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Are you planning a trip to Ujjain, the city of Mahakal? One of the holiest shrines in India, Ujjain is well-known for its spiritual beauty and history buff. You may get to explore the best architecture and history of the city. Ujjain has the best and holiest temples in India. It is well-known for its cultural essence and superiority in terms of the divine spirit.Top 6 Temples in Ujjain
Valuation, Hadoop, Excel, Mobile Apps, Web Development & many more.#1 Shree Mahakaleshwar Temple
The Shree Mahakaleshwar Temple is one of Ujjain’s most adored temples. Dedicated to Lord Shiva, it is one of the most popular among Hindu devotees. Thousands of people visit the temple yearly, which is popular due to the lingam. It is among the 12 jyotirlingas in the world. You may explore Rudra Sagar Lake, where only honest people can dive. Here, the peace of mind is next level. You’ll get the experience of spirituality in combination with mind and body.
Location: Jaisinghpura, Ujjain#2 Kalabhairava Temple
Hinduism has various parts, one of which is also Tantrism. You can explore the tantra culture at the Kalabhairava Temple, where the cultural diversity reflects the time of black magic. Here, black magic thrived and was the manifestation of Lord Shiva. Considered the scariest pilgrims where there is a traditional belief. It is about a bull present in the temple gifted to Devi Parvati and Lord Shiva at their wedding. It was by King Daksha, and Shivling is inside the middle of the temple. Here, you’ll also see Nandi, who listens to the wishes of devotees and conveys them to Lord Shiva. People visit the temple exclusively on Maha Shivratri and take blessings.
Location: Ujjain, Jail Road, BhairavGarh#3 Chintaman Ganesh Temple
Location: Chintaman Road, Ujjain#4 Harisiddhi Temple
One of the fifty-one Shakti Peethas temples in Ujjain is auspicious to Goddess Harisiddhi. It was set up in the 19th century and is at the River Shipra. Many people from all over the world visit the temple and believe that one of Sati’s body parts fell at this location. Mata Sati was the first wife of Lord Shiva, and after her death, Lord Vishnu released a chakra that cut his wife into pieces. These are the 51 temples of Goddess Harisiddhi that stopped Lord Shiva from Tandav. Here, her elbow fell off, and later Vikramaditya built a temple. This temple is also a place for three other goddesses: Annapurna, Mahasaraswati, and Mahalaxmi. You may explore the red sandstones and Maratha art styles inside the temple.#5 Ram Ghat
This temple is well-known for Lord Rama- the lord used to come and bathe in the bath with his wife, Sita. It was during his 14 years of exile and is near the Harisiddhi Temple. Listed among the top religious sights in Ujjain and has a vast area. It is popularly known as the Kumbh Ka Mela, which happens after every 12 years. Many devouts come to bathe in the sacred water before entering the temple. People believe the dip will wash off their sins and free their souls from rebirths. They may attain salvation or Moksha. Sit and relax at the riverside and enjoy beautiful sunsets!
Location: Jaisinghpura, Ujjain#6 Gomti Kund
You should visit this place if you are looking for peace and serenity. Gomti Kund is one of the most spiritual temples in Ujjain and is well-known for soothing the senses. Here, you may explore green bushes and sacred water tanks, along with a spot to picnic. Believed that Lord Krishna used to come here to save the efforts of his Guru, Sandipan, and has the sacred waters in the world.Wrapping Up
Ujjain is beautiful and peaceful- if you’re planning your next trip here, explore all the temples! Happy journey.Recommended Article
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City of Helsinki Top Hotels in Helsinki
Whether you are a business traveler or a tourist, there are hotels in Helsinki that will suit your needs. Here is a brief overview of some of the best hotels in Helsinki.
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Valuation, Hadoop, Excel, Mobile Apps, Web Development & many more.#1 Hotel Kamp
Address: Pohjoisesplanadi 29, Helsinki 00100, Finland
Price: The price range is 25,137 to 26,249 INR as on February 5, 2023.
How to reach: The distance between the Helsinki-Vantaa airport and Hotel Kamp is 17 kilometers. You can travel this distance in about 23 minutes by using the hotel’s private cars.
