services.

The differences between the two technologies are straightforward. FCIP is used to extend an existing Fibre Channel fabric with an IP-based tunnel, allowing networking over distances. This means that the FCIP tunnel is IP-based, but everything else remains Fibre Channel.

iFCP, on the other hand, represents a potential migration strategy from current Fibre Channel SANs to future IP SANs. iFCP gateways can either complement existing Fibre Channel fabrics or replace them altogether. iFCP allows an organization to create an IP SAN fabric that minimizes the Fibre Channel fabric component and maximizes use of the company’s TCP/IP infrastructure.

Storage over IP (SoIP)

Another technology that harnesses IP-based storage is known as Storage over IP (SoIP). SoIP refers to the merging of Fibre Channel technologies with IP-based technology. As mentioned when discussing iFCP and FCIP, merging Fibre Channel technology and IP allows high availability and high performance storage solutions over great distances. SoIP uses standard IP-based protocols, including Open Shortest Path First (OSPF), Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), and Routing Information Protocol (RIP).

As you can imagine, using familiar IP-based protocols makes SoIP highly compatible with existing Ethernet infrastructures. For those wondering about how SoIP differs from technologies such as iSCSI, the difference is in the IP transport protocol used. iSCSI uses the TCP protocol for transport, while SoIP uses the User Datagram Protocol (UDP).

TCP is a protocol that provides connection-oriented (guaranteed) delivery of packets across the network. Unlike TCP, UDP offers a best delivery mechanism for packets. As such, it offers lower overhead and therefore more efficient transport. UDP is a connectionless protocol and does not guarantee the delivery of data packets. UDP is used when reliable delivery is not necessary (i.e. when another protocol or service is already responsible for handling this).

Because of the use of UDP, SoIP data transport is faster, yet more unreliable, than iSCSI. The goal of SoIP, like other IP storage options, is to use an existing IP infrastructure to reduce additional hardware costs and retraining.

Page 3: NDMP


The final technologies we will review in this article are the Network Data Management Protocol (NDMP) and the Storage Management Initiative Specification (SMI-S). Today’s network environments are becoming increasingly heterogeneous with multiple hardware and software vendors represented. From time to time, operating systems are upgraded, and over time there is a diverse range of backup media technologies and devices used on a network.

In such environments, backing up and restoring data can become a management nightmare, as each software and hardware backup product can interact with applications in different chúng tôi is designed to facilitate interoperability in these types of heterogeneous environments. In a typical backup configuration, a backup occurs from the server to a backup device with the backup software controlling and managing the entire process. Individual software vendors use their own protocols to manage the backup data transfer.

In an NDMP backup configuration, the backup data flows through the server to the backup device using a common interface, regardless of the backup devices used or other hardware and software considerations. NDMP is an open network protocol that effectively standardizes the functional interfaces used in the backup and restore process.

NDMP is based on a client/server architecture that is comprised of three separate components: the NDMP host, the NDMP client, and the NDMP server. The NDMP host is the primary device that stores the original data. A NDMP server will then run on the NDMP host and is responsible for managing the NDMP operations. The NDMP client is the backup management software that controls the NDMP server.


SMI-S is a relative newcomer as well, but is expected to become a significant component for managing heterogeneous computing environments. Developed by the Storage Networking Industry Association (SNIA), SMI-S is based on the Common Interface Model (CIM) and Web-based enterprise management (WBEM). The primary function of SMI-S is to simplify the administration of complex storage networks by allowing interoperability and integration of hardware and software.

SMI-S provides the ability to manage a heterogeneous storage network from a central location and eliminates the need to manage each device with a separate management application. As an added benefit, the increased interoperability gives organizations the ability to purchase any SMI-S SAN device, regardless of manufacturer, without having to worry about whether or not it will work with other vendors’ products.

In this article we’ve reviewed FCIP, iFCP, NDMP, and SoIP. The next Storage Basics article will continue looking at some of the more promising emerging SAN technologies, including Infiniband, VI, and DAFS.

