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Talend Tutorial Summary

What is Talend?

Talend is an open source software platform which offers data integration and data management solutions. Talend specializes in the big data integration. This tool provides features like cloud, big data, enterprise application integration, data quality, and master data management. It also provides a unified repository to store and reuse the Metadata.

It is available in both open source and premium version. It is one of the best tools for cloud computing and big data integration.

In this Talend tutorial for beginners, you will learn-

History of Talend:

Year Milestone

2002 R&D

2005 Company Creation- First round of financing AGF private equity & Galle Partners

2006 Open Studio V1.0- Launched Us operations

2007 Integration suite/ closed second round of financing

2008 Open Profiler/ Data Quality

2009 Integration Suite RTx/MPx/ MDM acquisition

2010 IDM Community Edition/ MDM Enterprise Edition

Open studio V

2014 OW2 Best Project

2024 Recognized Trendsetting Product

2024 DBTA 100

2024 Gartner Magic Quadrant for Data Integration Tools

2024 Native Integration of Stitch with Amazon Redshift Console

Talend Product Suite:

Talend Product Suites consist of 3 major products as discussed below:

Talend Big Data:

Talend tool can easily automate big data integration with graphical tools and wizards. This allows the organization to develop an environment to easily work with Apache Hadoop, Spark, and NoSQL databases for cloud or on-premises jobs.

Today many companies are using Hadoop for cost saving and performance improvement. Often companies using expensive compute time with the enterprise solutions. With Hadoop, data can be transformed cleansed and enriched and integrated for the higher analytical workload.

The Talend Sandbox includes four use cases

Data Warehouse Optimization

Social Media Sentiment Analysis

Apache weblog analytics.

You can create your own complex Use Cases.

Benefits Talend for Big data Hadoop

Improve the efficiency of the big data job design by arranging and configuring in a graphical interface.

Adds data quality, scalability, and management functions

MapReduce feature allows faster parallel data processing

Shared Repository and remote deployment

Data quality and profiling with Data Cleansing

Improves efficiency of big data job design with GUI interface

Native support for HBase, HDFS, Hive, Sqoop, Mahout, & Pig

Embedded in Hortonworks Data Platform

Data Integration:

Talend data integration software tool has an open, scalable architecture. It allows faster response to business requests. The tool offers to develop and deploy data integration jobs faster than hand coding.

It allows you to easily integrate all your data with other data warehouses or synchronize data between systems. Data integration involves combining data stored in different sources and providing users with a unified view of these data. It helps you to manage various ETL jobs, and empower users with simple, self-service data preparation.

Benefits Talend for Data Integration

Agile Integration: Respond faster to business requests without writing code using over 1000 out-of-the-box connectors, Eclipse-based graphical tools, and an optimized-for-performance code generator.

Team Productivity: Collaborate using powerful versioning, impact analysis, testing and debugging, and metadata management.

Stay ahead in the competition: If you use this tool, you will not have to wait for using the latest and coolest data integration features.

Pay the lowest price for ownership: Talend tool offers subscription-based pricing model. You need to pay for the number of developers using Talend Studio thereby saving you money compared to flat licensing.

Integration Cloud:

You can accelerate the cloud and on-premises data integration projects by using highly scalable and secure cloud integration platform-as-a-service (iPaaS). Talend integration cloud tool offers connectivity, built-in data quality, and native code generation.

Talend is secured cloud integration platform which allows IT and business users to connect shared both could and on-premise. It unlocks the power of cloud design job as it can manage, monitor, and control in the cloud.

Next in this Talend tutorial with examples, we will learn about benefits of Talend integration cloud over other tools.

Integration cloud benefits

Talend Integration Cloud Other Tools

900+ drag-n-drop components Hand coding which is unproductive

Generates optimized code Need specialized skills

Collaboration & management Hard to maintain

Gold support (SLAs) Limited support

What is Talend Open Studio?

Talend Open Studio is an open architecture for data integration, data profiling, big data, cloud integration and more.

It is a GUI environment that offers more than 1000 pre-built connectors. This makes it easy to perform operations like transform files, load data, move and rename files. It allows each component to define complex processes.

Integration jobs are created from Talend components that are configured instead of coded. Moreover, jobs can be run from within the development environment, or it can be executed as standalone scripts.

Benefits of Using Talend Open studio:

It reduces the time taken to develop integration from weeks and months to days or even hours.

It converts and updates data present from various sources.

Monitor and manage difficult deployments with ease

You can have the lowest cost of ownership of any solution

Talend Open Source can easily combine, convert and update data present from various sources.