Nearby attractions: The Galleria Esplanade shopping center is adjacent to the hotel. Within a distance of one kilometer, you can visit the Kiasma Museum of Contemporary Art, Ateneum Art Museum, and Stockmann Department Store.#2 Hotel St. George
This is a complete-service luxury hotel. Its theme is to challenge the concept of luxury by designing the hotel for moments to remember. The hotel is in a splendid historic building with 148 rooms and 5 unique suites. The room types are suites, non-smoking rooms, and bridal suites. You can witness how art meets culture to come up with memorable moments in St. George Care, St. George Bakery, Restaurant Andrea, and Wintergarden. The people in the hotel speak Swedish and Finnish.
Address: Yrjönkatu 13, Helsinki 00120, Finland
Price: The price range is 26,889 to 28,862 INR as on February 5, 2023.
How to reach: The distance between the Helsinki-Vantaa airport and Hotel Kamp is 23 kilometers. You can travel this distance in about 38 minutes by boarding a train from Lentoasema. The Finnish Railways and Helsingin seudun liikenne operate this train.
Nearby attractions: The Ateneum Art Museum is only six minutes away from Hotel St. George. Esplanadi Park is very close, and you can reach it in three minutes. The Kamppi Chapel of Silence is a religious site which you can reach in five minutes.#3 Lapland Hotels Bulevardi
Address: Bulevardi 28, Helsinki 00120, Finland
Price: The price range is 26,982 to 29,502 INR as on February 5, 2023.
How to reach: The distance between the Helsinki-Vantaa airport and Hotel Kamp is 24 kilometers. You can travel this distance in about 43 minutes by boarding a train from Lentoasema. The Finnish Railways and Helsingin seudun liikenne operate this train.
Nearby attractions: The attractions within a distance of 500 meters are the Sinebrychoff Art Museum, Liberty or Death Bar and Club, Ateljee Bar, and Osuva Range & Training Shooting Range.#4 Hotel F6
This is a warm and cozy boutique hotel with 66 rooms categorized as standard, superior, and deluxe rooms in addition to non-smoking rooms. All of these are soundproof with a wake-up service. The rooms are capacious, have warm colors, and boast wooden floors. Free high-speed internet is available. The premises include a fitness center with a gym.
Address: Fabianinkatu 6, Helsinki 00130, Finland
Price: The price is about 14,572 INR as on February 5, 2023.
How to reach: From the Helsinki-Vantaa airport, you can hire taxis to reach the hotel in about 30 minutes. The second way is to board a train from the airport to the Helsinki Center Railway Station, which also has a travel time of 30 minutes. From the latter, the hotel is only one kilometer away, and you can opt to walk to the hotel.
Nearby attractions: Within a distance of 500 meters, you can visit the Helsinki Cathedral, Esplanadi Park, the National Library of Finland, and the Liberty or Death Bar and Club.#5 Hotel Haven
This is a stylish, elegant boutique hotel. Market Square and South Harbour manage this hotel. It has 137 spacious and comfortable rooms of the following types: family rooms, suites, non-smoking rooms, and ocean view. It boasts three top-level restaurants and a bar. It houses a fitness center with a gym and a business center with internet access.
Address: Unioninkatu 17, Helsinki 00130, Finland
Price: The price range is from 15,483 to 16,251 INR as on February 5, 2023.
How to reach: From the Helsinki-Vantaa airport, you can hire taxis to reach the hotel in about 30 minutes. The distance between the Helsinki-Vantaa airport and Hotel Kamp is 24 kilometers. You can travel this distance in about 42 minutes by boarding a train from Lentoasema. The Finnish Railways and Helsingin seudun liikenne operate this train.
Nearby attractions: Within a distance of 500 meters, you can visit the Helsinki Cathedral, the Esplanadi Park, the National Library of Finland, and the Liberty or Death Bar and Club.