See All Articles by Columnist Mike Harwood

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Storage King For A Day: Dreaming Of Storage

A few weeks ago I had a dream that I was the COB, CEO, and CTO of a major storage company, with the opportunity to architect and develop any product I wanted. Basically, I got to be the storage king in this dream, but of course, with being a king comes the responsibilities of your subjects (the company stockholders and employees) and your lineage (ensuring that you are successful in the market so your company has a future).Also, as a king you are periodically required to take over other lands (buy companies), make treaties with others (joint marketing and/or development agreements), or declare war and eliminate the enemy (beat them in the market to render them a non-factor).

As a mere storage consultant, I figured dreams could not get any better than this, and the best part was I remembered the dream in the morning. That next morning, I began thinking about the reality of what’s missing in the market and what requirements are not being met by the major product vendors’ current product offerings.

The old adage “build it and they will come” may well apply to mundane evolutionary products, but what about revolutionary products? What market requirements are not currently being met, and if the market truly is ready for something revolutionary in terms of large storage configurations, what would the product look like and why would customers consider buying it?

What Market Requirements Aren’t Being Met

Again, if I were king, I would first have my marketing requirements people confirm my speculation, but I personally believe there are three very important factors currently missing from the market. First, though, let me define the market.

I like to differentiate between storage and data. Storage for the most part has become a commodity market. RAID, for example, is now sold by dollars per gigabyte ($10-$20 is often quoted), while back in 1996 I remember RAID costs of over $1 per megabyte.

With storage now delivered and marketed as a commodity, what about the critical information you put on the storage — your data? To me, that’s where the real value is. People in general really do not care all that much about storage, but data is a completely different story. I believe that in the future data will become a more important requirement of the storage architecture, and the focus might even change from that of storage architecture to data architecture. (Well, that’s my hope at least, both as a consultant and as storage king in my dream.)

So the bottom line is that as king I want to define the market for my company as data, not with data being storage, but rather how you access, protect, maintain, and migrate what appears as files on the computer systems used. This includes, in most cases, the file system(s) that are used on top of the storage. And while raw devices are sometimes used for databases, for all intents and purposes the database is really managing the raw device the same as a file system manages a raw device, which is why I contend the database is a file system.

With all of this is mind, let’s take a closer look at what requirements are specifically missing from the market today:

High performance and predictive scaling

End-to-end security

Simplified management

Page 2: High Performance and Predictive Scaling

Continued from Page 1

High Performance and Predictive Scaling

Some newer NAS products do scale reasonably well, but you are currently limited to 1 Gbit connections (some new 10 Gbit host cards are out, but even at PCI-X 133, they cannot be used efficiently). Most sites requiring multiple gigabytes of performance solve the high performance problem by using Fibre Channel-attached storage. Given the TCP/IP overhead and NFS, this is not possible with NAS, as even 100 MB/sec from a single host is nearly impossible.

For the most part, file systems do not scale linearly. There are many reasons for this lack of scaling, including:

Sometimes the cause is due to the applications using the file system utilizing significant system overhead (see this article for more information)

If the file system does not place data in sequential block order on the RAID, the RAID cannot know how to efficiently operate. The SCSI protocol does not provide a way of passing the data topology to the RAID, so if the data is not read sequentially and allocated sequentially, the RAID operates inefficiently, which means that scaling with the hardware is not really possible.

Even if the addresses are not allocated sequentially, most RAID devices still try and readahead, but this adds overhead, as you are reading data that you will not use, which of course reduces the RAID performance. A new device allocation method will be developed over the next few years that uses objects. This method is now in the process of being standardized. This development should help, but the file system will still need to communicate with the object, and work on that end is far in the future at best.