Talend Open Source tool Inherits potential power of programming platform.

Wide selection of source/target connectors makes it best choice across the industry.

Comes with strong capability of multi schema log file/reconciliation report (post data flow/migration)

Legacy ETL Talend

Propriety Engine Open

Hard to scale Big Data Generates native code

Expensive Low TCO

Talend Open Studio- Architecture:

Now in this Talend Open Studio tutorial, we will learn about Talend open studio architecture. Following are the 3 key components of Talend Open Studio Architecture

Talend Open Studio Architecture


The Clients block includes one or more Talend Studio(s) and Web browsers which uses same or different machines. Talend Studio allows you to perform data integration processes irrespective of the level of data volumes and process complexity.

Talend Server:

The Talend server is another important block which includes a web-based application server. It enables the administration and maintenance of all projects. It includes user accounts, access rights, and project authorization in the Administration database.


The Databases component includes the Administration, the Audit and the Monitoring of databases. This component helps to manage user accounts, access rights, and project authorization. The Audit database helps to evaluate different aspects of the Jobs for developing an ideal process-oriented decision support system.


In Talend, a workspace is a directory where you store all project folders. However, for that, you will require at least one workspace directory per connection (repository connection). Talend allows connecting with various workspace directories in case if you don’t want to use the default directories.


A repository is the storage area which TOS tool uses to gather data to explain business models or to design Jobs.

Talend Open Studio Extensions

Now in this Talend ETL tutorial, we will learn about Talend open studio extentions:

Talend Integration Suite

Talend On Demand

Talend Data Quality

Talend ESB

Talend Big Data Integration


Talend is an open source software platform which offers data integration and data management solutions

Talend software can easily automate big data integration with graphical tools and wizards

Talend Product Suite consists of 3 major products 1) Talend Big Data 2) Data Integration 3) Integration Cloud

Talend offers Data integrity, Data mapping and batch processing for Big data and Data integration.

Talend ETL tool improves the efficiency of the big data job design by arranging and configuring in a graphical interface

Talend data integration software tool has an open, scalable architecture. It allows faster response to business requests.

Talend integration cloud tool offers connectivity, built-in data quality, and native code generation.

Talend Open Studio is an open architecture for data integration, data profiling, big data, cloud integration and more.

Five Talend studio extensions are: Talend Integration Suite, Talend On Demand, Talend Data Quality, Talend Seanad Talend Big Data Integration

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What Is Sap Security? Complete Tutorial

In this SAP Security tutorial for beginners, we will learn about SAP Security basic concepts.

What is SAP Security?

SAP Security is a balancing act for protecting the SAP data and applications from unauthorized use and access. SAP offers different tools, processes and measures for security check to protect these data. SAP security helps to ensure that users can only use the functionality of SAP which is a part of their job.

SAP Systems contain very sensitive and confidential data of their clientele and businesses. Hence, there is a need for a regular audit of an SAP computer system to check its security and data integrity.

For instance, an employee in a warehouse who is responsible for creating a purchase order shall not approve a rightful purchase order or otherwise he may create and approve as many purchase order without any use.

In such scenario, the purchase order approval should be controlled by a higher authority which is a standard security feature.

Next in this SAP Security for beginners tutorial, we will learn about various Security concepts in SAP.

Security Concepts for SAP

Below are the main Security Concepts in SAP:

1. STAD Data

Transaction codes are the front door to get the access to SAP’s functionality. STAD data provide security against unauthorized transaction access. Does it keep a record of information like who accessed certain critical functionality? And when? STAD data can be used to monitor, analyze, audit and maintain the security concept.

2. SAP Cryptographic library

SAP Cryptographic Library is the default encryption product delivery by SAP. It is used for providing Secure Network Communication (SNC) between various SAP server components. For front-end components, you need to buy an SNC certified partner product.

3. Internet Transaction Server (ITS) Security

To make SAP system application available for access from a web browser, a middleware component called Internet Transaction Server (ITS) is used. The ITS architecture has many built-in security features, such as to run the Wgate and Agate on separate hosts.

4. Network Basics (SAPRouter, Firewalls and DMZ, Network Ports)

The basic security tools that SAP uses are Firewalls & DMZ, Network Ports, SAPRouter, etc. A firewall is a system of software and hardware components which define the connections that should pass back and forth between communication partners. SAP Web dispatcher and SAPRouter are examples of application level gateways that you can use for filtering SAP network traffic.