Places To Visit in July in India
Are you looking to explore the beauty of India in July? Then you should know that July is the perfect time to explore the beauty of India, as the weather is pleasant and inviting. With its rich cultural heritage and diverse landscapes, it’s no surprise that India is home to some truly spectacular places, which makes it difficult to choose the destination. This article will cover the best places to visit in July in India.Best 5 Places To Travel in July in India
Here is the list of the best places to visit in July in India:#1 Kerala
Kerala is one of the best places to visit in July in India. It is a unique state in southern India, known for its stunning beaches, lush green hills, and fascinating culture. With its breathtaking scenery and diverse attractions, it’s no surprise that Kerala has become one of India’s most sought-after holiday destinations! With delicious cuisine consisting of fresh seafood and local spices – What this region has to offer will not disappoint!
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(Image Credit: Pixabay)Things To Do
This area is for its diverse culture and rich history. Start your vacation in Kochi with a tour of the iconic Chinese fishing nets because it is one of Kochi’s most popular tourist attractions. Also, you must visit Fort Kochi Beach to enjoy historical monuments. Then explore the stunning hill station of Munnar. Here you can wander among lush tea plantations and stunning landscapes that will take your breath away. For a unique experience, take a cruise along the tranquil backwaters of Alleppey.#2 Mahabaleshwar, Maharashtra
Mahabaleshwar, Maharashtra, is a popular hill station in the Western Ghats. Located around 120 Km from Pune, this picturesque destination offers stunning views of the Sahyadri Mountains and valleys that stretch across as far as you can see. The region is for its lush green forests and crystal-clear lakes, making it an ideal spot to relax and unwind away from city life.
(Image Credit: Pixabay)Things To Do #3 Goa
Goa is a small Indian state located on the southwestern coast of India. It is well-known for its diverse culture and beautiful beaches. The place has a strong influence on Portuguese culture, as seen through the architecture of the city and the food eaten by the people here.
(Image Credit: Pixabay)Things To Do #4 Coorg, Karnataka
Karnataka, a state in southwest India, includes the district of Coorg, sometimes known as Kodagu. Coorg has long been for its coffee plantations and breathtakingly beautiful scenery and is often referred to as the ‘Scotland of India.’Things To Do
Adventurous travelers can enjoy trekking expeditions through the Western Ghats and plunge into one of the many natural pools for an unforgettable experience. If you want to witness incredible wildlife, head out on jeep safaris at Nagarhole National Park or Rajiv Gandhi National Park, located close to Madikeri. Visit Raja’s Seat or Abbey Falls for scenic views and beautiful sunsets.#5 Ooty, Tamil Nadu
Ooty is a well-known hill station and tourist destination in the Nilgiri Hills of Tamil Nadu, India. The town is for its beautiful views of rolling hills blanketed with tea plantations and vibrant flower gardens. Ooty offers plenty of activities, from horse-drawn carriage rides through the lanes to toy train rides around the lakeside.
(Image Credit: Pixabay)Things To Do Conclusion
Temples to Explore in Vrindavan
India is the land where spirituality meets enchantingness. Home to beautiful pilgrimage sites, India attracts millions of tourists each year to immerse in its holiness.
Vrindavan is the sacred city 15 km from Mathura in India’s most populous state. Encasing glorious Vrindavan Temples in its heart, the city offers a warm welcome to Lord Krishna’s city.
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Valuation, Hadoop, Excel, Mobile Apps, Web Development & many more.Top 8 Must-Visit Temple in Vrindavan
Here are eight temples you must see during your visit to Vrindavan:-1 Banke Bihari Mandir
Standing for Banke= Bend from three places+ Bihari= Enjoyer, this holy temple symbolizes Lord Krishna, holding a flute with the legs-crossed standing pose.
The narrow lanes sprawl with devotees as the designer golden-brow entrance opens every day for the public.
The black statue of Lord Krishna and the temple’s traditional architecture are a sight to capture in my heart.2 Prem Mandir
This temple is the epitome of love that symbolizes the love of Sri Krishna and Radha. This top-tourist destination stands as the glory of Hinduism.
The intricately-carved Italian white marble exudes calmness and fills the soul with spiritual magic. Its 54-acre complex houses alluring statues of Lord Krishna and his followers.
On the inside, paintings of Krishna Leela and Krishna Kaliya Naag Leela portray the telltales of Hindu Mythology.3 Shri Rangji Mandir
This Dravidian and classical-style architectural marvel is the largest temple in Lord Krishna’s city.