Page 3: End-to-End Security

Continued from Page 2

End-to-End Security

Most local file systems provide standard security such as ACL (access control lists), UNIX groups, and permissions. Some file systems support encryption such as Microsoft NTFS on a file or folder basis, but encryption is very CPU intensive, and key management gets more difficult as we all get older and forget our many passwords more and more often. The issue of end-to-end local file system security has not been efficiently solved from the host to the RAID either. (Please review this article for a closer look at this issue.)

Now, add to this the requirements for multi-level security, or MLS, that many vendors are moving toward for authentication and tracking file access. The U.S. Government has some new requirements in this area that are interesting for both operating system security and encryption, but even with these requirements, true end-to-end security still comes up short.

In addition, as you may have read from past articles, I have been involved with shared file systems for a long time, and security policy between multiple vendors’ operating systems with shared file systems is virtually impossible. Some of the problems in this area are that file systems distributed across heterogeneous operating systems have no common and often no public interface for security, and issues like HBA, switch, RAID, tape, and SAN/WAN encryption have not been adequately addressed either.

Simplified Management

Wouldn’t it be nice to have a tool that:

Manages your shared file system(s) on multiple platforms

Manages and tracks security policies for the file system, HBAs, switches, RAIDs, tapes, and libraries

Allows replication of data for use by others and for disaster planning and recovery

Manages all of your storage infrastructure, including configuration, performance analysis, and error reporting

Conducts performance analysis of data through the file system, to the HBA, to the switch, to the RAID, to the HSM, and/or to backup software, and out to the SAN/WAN

I’m sure I’m missing a few things, but even all of the above would be the Holy Grail for management. Unfortunately, though, we’re nowhere close to having a tool that does all of this. A number of vendors are working on tools — VERITAS, McDATA, and EMC, just to name a few — that will help somewhat, but we won’t be arriving at the Holy Grail anytime soon, I’m afraid.

Page 4: What This Product Would Solve

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What This Product Would Solve

Assuming that the market analysis is valid and that the pain points customers are suffering from are correct enough for them to considering purchasing it, the product I would create would be a SAN/NAS hybrid that combines the best of both worlds and adds significant new features.

Many NAS limitations are based on TCP/IP overhead, and NAS does not allow for centralized control. The only way to centrally control a heterogeneous shared file system is to move most of the functionality to a single unit, as you cannot control an end-to-end security policy from one host in a pool of heterogeneous machines.

So, for the data-centric world I think is coming, the only way to manage the data is to create a single machine with a new DMA-based protocol that looks like NFS in terms of no changes to the user application, but scales more like a locally-attached RAID communicating without TCP/IP. This new protocol would have to support:



High performance and scalability (i.e. low overhead)

DMA communication of the data to the host

No application changes (POSIX standards and read/write/open system calls)

WAN and SAN access

The new box would have a tight coupling between the file system and the reliable storage. I might have RAID 1-like functions for small random access files and RAID 5-like functions for larger, sequentially accessed files. The file system could understand the topology of the file in question and read ahead based on access patterns like reading the file backward, even though the file might not be sequentially allocated. Tight coupling between the cache and the data would improve scaling and reduce latency and costs.

Ah, cost — that’s the key. What would the return on investment (ROI) be for this new data-centric device? Well, that’ where my dream ended. We may never know if this box would work, what the ROI would be, and whether or not people would actually buy it, but I do believe it meets the requirements of the market.

Can it be built? I think it can. Will it be built? I don’t know, but it sure would solve a bunch of problems if done correctly.

See All Articles by Columnist Henry Newman

Iforem: Online Data Storage For Life

Providing a host of services and what you might call a digital version of a safe deposit box, iForem, a Calif.-based digital archiving company, says it adds a new twist to online storage: peace of mind. Behind its core offerings lies an irrevocable trust that, according to iForem’s CEO Stephen Pieraldi, ensures that your data is safe and available forever.

“The iNuity financial trust guarantees that customers will have whatever they buy from iForem for life, even if the company goes out of business,” said Pieraldi. “It’s an irrevocable Delaware trust, and it makes any purchaser a service beneficiary. Should iForem ever go out of business, customers will continue to receive services [provided by a different company], and any new provider can’t change the terms of service.”