5. Web-AS Security (Load Balancing, SSL, Enterprise Portal Security)

SSL (Secure Socket Layer), is a standard security technology for establishing an encrypted link between a server and client. With SSL you can authenticate the communication partners(server & client), by determining the variables of the encryption.

With sap cyber security, both partners are authenticated. The data transferred between the server and client will be protected so any manipulation in the data will be detected. In addition to that data transferred between the client and server is also encrypted. Enterprise portal security guide can be helpful to secure the system by following their guidelines.

6. Single Sign-On

The SAP single sign-on function enables you to configure same user credentials to access multiple SAP systems. It helps to reduce administrative costs and security risk associated with maintaining multiple user credentials. It ensures confidentiality through encryption during data transmission.

7. AIS (Audit Information System)

AIS or Audit Information System is an auditing tool that you can use to analyze security aspects of your SAP system in detail. AIS is designed for business audits and systems audits. AI presents its information in the Audit InfoStructure.

Next in this SAP Security tutorial, we will learn about SAP security for mobile apps.

SAP Security for Mobile SAP Apps

SAP applications are now available on mobile with an increase in the mobile users. But this exposure is a potential threat. The biggest threat for an SAP app is the risk of an employee losing important data of customers.

The good thing about mobile SAP is that most mobile devices are enabled with remote wipe capabilities. And many of the CRM- related functions that organizations are looking to mobilize are cloud-based, which means the confidential data does not reside on the device itself.

Some of the popular mobile SAP security providers are SAP Afaria, SAP Netweaver Gateway, SAP Mobile Academy and SAP Hana cloud.

Next in this SAP Security for beginners tutorial, we will learn about best practices for SAP security.

SAP Security Best Practices Checklist

Network settings and landscape architecture assessment

OS security assessment where SAP is deployed

DBMS security assessment.

SAP NetWeaver security assessment

Internal assessment of access control

Assessment of SAP components like SAP Gateway, SAP Messenger Server, SAP Portal, SAP Router, SAP GUI

Change and transport procedure assessment

Assessment of compliance with SAP, ISACA, DSAG, OWASP standards


SAP Security is a balancing act for protecting the SAP data and applications from unauthorized use and access.

Security Concepts for SAP


SAP Cryptographic library

Internet Transaction Server (ITS) Security

Network Basics (SAP Router, Firewalls and DMZ, Network Ports)

Web-AS Security (Load Balancing, SSL, Enterprise Portal Security)

Single Sign-On

AIS(Audit Information System)

The good thing about SAP security for mobile apps is that most mobile devices are enabled with remote wipe capabilities.

SAP Security Best Practices

Network settings and landscape architecture assessment

OS security assessment where SAP is deployed

DBMS security assessment

SAP NetWeaver security assessment

The Disavow Tool: Is It A Google Ranking Factor?

The disavow tool, now located in your Google Search Console, enables you to tell Google not to count spammy links as part of your link profile.

Following Google’s Penguin update in 2012, toxic links became a huge issue. Sites with link profiles that appeared unnatural ended up hurting a lot of businesses and brands that had dabbled in spammy link building tactics in prior years.

SEO professionals balked at the idea of having to contact someone on the other end of every potentially damaging link to ask for its removal. There were also many reports of extortion (“Sure, we’ll remove that sketchy link, just send us lots of $$$!”)

And although Google initially resisted, the disavow tool was born.

We know unnatural links can negatively affect your search rankings.

So can you improve your search rankings by using Google’s disavow tool?

Let’s answer this question.

The Claim: Disavow Tool as a Ranking Factor

Claims about this range from “use it to protect your rankings” to “we used the disavow tool and rankings skyrocketed.”

The idea is that if you rid your link profile of spam, identifiably paid, and other low-quality links, your organic search rankings will directly benefit.

The Evidence for the Disavow Tool as a Ranking Factor

Reddit and SEO forums are rife with anecdotes about the power of disavowing links.

Here are just a few titles currently coming up on the topic:

How to Use Google’s Disavow Tool For Better Rankings

How to Effectively Disavow Links & Protect Organic Ranking

Disavow Unnatural Links and Improve Your Rankings

Really, that’s about it.

There’s no verifiable evidence that would prove that using the disavow tool tells the algorithm anything about your site.

The Evidence Against the Disavow Tool as a Ranking Factor

Google is careful in its positioning of the disavow tool as a preventative measure against manual action – not a component of the organic ranking algorithm – and says:

“If you have a manual action against your site for unnatural links to your site, or if you think you’re about to get such a manual action (because of paid links or other link schemes that violate our quality guidelines), you should try to remove the links from the other site to your site.