Built in 1851, its beige walls appear Rose gold as the sun rays fall over it. Its Jaipur-styled stone gates and five rectangular enclosures form its highlights.
Sri Rangji temple has Lord Ranganatha as the primary deity who rests in his Sheeshashayee pose around Sesha Naga.
It also worships Lord Narasimha, Lord Rama, Lord Lakshman, Lord Venugopala, Lord Ramanujarcharya, and Goddess Sita.
If you are a non-Hindu, you can enter the temple only till the courtyard, and if non-Indian, till its first two gates.4 Sri Krishna Balaram Mandir
This temple is the most renowned of the Vrindavan Temples. Lead your way through its peacock staircase to one of the prime temples of ISKCON.
It houses three alters: one for Sri Sri Gaura Natai, another for Sri Krishna and Balram, and the third for Sri Sri Radha Shyamsundara and Vishakha and Lalita.5 Sri Govind Devji Temple
This red-stone historical temple is amongst well-renowned Vrindavan Temples.
Formally a seven-storied glorious structure, today it is only a three-storey structure due to the Aurangzeb’s destruction.
The temple that once housed the Govindji idol today no longer gets to experience any rituals and is only a tourist spot.
The temple is a big hit on Holi and Janmashtami as the temple glows with colorful decorations.6 Katyayani Peeth
Also renowned as Uma Shakti Peeth, this temple is one of 51 Shakti Peeths. The white-stone structure with grey specks gives off a serene aura.
The legend suggests that Shakti Peeth arises from the Goddess Sati’s hair when Lord Vishnu cuts her body to relieve Lord Shiva from the sorrow of losing her.
It attracts thousands of visitors to worship Goddess Shakti, Lord Shiva, and Lord Surya. Lord Ganesh and Lord Vaishnava.7 Nidhivan Temple
Enveloped by trees entangled amongst themselves, the locals ascribe them as Gopis of Lord Krishna.
The folklore suggests that Radha-Krishna and Gopis perform Raas Leela as the sun exits the skies.
You can not stay back in the premises post sunset as the onlooker will go blind, deaf, or dumb if you become the witness of the Raas Leela.8 Garud Govind Temple
Garud Govind temple boasts as amongst the most ancient Vrindavan Temples.
The temple for its rituals to neutralize the effects of sarp dosha through kalsarp anushthan.
The temple symbolizes Garud, the chariot kite of Lord Vishnu, an enemy of the serpent/Naga, and can counter the sarp dosha.
The prime deity of the temple is the incarnation of Lord Krishna’s grandson, Bajranabh.
No spirit can calm without exploring the magical sights of Vrindavan Temples. The land of the birth of the chivalrous Lord Krishna holds great significance in the hearts of devotees. The high vibrations of the divine aura will leave every visitor spellbound.Recommended Articles
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Overview of Benefits of Performance Appraisal
Human resource processes, human resources management & others
The Appraisal system must be unbiased because it provides adequate feedback about an employee’s performance level. Still, it also gives data to managers for future job assignments and compensation. It supports a basis for transforming or changing the behavior pattern toward more effective habits, which delivers results.Definition of Performance Appraisal
The words performance appraisal or merit rating systems denote the evaluation process of performances of the employees of any small or big organization. It can be defined as a “process of systematic evaluation of personality and performance of each employee, measuring by supervisors or managers or some other persons trained in the techniques of merit rating, against some predefined parameters such as knowledge of job responsibility, quality of delivery, leadership ability, cooperation, initiative, creativity, attendance, judgment skill and so forth”.Objectives of Performance Appraisal
Organizations adopt various performance rating systems with certain objectives in mind. Those objectives are –
To provide inputs for making decisions regarding transfers and promotions.
Providing data for identifying the requirements of training and development programs for individuals.
To help to make decisions for offering confirmation to the employees who have completed the probationary period.
To make decisions regarding the hike of employees’ salary, incentives, or variable pay.
Enable clarification of expectations and facilitate communication between superiors and subordinates.
To help employees to realize their performance level.