The company’s one-time payment pricing model also sets it apart from other online data backup companies. You purchase the service and that’s it – there’s no monthly subscription fee.

IForum offers four “digital lifestyle tools” complete with the capability to share access with whomever you choose:

Perpetual Password Wallet: A secure online location for all your Web site names, URLs, usernames and passwords. Price: $9.95.

Licensing Tracker: One location where you can organize and back up your software license information and activation codes. Price: $9.95.

Recipe Collector: (Yes, we think it’s an odd departure from the business world, too). One place for your favorite recipes, complete with author, details of ingredients and directions. Price: $9.95.

Digital Lifestyle Suite: This bundle includes the three above-mentioned tools and adds a contacts manager, journal, inventory minder and receipt tracker. Price: $29.95

“This isn’t where you go to backup your laptop. The Vault is for the eight to 20 files you can’t live without,” he said. “This is the place for the stuff you’d put in a safe deposit box.”

He added that he stores all the documents he needed to create iForem as a legal entity in his Vault. Those include the articles of corporation, the first original minutes and subsequent minutes from the company’s board meetings, I-9 data, operating contracts, executive compensation contracts and the Delaware trust. “That’s about 120 MB of data, or $125,” Pieraldi said.

Tim O’Neal, president, GoSmart Inc., sees the benefit of this type of back up option. “Not only is iForem’s lifetime digital vault easy to use, it more importantly ensures that our data is always secure and available,” he said in a written statement. “Because iForem safeguards our business critical data we are prepared in the event of a disaster caused by human or natural events.  As a result, we are also able to meet rising regulatory requirements

The Basic Vault costs a one-time payment of $20 for 20MB of data, which the company said could hold 40 iPhone pictures, 150 PDF documents and 400 word documents. You’ll find more on Vault capacity and pricing options here.

In addition to capacity, a Vault also offers the following features:

Deep Freeze: This permanently locks any folder or document. It can’t be removed, altered or edited in any way.

Lock Box: Place files in this area to let other people view them.

Drop Box: Let other people enter records in this area.

Access Control: Lets you determine which people can (or can’t) access particular documents.

Retention Manager: This feature lets you specify how long you keep a document in the vault.

iForem one-time Vault pricing starts at $20 for 20MB and can scale up to 1GB for $1,024.00.

This article was first published on chúng tôi

Introduction To Google Firebase Cloud Storage Using Python

This article was published as a part of the Data Science Blogathon.


Firebase is a very popular Backend as a Service (BaaS) offered by Google. It aims to replace conventional backend servers for web and mobile applications by offering multiple services on the same platform like authentication, real-time database, Firestore (NoSQL database), cloud functions, machine learning, cloud storage, and many more. These services are cloud-based and production-ready that can automatically scale as per demand without any need for configuration.

In my previous article, I covered Google Firestore, a cloud-based NoSQL database offered by Firebase. You can read my previous article on Google Firestore here. One such offering is Cloud Storage, which is a powerful yet simple storage service offered by Firebase. The Cloud Storage offering in Firebase is the Google cloud storage available on the Google Cloud Platform (GCP). The free-tier version provides 5GB of storage space for a bucket. In this article, we will learn about cloud storage and how it can be used to store and access files securely over the internet using python.

Setting up Firebase to access Cloud Storage Connecting Python to Cloud Storage

To connect to Google Firestore, we need to install a python package called “firebase-admin.” This can be installed like any other python package using pip. Ensure that your python version is 3.6 or below, as this module throws an exception because of the async module added in python 3.7 onwards. If you have a higher version installed, you can use anaconda to create a new environment with python 3.6. Run the following commands to create and activate a new environment in the anaconda.

conda create -n cloud_storage_env python=3.6.5 conda activate cloud_storage_env

To install the “firebase-admin” package, run the following.

pip install firebase-admin

Now that we have the credentials let’s connect to Firebase and start accessing the cloud storage service. To do so, paste the following code snippet shown below and add the file path of the credentials file that got downloaded in the previous step. You can find your storage bucket link in your Firebase cloud storage console.

import firebase_admin from firebase_admin import credentials, storage cred = credentials.Certificate("path/to/your/credentials.json") firebase_admin.initialize_app(cred,{'storageBucket': 'your_bucket_link_without_gs://'}) # connecting to firebase

Now that we have connected to Firebase let’s try to use the cloud storage service.