If you can’t remove those links yourself, or get them removed, then you should disavow the URLs of the questionable pages or domains that link to your website.”

But as Penguin taught the SEO world, manual actions aren’t the only weapon in Google’s link spam arsenal.

Links are a ranking factor, and the disavow tool can help you clean up that signal.

Still, it’s not a ranking factor on its own and is only useful in cases where the link spam is so egregious Google can’t possibly ignore it on its own.

The Disavow Tool as a Ranking Factor: Our Verdict

Is using the disavow tool a ranking factor?

No. You will not experience any lift in search rankings for using the tool.

Are links a ranking factor?


Can you positively influence organic rankings by cleaning up the links pointing to your site?

Yes. It’s a matter of reducing any potential negative impact of low quality/spam links; you are influencing an existing ranking factor.

But only in certain cases, and those tend to be few and far between.

If you’ve experienced a manual penalty, cleaning that up is going to stop the suppression of your site in Google search.

Even outside of a manual action, spammy and identifiably paid or otherwise manipulated links could be negatively impacting the algorithm’s assessment of your link profile.

You can actually end up doing more harm than good by disavowing links.

As Google’s John Mueller says,

“Random links collected over the years aren’t necessarily harmful, we’ve seen them for a long time too and can ignore all of those weird pieces of web-graffiti from long ago.

Disavow links that were really paid for (or otherwise actively unnaturally placed), don’t fret the cruft.”

If you do use it and don’t see any results, it could be that you didn’t need to use it in the first place – or, you need to follow up with a reconsideration request.

As Chuck Price recommends:

“The most common misconception is the disavow tool doesn’t work. It does. For a manual penalty, the disavow file works, when used as a last resort. That means that a full fledged and well documented link removal campaign must precede it.

The disavow file, combined with a detailed reconsideration request, is a core component in successfully getting a manual penalty revoked.”

Bottom line: Google does not use your use of the disavow tool as a search ranking signal.

Featured image: Paulo Bobita

Camera Raw 8 – The Straighten Tool / Crop Tool Combo

Again, just a quick reminder that these tutorials in our Adobe Camera Raw series are for Camera Raw 8 , part of Photoshop CC (Creative Cloud) and available as a free update for Photoshop CS6 users. To get the most from this lesson, I recommend first reading through our main Crop Tool tutorial as well as our Rotating And Straightening Images tutorial. For other tutorials in this series, check out our complete Photo Retouching section.

In this tutorial, we’ll learn how to straighten photos using the combined power of Camera Raw’s Straighten Tool and the Crop Tool, both designed to work seemlessly together to straighten and crop our photos at the same time.

In previous tutorials, we learned the basics of using the Crop Tool in Adobe Camera Raw to crop our images non-destructively, and we learned how the Crop Tool, along with its Show Overlay option, can be used to rotate and straighten images.

Here’s a photo I shot of a couple of cruise ships arriving at port early one morning. I was standing on the deck of a third ship when I took the photo, and like I said, it was early morning, things were still a bit fuzzy, and I obviously wasn’t holding the camera quite as level as I thought I was:

The original photo.

Selecting the Straighten Tool from the toolbar.

Zooming in on the image by temporarily switching to the Zoom Tool.

Release your mouse button when you’re done and watch what happens. Camera Raw instantly switches from the Straighten Tool to the Crop Tool (if you look up in the toolbar, you’ll see that the Crop Tool is now selected) and it automatically draws a crop box around the image. The crop box is rotated to the same angle you dragged with the Straighten Tool. If you zoomed in on your image as I did, you’ll most likely need to zoom back out to see the entire crop box. To instantly jump to the Fit on Screen view mode, press Ctrl+0 (Win) / Command+0 (Mac) on your keyboard:

Camera Raw draws a cropping border and rotates it to the angle needed for straightening the image.

Press Enter (Win) / Return (Mac) on your keyboard and the image is instantly straightened. You’ll probably notice that a bit of the image around the edges had to be cropped away in the process, but the image itself should now appear straight:

The image after pressing Enter (Win) / Return (Mac) to accept the crop.

If you find that the angle at which you dragged with the Straighten Tool wasn’t quite right and your image still isn’t straight, or you want to change the crop, here’s a trick. Rather than reselecting the Straighten Tool, simply press the letter C on your keyboard to select the Crop Tool. Since everything we do in Camera Raw is non-destructive, your cropping border will reappear just as it was a moment ago, rotated to the same angle:

Reselecting the Crop Tool to bring back the crop box.