Collect data and keep the record for different organizational purposes.Methods of Evaluation Technique
In designing the evaluation technique, each company considers various factors such as the size of employees, work schedule, company goal, etc. Whatever method is used, it is important to select the right method for assessing the individual’s quality and quantity of work. Merit rating can be classified into two categories of Performance Appraisal Methods – traditional and modern methods.1. Traditional method
Forced Choice method and Checklist method
Critical Incident Method
Confidential Report2. Modern method
Management by Objectives (MBO)
Behaviorally anchored rating scales
360-degree appraisal system
Cost Accounting methodBenefits of the Appraisal System
Though there are some debates regarding the merit rating system as it considers adding little value to the organization’s performance, the annual reviews are taken by management and staff as a painful process. Sometimes it acts as detrimental to performance management.
The still appraising system is assumed as a performance measuring standard that has been fixed to give feedback to the employees to improve their performance level by eradicating deficiencies. It is acclaimed as an investment for the company, and this acclamation is quite justifiable after considering the following benefits –1. Assist in Enhance Employee Performance
The logical appraisal system helps the line managers and HR people to design policies and programs for the progress of employees and businesses. It supports planning daily work agreeably to assign the right people to an accurate job. The evaluation process should actively ensure unbiased and equal views to stimulate every employee’s career development.2. Promotions and Transfers
The merit evaluation system helps to recognize talented employees to groom them as competent. The organization admits employees’ hard work and accomplishments by giving promotions, deputation, and transfers. The evaluation system certifies that promotion and transfer offers are based on performance, not seniority and nepotism.3. Hike in Salary and Compensation
The rating system gives a clear view of an employee’s performance level, which is compensated by an enhancement in salary and offering other fringe benefits. A good point rating can be achieved only through the appraisal system, which offers handsome compensation packages like a bonus, extra reimbursement, various allowances, and requisites. Almost in all organizations, different categories of employees are paid good compensation packages for their high level of performance, which reveals in the evaluation system.4. Planning for Providing Training and Development
Through the appraisal procedure, the superiors can comprehend their subordinates’ strengths and weaknesses, which also helps the HR department design a training and development program. The content and method of training vary according to the requirement of employees. Even the appraisal system decreases the attrition rate because appreciation and bonuses enhance the stability of an employee.5. Improve the Relationship Between the Management Group and Employees 6. Be Integrated with Strategic Vision
One important purpose of an appraisal is to communicate employee goals that are part of the organization’s strategic vision.7. The Tool of Inspiration
Performance appraisal is an inspirational tool for employees because weighing up the performance level and the recognition system after achieving the goal can boost the employees’ efficiency and productivity level.8. Detect Valued Performers
The evaluation system aids in recognizing potential employees in the organization. When making personnel decisions, such as promoting individuals to influential positions or laying off employees, employers base their decisions on performance history, skill level, and experience. The appraisal system is also helpful for inventorying quality people in the organization. As per the valuation, the HR department recruits new employees or upgrades the existing workforce.
Suppose the performance appraisal system executes properly. In that case, it can become a powerful tool to establish an organizational culture where each employee acts for the broad strategic vision of the organization.Recommended Articles
This is a guide to the Benefits of Performance Appraisal. Here we discuss the objectives and Benefits of Performance Appraisal and methods of Evaluation Techniques. You may also look at the following article to learn more –
Whoever it may be (humans or machine learning models) need to think of all possible ways to reach the goal state(if it exists) from the initial state or current state, all the consequences, etc. Similarly, AI systems or python programming uses various search algorithms for a particular goal state(if it exists) or for some problem-solving. ‘Uninformed Search’, as the name suggests, means the machine blindly follows the algorithm regardless of whether right or wrong, efficient or in-efficient.
These algorithms are brute force operations, and they don’t have additional information about the search space; the only information they have is on how to traverse or visit the nodes in the tree. Thus uninformed search algorithms are also called blind search algorithms. The search algorithm produces the search tree without using any domain knowledge, which is a brute force in nature. They don’t have any background information like informed search algorithms on how to approach the goal or whatsoever. But these are the basics of search algorithms in AI.