Using Google Cloud Storage

Now consider that you maintain a folder structure on your server and wish to replicate the same folder structure in your storage bucket as well. For this, we can directly use the “upload_from_filename()” function, which is a property of the blob object. This function will replicate the folder structure of each file that is being uploaded. This means that if you have a text file inside a folder named “text_files”, the same folder structure will also be replicated in your storage bucket. Now, let’s see how to use this function to upload files to our storage bucket.

Firstly, I will upload an image file present in the root directory to our storage bucket. Once that is done, I will try to upload a text file present inside a folder named “text_docs” to our storage bucket using the above-described function.

file_path = "sample_image_file.jpg" bucket = storage.bucket() # storage bucket blob = bucket.blob(file_path) blob.upload_from_filename(file_path)

We can see that the image file has been uploaded to our storage bucket in the root directory. Now let’s try to upload the text file present inside the “text_docs directory.”

file_path = "text_docs/sample_text_file.txt" bucket = storage.bucket() # storage bucket blob = bucket.blob(file_path) blob.upload_from_filename(file_path)

We can see that the text file has been uploaded inside the text_docs folder, just like it is on our local machine.

Now consider that you do not maintain a folder structure on your server and wish to maintain a proper folder structure in your storage bucket. For this, we can also use the “upload_from_filename()” function with a slight modification. Let’s try to upload the image file inside a folder named “images”. On our local machine, the image file is present in the root directory and there is no folder named images. We will also rename the image file while storing it in the storage bucket.

from import storage from google.oauth2 import service_account def upload_blob(bucket_name, source_file_name, destination_blob_name): credentials = service_account.Credentials.from_service_account_file("path/to/your/credentials.json") storage_client = storage.Client(credentials=credentials) bucket = storage_client.bucket(bucket_name) blob = bucket.blob(destination_blob_name) blob.upload_from_filename(source_file_name) print(f"File {source_file_name} uploaded to {destination_blob_name}.") upload_blob(, 'sample_image_file.jpg', 'images/beatiful_picture.jpg')

Now let’s see if the image from our root directory has been uploaded inside a folder named “images” in our storage bucket. We can see that a new folder called “images” has been created, and the image file has also been uploaded inside that folder.

Now, if you want to access your files from your bucket and want to download them, you can do that easily with a few lines of code. Let’s try downloading the text file we uploaded to our storage bucket inside the text_docs folder and rename the file as “downloaded_file.txt”. The code snippet shown below will download the file to our local machine.

credentials = service_account.Credentials.from_service_account_file("path/to/your/credentials.json") storage.Client(credentials=credentials).bucket('text_docs/sample_text_file.txt').download_to_filename('downloaded_file.txt')

Now, if you want to share the files over the internet or want them to be public, you can directly access the “public_url” property of the blob object that returns a URL for that file. Let’s try to get the URL of all the files present in our storage bucket. To do so, we first need to get all the files present in our storage bucket and then access their public URL.

credentials = service_account.Credentials.from_service_account_file("path/to/your/credentials.json") files = storage.Client(credentials=credentials).list_blobs( # fetch all the files in the bucket for i in files: print('The public url is ', i.public_url) Conclusion

Understanding how to set up a Firebase project in detail

Uploading and downloading files to and from the cloud-based storage bucket using python

Extracting a public URL for the files from our storage bucket for sharing across the internet

As mentioned earlier, Google Firebase offers a lot of production-ready services for free that are hosted on the Google Cloud. Firebase has been a lifesaver for many front-end developers, who do not have to explicitly know backend programming and frameworks like nodejs, flask, etc., to build a full-stack web or mobile application. If you are interested in learning about other services offered by Google Firebase, you can refer to my article on Firestore, which is a NoSQL database offered by Google. I will try to cover other services Google Firebase offers in the coming weeks, so stay tuned!