Any time the Crop Tool is active, you can temporarily switch to the Straighten Tool simply by pressing and holding the Ctrl (Win) / Command (Mac) key on your keyboard. You can then re-drag across the same part of the image or try a different area that should appear straight. This time I’ll drag from bottom to top through the vertical center of the ship:

When you release your mouse button, Camera Raw re-adjusts the rotation angle of the crop box. You can then release your Ctrl (Win) / Command (Mac) key to revert from the Straighten Tool back to the Crop Tool:

The crop box after trying again with the Straighten Tool.

When you’re done, press Enter (Win) / Return (Mac) on your keyboard and Camera Raw crops and straightens the image at the same time:

The image is now cropped and straightened.

Coded Ui Test Automation Framework Tutorial

A typical software automation Testing requires automation tools like Selenium and QTP. Coded UI is similar to these tools and can be particularly useful for functional tests.

Coded UI Test ( CUIT) uses Visual Studio IDE to write scripts, as the recording can be done using Visual Studio.

In this Coded UI tutorial for beginners, you will learn-

What is Coded UI Test?

Coded UI Test (CUIT) is an automated test that drives applications through its user interface (UI). Hence, the name Coded UI Test (CUIT). This test involves functional testing of the UI controls. It checks the functionality of the whole application, including the user interface. It is also used to automate an existing manual test.

UI Test Architecture

Coded UI Test Features

Coded UI features include

Functional Testing

Generate code in VB/C#

Integrated with ALM story

Build, deploy & test in the lab or as part of a build

Local, remote runs, data collection

Rich Extensibility

Intent-aware recording and resilient playback

Coded UI Test (CUIT) Supported Technologies

With coded UI, an application which has UI (User Interface) can be easily tested. The application can be either window based or web based.

Coded UI supports technologies like

Window based desktop applications

Web Services (SOAP, ASPX, etc.)

Window phone applications

WPF (Windows Presentation Foundation)

Web applications (HTML, Silverlight, HTML5)

Why use coded UI for Test Automation

The reason why coded UI for test automation is preferred

Developers and Software Testers can collaborate effectively using the same tools/language.

It supports both web as well as Windows projects.

The element identification mechanism is a great feature in Coded UI. Also, it supports synchronization

The Playback Engine supports features such as ‘WaitForControlExist’ , ‘WaitForReadyLevel’, etc

With the help of ‘Tests Agents,’ automation tests can be run on remote machines

Automation teams can develop sophisticated tests, using coded UI with a layered framework

Software testers can capture exceptions and record the result effectively utilizing log4net.dll

Coded UI tool supports descriptive programming. It allows software testers to automate scenarios based on object properties

It supports AJAX controls.

How to Create Coded UI Tests (CUIT)

To create coded UI tests you can do it in following ways.

Generating from an Existing Action Recording ( converting from manual test recording)

Creating a new coded UI test from scratch

Writing code from scratch

Contents of a Coded UI Test

When you create a coded UI test, the coded UI test builder creates a Map. This includes UI under test, test methods, parameters, assertions, etc. For each test, it also creates a class file.

File Content Editable

UIMap.Designer.cs Declaration section UIMap Class Methods Properties No

UIMap.cs UIMap class (partial) Yes

CodedUITest1.cs CodeUITest1 class Methods Properties Yes

UIMap.uitest The XML map of the UI for the test. It is edited only through UI Map editor No

chúng tôi : The designer contains the code view of the UIMap. It is generated when a tester records some UI interaction or when some objects are added manually to the UIMap.

chúng tôi : Any modification or customization done to the UIMap is stored in this file. Initially, this file will be blank and can be populated later on. If modifications are directly made to the chúng tôi file, make sure it is not recorded otherwise all changes will be lost.

chúng tôi : This file contains coded UI test class, test methods, assertion invocation and method invocation. All assertion and methods are by default invoked from this file.

UIMap.uitest: It is an XML representation of the UIMap class. It includes windows, controls, properties, methods, actions and assertions. It is edited only through UI Map editor

Next in this Coded UI tutorial, we will learn how to perform Coded UI automation test.

How to Perform Coded UI Test

Coded UI has two different ways to conduct a test for your application.