Learn to compare between them and choose the most befitting one for your model.
This article was published as a part of the Data Science Blogathon.What is the Uninformed Search? Types of Uninformed Search Algorithms
The different types of uninformed search algorithms used in AI are as follows:
Depth First Search
Depth Limited Search
Uniform Cost Search
Iterative Deepening Depth First Search
Bidirectional Search (if applicable)
But before we go into these search types and you go a step further wandering into any Artificial Intelligence course, let’s get to know the few terms which will be frequently used in the upcoming sections.
State: It provides all the information about the environment.
Goal State: The desired resulting condition in a given problem and the kind of search algorithm we are looking for.
Goal Test: The test to determine whether a particular state is a goal state.
Path/Step Cost: These are integers that represent the cost to move from one node to another node.
Space Complexity: A function describing the amount of space(memory) an algorithm takes in terms of input to the algorithm.
Time Complexity: A function describing the amount of time the algorithm takes in terms of input to the algorithm.
Optimal: Extent of preference of the algorithm
‘b‘ – maximum branching factor in a tree.
‘d‘ – the depth of the least-cost solution.
‘m‘ – maximum depth state space(maybe infinity)
Now let’s dive deep into each type of algorithm.Depth First Search (DFS)
It is a search algorithm where the search tree will be traversed from the root node. It will be traversing, searching for a key at the leaf of a particular branch. If the key is not found, the searcher retraces its steps back (backtracking) to the point from where the other branch was left unexplored, and the same procedure is repeated for that other branch.
The above image clearly explains the DFS Algorithm. First, the search technique starts from the root node A and then goes to the branch where node B is present (lexicographical order). Then it goes to node D because of DFS, and from D, there is only one node to traverse, i.e., node H. But after node H does not have any child nodes, we retrace the path in which we traversed earlier and again reach node B, but this time, we traverse through in the untraced path a traverse through node E. There are two branches at node E, but let’s traverse node I (lexicographical order) and then retrace the path as we have no further number of nodes after E to traverse. Then we traverse node J as it is the untraced branch and then again find we are at the end and retrace the path and reach node B and then we will traverse the untraced branch, i.e., through node C, and repeat the same process. This is called the DFS Algorithm.
DFS requires very little memory as it only needs to store a stack of the nodes on the path from the root node to the current node.
It takes less time to reach the goal node than the BFS algorithm [which is explained later](if it traverses in the right path).
There is the possibility that many states keep reoccurring, and there is no guarantee of finding a solution.
The DFS algorithm goes for deep-down searching, and sometimes it may go to the infinite loop.
It occupies a lot of memory space and time to execute when the solution is at the bottom or end of the tree and is implemented using the LIFO Stack data structure[DS].
Time Complexity: O(bm)
Space complexity: O(bm)
Optimal: YesBreadth-First Search (BFS)
This is another graph search algorithm in AI that traverses breadthwise to search for the goal in a tree. It begins searching from the root node and expands the successor node before expanding further along breadthwise and traversing those nodes rather than searching depth-wise.
The above figure is an example of a BFS Algorithm. It starts from the root node A and then traverses node B. Till this step, it is the same as DFS. But here, instead of expanding the children of B as in the case of DFS, we expand the other child of A, i.e., node C because of BFS, and then move to the next level and traverse from D to G and then from H to K in this typical example. To traverse here, we have only taken into consideration the lexicographical order. This is how the BFS Algorithm is implemented.
BFS will provide a solution if any solution exists.
If there is more than one solution for a given problem, then BFS will provide the minimal solution which requires the least number of steps.
It requires lots of memory since each level of the tree must be saved in memory to expand to the next level.
BFS needs lots of time if the solution is far away from the root node.
It requires a lot of memory space and is time-consuming if the goal state is at the bottom or end. It uses a FIFO queue DS to implement.
Complete: Yes (assuming b is finite)
Time Complexity: O(bd)
Space complexity: O(bd)
Optimal: Yes, if step cost = 1 (i.e., no cost/all step costs are same)Uniform Cost Search Algorithm (UCS)
This algorithm is mainly used when the step costs are not the same, but we need the optimal solution to the goal state. In such cases, we use Uniform Cost Search to find the goal and the path, including the cumulative cost to expand each node from the root node to the goal node. It does not go depth or breadth. It searches for the next node with the lowest cost, and in the case of the same path cost, let’s consider lexicographical order in our case.