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You Told Us: Your Current Smartphone Supports Storage Expansion

Edgar Cervantes / Android Authority

Storage expansion isn’t necessarily a given in the smartphone space these days. Sure, microSD slots are very common in budget tiers, but they’re becoming somewhat of a rarity in the flagship space.

It all brings to mind the 3.5mm port and how it’s disappeared from higher-end segments. So with this in mind, we asked Android Authority readers whether their current phone has storage expansion (via microSD or NM card).

Does your current phone support storage expansion?



Phonecard Mike: I will not buy a phone without expandable storage. Having all of my music collection with me is important – quality, convenience and not having to worry about a signal for streaming. I currently have a Note20 Ultra with 512GB internal and 1TB external. I have loaded over 110,000 songs on it and have room for hd video should I need to take a video. Embrace technology, it is not that much more to add to a phone. I won’t buy another Samsung unless it has this feature.

Diwa Alejandro Galvez: Yes. Here in the Philippines, where internet is both expensive and slow, we need our Micro SDs. Most of us have low to medium income, and we live in a developing country, hence we aren’t spoiled with flagship phones. Most of us opt for phones that are cheap yet usable enough, and those phones often sacrifice their internal storage for this.

thesecondsight: I don’t purchase a phone unless it comes with a 3.5mm headphone jack, an FM radio chip and expandable storage. Last summer an F3 tornado tore through my small town. My home was spared but I was without power for two days. During those days without power, access to cloud service and the internet was non-existent. However, I was still able to enjoy two days’ worth of entertainment due to expandable storage. All of my mp3 music tracks, e-books, e-comics, console game emulators/roms, mp4 movies and offline gaming apps like Titan Quest are locally saved.

KRB: My phones have always supported expandable memory. In fact I’d probably not by a phone without it, being able to simply and quickly swap the SD card and the nearly two-thousand songs I carry is a heck of a lot faster than waiting for my laptop to write all that data to a new device over some cable. Also my playlists exist on the SD card but not my inventory on my laptop.

James Updike: I just got the Pixel 6 pro. It doesn’t have a headphone jack, but I would never go back to wearing wired headphones anyway. It doesn’t have an SD card slot. That would be nice, but it’s not a deal breaker. 128 GB is enough for all the apps I need and all my pictures and videos are automatically backed up to the cloud So I can always clear up space

Shizuma: Nope, and I don’t care either, I used to back in the days when Android phones all shipped with pitifully low 16GB of storage, or maybe 32GB, but now that 128GB is pretty much the min I see no reason to care since it’s more than I would ever need on a phone.

user65: No. Even though my previous phones had expansion slots and I bought cards for them, I rarely used them. My current phone is a OnePlus Nord with 256GB of storage. I have about 15 apps, 10 games, 20 albums and various photos, which adds up to around 39GB of space used. An expansion card slot isn’t necessary. And for backup, my phone is setup to automatically backup every photo I take to Google My Drive.

Joe Black: As I use Pixel, I sadly do not have the option of expendable storage … or a headphone jack

Demongornot: Sadly, the POCO F2 Pro doesn’t have one, but thankfully, it still has a 3.5mm Jack though

How To Fix Iphone Stuck In Bootloop Due To Full Storage

If you have had your iPhone for a while and have ignored the full storage warnings – you also have probably not updated your iPhone in a while because there has not been enough space to update it – you could run into a bootloop problem with your phone. Bootloop means your iPhone will not fully start up; it will just turn on and show the Apple logo and then maybe restart itself (crash) over and over.