Coded UI Record and Playback or

Coded UI Hand coding

You have to follow the following step to perform Coded UI testing,

Create a CodedUI test project

Add a coded UI test file

Record a sequence of actions

Verify the values in UI fields such as text boxes

View the generated test code

Add more actions and assertions

Edit the details of the test activities and the assertions

Run the test

Best Practices for Coded UI Test (CUIT)

Here are some best practices for a Coded UI test automation framework:

Use the Coded UI automation Test Builder whenever possible

Try not to modify the chúng tôi file directly. Otherwise, the changes you made to the file will be overwritten

Create your test as a sequence of recorded methods

Each recorded method should act on a single page, form or dialog box. Also, create a new test method for each new form, page or dialog box

When you create a method, instead of the default name use a meaningful method name. A meaningful name helps identify the purpose of the method

If possible, limit each recorded method to less than 10 actions. This approach makes it easier to replace a method if the UI changes.

To create assertion use CodedUI test builder. It automatically adds an assertion method to the chúng tôi file.

Re-record the test methods/ assertion methods, if the user interfaces changes or re-records the affected sections of an existing test method.

If you are directly coding with the API, use the methods and properties in the classes created in the chúng tôi file. These classes will make your work more reliable and easier, and will help you to be more productive.

Comparison of Coded UI Test Vs Selenium Vs QTP

Below is the comparison table of Coded UI Vs Selenium Vs QTP:

Selenium does not support any WPF as well as Windows applications

Visual Studio CodedUI supports the Window store application testing as well as Window Phone application testing. No other tools support this.

Test complete does support Window Application but requires a plugin to be installed.

Comparison of Coded UI Test Vs Selenium Vs QTP


Automated tests that drive your application through its user interface (UI) are known as CodedUI tests (CUITs).

Coded UI test automation framework supports technologies like Web Services, Window phone applications, Web applications, etc.

Coded UI Testing allows developers and Software testers to collaborate effectively using the same tools/language

Contents or a file created while using CodedUI includes





What Is Public In Java?

Introduction to the public in Java

Web development, programming languages, Software testing & others

The syntax of public is shown below. In the below example, the variable word is declared as public inside the class Example. The variable word is available in the functions. The functions are Sum() and average(). So, the variable word is readily available in other functions, although it has not been specifically called in the respective function. In case of a variable that has been declared as private cannot be accessed in other functions or classes. Therefore, in the case where the variable is not allowed to get accessed in other functions, the access modifier private is used.


class Example { public int hello; public void sum(int a) { } public void average(int a) { } } Examples of public in Java

Given below are the examples mentioned:

Example #1

Now we see a coding example in which the public access modifier is used, and then it is used to add two numbers. There are two classes. One is the main() in which we create an object of Addition(), and then we call the other class through two numbers. The name of the object created is obj, and it is very useful in calculating the sum. There can also be other functions and classes such as Multiply as well as Divide. The coding example is a simple program where there are two classes.


class Addition { public int add(int a, int b){ return a+b; } } public class Main{ public static void main(String args[]){ Addition obj = new Addition(); System.out.println(obj.add(50, 50)); } }

The two numbers which are included are 50 both. When we add the two numbers, we get the final output as 100, as shown. The function used to add the two numbers is add(), and an object is created. We can also create other classes where we can have other functionalities, and we can create that object in the main() of the program.

Example #2

In this coding example, we create an object in the main(). The below program is used to multiply two numbers and produce the multiplication output. There is a single object obj that is created and is used to call two numbers. One is the number that has double as its type, which is used in the same class. In the Hello class, there is a main() which is created and is used to call the square() as well as the number which has its type as double.

class XYZ{ public double num = 100; public int square(int a){ return a*a; } } public class Hello{ public static void main(String args[]){ XYZ obj = new XYZ(); System.out.println(obj.num); System.out.println(obj.square(10)); } }


The sample output is a clear depiction of the two variables, which are called inside the main(). First, the number 100, which has double as its type, is shown as well as the square of a number which is there in a function. There is a function square() which shows the square of a number and is created inside another class, and then inside another class, there is a main(), which calls the Square(), and the number is shown as input. The number which is shown as input, in this case, is 10, and the square of the respective number is 100, which is shown in the output panel.

Advantages of public in Java

Unlike the private access modifier, which is the most restricted modifier, public is used when functions are used to call in classes.

 It is available in classes, package, subclass(within the same package) and subclass(within other packages).

Also, the functions are also available in other classes.

Public functionality is used for running programs which has a single main(), and there are multiple other functions that have different functionality, which is called inside the main().


Recommended Articles

This is a guide to What is public in Java? Here we discuss the introduction to public in Java along with examples to implement public keyword in Java. You may also have a look at the following articles to learn more –

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