In the above figure, consider S to be the start node and G to be the goal state. From node S we look for a node to expand, and we have nodes A and G, but since it’s a uniform cost search, it’s expanding the node with the lowest step cost, so node A becomes the successor rather than our required goal node G. From A we look at its children nodes B and C. Since C has the lowest step cost, it traverses through node C. Then we look at the successors of C, i.e., D and G. Since the cost to D is low, we expand along with node D. Since D has only one child G which is our required goal state we finally reach the goal state D by implementing UFS Algorithm. If we have traversed this way, definitely our total path cost from S to G is just 6 even after traversing through many nodes rather than going to G directly where the cost is 12 and 6<<12(in terms of step cost). But this may not work with all cases.
Uniform cost search is an optimal search method because at every state, the path with the least cost is chosen.
It does not care about the number of steps or finding the shortest path involved in the search problem, and it is only concerned about path cost. This algorithm may be stuck in an infinite loop.
Complete: Yes (if b is finite and costs are stepped, costs are zero)
Space complexity: O(b(c/ϵ))
Optimal: Yes (even for non-even cost)Depth Limited Search (DLS)
DLS is an uninformed search algorithm. This is similar to DFS but differs only in a few ways. The sad failure of DFS is alleviated by supplying a depth-first search with a predetermined depth limit. That is, nodes at depth are treated as if they have no successors. This approach is called a depth-limited search. The depth limit solves the infinite-path problem. Depth-limited search can be halted in two cases:
Standard Failure Value (SFV): The SFV tells that there is no solution to the problem.
Cutoff Failure Value (CFV): The Cutoff Failure Value tells that there is no solution within the given depth limit.
The above figure illustrates the implementation of the DLS algorithm. Node A is at Limit = 0, followed by nodes B, C, D, and E at Limit = 1 and nodes F, G, and H at Limit = 2. Our start state is considered to be node A, and our goal state is node H. To reach node H, we apply DLS. So in the first case, let’s set our limit to 0 and search for the goal.
Since limit 0, the algorithm will assume that there are no children after limit 0 even if nodes exist further. Now, if we implement it, we will traverse only node A as there is only one node in limit 0, which is basically our goal state. If we use SFV, it says there is no solution to the problem at limit 0, whereas LCV says there is no solution for the problem until the set depth limit. Since we could not find the goal, let’s increase our limit to 1 and apply DFS till limit 1, even though there are further nodes after limit 1. But those nodes aren’t expanded as we have set our limit as 1.
Hence nodes A, followed by B, C, D, and E, are expanded in the mentioned order. As in our first case, if we use SFV, it says there is no solution to the problem at limit 1, whereas LCV says there is no solution for the problem until the set depth limit 1. Hence we again increase our limit from 1 to 2 in the notion to find the goal.
Till limit 2, DFS will be implemented from our start node A and its children B, C, D, and E. Then from E, it moves to F, similarly backtracks the path, and explores the unexplored branch where node G is present. It then retraces the path and explores the child of C, i.e., node H, and then we finally reach our goal by applying DLS Algorithm. Suppose we have further successors of node F but only the nodes till limit 2 will be explored as we have limited the depth and have reached the goal state.
This image explains the DLS implementation and could be referred to for better understanding.
Depth-limited search can be terminated with two Conditions of failure:
Standard Failure: it indicates that the problem does not have any solutions.
Cutoff Failure Value: It defines no solution for the problem within a given depth limit.
Depth-limited search is Memory efficient.
Space complexity: O(bl)Iterative Deepening Depth First Search (IDDFS)
It is a search algorithm that uses the combined power of the BFS and DFS algorithms. It is iterative in nature. It searches for the best depth in each iteration. It performs the Algorithm until it reaches the goal node. The algorithm is set to search until a certain depth and the depth keeps increasing at every iteration until it reaches the goal state.