The iPhone Storage Full notification you have been ignoring

In this article, we’ll give you some steps to try and get your iPhone going again. Once you do, it is important that you immediately free up some storage space so you don’t have this problem again.

How to fix a bootlooping iPhone

First of all, if your iPhone does boot up before crashing again, if you are able to keep your iPhone going long enough to do so, the first thing you should try to do is make a backup.

Below we describe the steps for force restarting your iPhone and for updating using iTunes/Finder. If you are successful, you will want to immediately make a backup (using iTunes/Finder or iCloud). After backing up your iPhone, you need to free up storage space. The following articles give some tips on how to do this:

1. Force restart your iPhone

Doing this may allow the phone to start up fully. This is by no means a permanent solution. If your iPhone starts up successfully, you should immediately back it up to your computer and/or iCloud. Then you will need to free up some storage space.

iPhone 8 and later and iPhone SE (2nd gen) and later

Make sure to press the following sequence of buttons quickly. Also, make sure to hold the Side button for quite a while – longer than you might think.

iPhone diagram

Press and release the volume up button.

Press and release the volume down button.

Press the Side button and hold it until the Apple logo appears.

iPhone 7

Press and hold the volume down button and the Sleep/Wake button.

Wait for the Apple logo to appear, then release the buttons.

iPhone 6s or SE (1st gen)

Press and hold the Sleep/Wake button and the Home button.

Wait for the Apple logo to appear, then release the buttons.

Now, backup your iPhone to your computer using iTunes or Finder. You can also use iCloud. After backing up your iPhone, start freeing up some storage space.

2. Try Recovery Mode to fix bootlooping iPhone

Before you begin, make sure your Mac has the latest updates, or if you are using a PC, make sure iTunes is updated. The first thing to try here is just updating your iPhone. This will not erase your phone.

Connect your iPhone to your computer using a cable.

Put your iPhone in recovery mode:

iPhone 8 or later: Press and release the volume up button, followed immediately by the volume down button. Press and hold the Side button until you see the recovery mode screen.

iPhone 7: Press and hold both the top button and the volume down button. Release them when you see the recovery mode screen.

iPhone 6 or earlier or iPhone SE (1st gen): Press and hold the Home button and the top or side button. Release them when you see the recovery mode screen.

Recovery mode screen on iPhone

Recovery mode popup in Finder

Wait for the update to finish. If your iPhone quits the recovery mode, wait for the download to finish, then try again. You can try this a few times.

If you were able to successfully update your iPhone and get it to boot up, immediately create a backup to your computer. You are still in danger of the phone going back to its previous state.

Restore your iPhone

If the update didn’t work, you might need to restore your iPhone. This will erase your iPhone. If you have made recent backups to your computer or to iCloud, this shouldn’t be too much of a problem. You will be able to restore your iPhone from the backup. If you are unsure if you have a recent iPhone backup, you can check:

Check for backups to your Mac/PC:

If you are still in recovery mode, exit by disconnecting your iPhone from your computer and performing a force restart (see above).

With your iPhone connected to your computer, look in Finder/iTunes under the General tab to see your backups.

Check for iCloud backups:

You can use one of your other devices to check for iCloud backups of your iPhone:

iPhone or iPad: Open Settings and tap on your name at the top. Tap on iCloud, then tap iCloud Backup or Manage Storage, then Backups.

To restore your iPhone:

If updating failed, repeat the recovery mode steps above, but this time choose Restore instead of Update.

For more details on using recovery mode, see How to Use Recovery Mode with your iPhone or iPad.

3. Try Apple Support

If none of the above has worked for you, or if you are not comfortable trying recovery mode, you can contact Apple Support. You can start a text chat or have Apple Support call you. Apple Support can talk you through troubleshooting steps to help fix the issue. You can also make a Genius Bar appointment at a nearby Apple Store and have an Apple-certified technician help you with your iPhone.

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