In the above figure, let’s consider the goal node to be G and the start state to be A. We perform our IDDFS from node A. In the first iteration, it traverses only node A at level 0. Since the goal is not reached, we expand our nodes, go to the next level, i.e., 1 and move to the next iteration. Then in the next iteration, we traverse the node A, B, and C. Even in this iteration, our goal state is not reached, so we expand the node to the next level, i.e., 2, and the nodes are traversed from the start node or the previous iteration and expand the nodes A, B, C, and D, E, F, G. Even though the goal node is traversed, we go through for the next iteration, and the remaining nodes A, B, D, H, I, E, C, F, K, and G(BFS & DFS) too are explored, and we find the goal state in this iteration. This is the implementation of the IDDFS Algorithm.
It combines the benefits of BFS and DFS search algorithms in terms of fast search and memory efficiency.
The main drawback of IDDFS is that it repeats all the work from the previous phase.
Complete: Yes (by limiting the depth)
Time Complexity: O(bd)
Space complexity: O(bd)
Optimal: Yes (if step cost is uniform)
Systematic: It’s not systematic.Bidirectional Search (BS)
Before moving into bidirectional search, let’s first understand a few terms.
Forward Search: Looking in front of the end from the start.
Backward Search: Looking from end to the start backward.
So Bidirectional Search, as the name suggests, is a combination of forwarding and backward search. Basically, if the average branching factor going out of node / fan-out, if fan-out is less, prefer forward search. Else if the average branching factor going into a node/fan-in is less (i.e., fan-out is more), prefer backward search. We must traverse the tree from the start node and the goal node, and wherever they meet, the path from the start node to the goal through the intersection is the optimal solution. The BS Algorithm is applicable when generating predecessors is easy in both forward and backward directions, and there exist only 1 or fewer goal states.
This figure provides a clear-cut idea of how BS is executed. We have node 1 as the start/root node and node 16 as the goal node. The algorithm divides the search tree into two sub-trees. So from the start of node 1, we do a forward search, and at the same time, we do a backward search from goal node 16. The forward search traverses nodes 1, 4, 8, and 9, whereas the backward search traverses through nodes 16, 12, 10, and 9. We see that both forward and backward search meets at node 9, called the intersection node. So the total path traced by forwarding search and the path traced by backward search is the optimal solution. This is how the BS Algorithm is implemented.
Since BS uses various techniques like DFS, BFS, DLS, etc., it is efficient and requires less memory.
Implementation of the bidirectional search tree is difficult.
Time Complexity: O(bd/2)
Space complexity: O(bd/2)
Optimal: Yes (if step cost is uniform in both forward and backward directions)Final Interpretations
The Uninformed Search strategy for searching is a multipurpose strategy that combines the power of unguided search and works in a brute-force way. The algorithms of this strategy can be applied to a variety of problems in computer science as they don’t have the information related to state space and target problems, and they do not know how to traverse trees.Conclusion
This is the complete analysis of all the Uninformed Search Strategies. Each search algorithm is no less than the other, and we can use any one of the search strategies based on the problem. The term ‘uninformed’ means that they do not have any additional information about states or state space. Thus we conclude “uninformed algorithm” is an algorithm that doesn’t use any prior knowledge or heuristics to solve a problem.
Uninformed algorithms are used in search problems, where the goal is to find a solution by exploring a large search space.
Uninformed algorithms are often simple to implement and can be effective in solving certain problems, but they may also be less efficient than informed algorithms that use heuristics to guide their search.Frequently Asked Questions
Q1. What is an uninformed search algorithm in AI?
A. In the context of AI uninformed search algorithm is a type of search algorithm that is used to traverse a search space without the knowledge or heuristics about the problem being solved by it.
Q2. What are the types of uninformed search algorithms?
A. Types of uninformed search algorithms are Depth First Search, Breadth-First Search, Depth Limited Search, Uniform Cost Search, Iterative Deepening Depth First Search, and Bidirectional Search.
Q3. What is the difference between uninformed and informed search algorithms?
A. The difference between uninformed and informed search algorithms is that informed search algorithms use additional knowledge or heuristics to guide the search process, while uninformed search algorithms do not use any additional information.
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