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After defining requirements, development team kick starts their design and development process while Testing team start designing tests that can be executed once the build is deployed.

Success of any product depends on the testing processes and the quality of testing that is being carried out. A Good Test Plan results in a bug free product.

ALM supports maintenance and execution of manual, automation and performance tests as ALM is seamlessly integrated with all HP products such as HP UFT and HP Load Runner.

In this tutorial you will learn

How to Create Test Plan

Step 1 ) Similar to requirements, let us create a placeholder/folder for each one of the test types such as Functional and Non Functional.

Step 2) The created folder would be displayed as shown below.

Step 3) Similarly let us creates subfolders for ‘Manual’ and ‘Automated’ Tests under ‘Functional’ Folder. Hence the Final Folder Structure will be as shown below:

Note: We will NOT be able to create automated test scripts/Performance test scripts from ALM; instead it has to be created from respective HP tools such as UFT for functional and Load runner for performance. It is then saved into ALM so that they can be scheduled, executed, monitored and reported.

Step 4) It would be better to create a New folder for each one of the modules of the application so that we don’t dump all manual tests in one folder. For Complex applications there would be thousands of tests which would be difficult to handle if they are not aligned properly.

Step 6) Enter the following details for creating the new test successfully.

Enter the New test Name

Enter the Type of the Test. In this case it is ‘Manual’ Test.

User can also enter other non-mandatory fields such as date, Description as shown below.

Step 7) Once the test is created, the created test will appear under the ‘Manual’ tests folder with other tabs generated as shown below. Let us discuss each one of these tabs in details in upcoming steps.

Enter the Step Name

Enter the Step Description

Enter the Expected Result

Step 9) Repeat the Step#6 and enter all the relevant steps to test the functionality. After creating all the required steps, ‘Design Steps’ tab displays all the created steps as shown below.

Step 10) Parameters, helps the user to assign a value to a variable that allows the user to execute the same test with different sets of data. In this case, the user name and password can be two parameters which would be assigned with a value. We will understand the importance of having parameters while test execution which will be dealt in Test Lab module.

Now, Let us see how to create parameters.

Select the test step against which we would like to add the parameter.

Step 12) The test parameter details dialog opens.

Enter the parameter name

Assign a Value to the Parameter

Step 13)

The ‘parameters’ dialog is displayed back to the user

With the created variable

The value

Step 14) Now we can notice that the parameter is added in the ‘Test Step’ itself as shown below.

Repeat the same for password field as well.

Similarly, create parameter for Password Filed

Step 15) The created parameters can be viewed/edited in the parameters tab. This dialog also helps us to create, delete the parameters associated with the tests.

Step 16) The attachment tab allows the user to upload any type of file such as ‘xls’, ‘jpg’ etc.

Step 17) The test configuration helps us to reuse the test for different use case scenarios. Let us understand how to work with test configurations with an example. By default there is a test configuration that is specified as that of test name.

Note: We CANNOT delete the default test configuration but we can edit the same.

Step 18) Let us say the login functionality can be performed by three types of business users such as ‘helpdesk’, ‘manager’ and ‘cluster head’.

Let us rename the default test configuration to ‘helpdesk’ by editing the name field of the ‘Test Configuration’.

Step 20) The ‘New test Configuration’ dialog opens up.

Enter the Test configuration name

Enter other non-mandatory parameters such as ‘created by’ , ‘creation date’, ‘description’

Step 21) Repeat the same step as above to create one more test configuration for ‘cluster head’ and the entire test configuration will be displayed to the user as shown below. This will allow the testers to execute the same test individually against all the created configurations during test execution which will result in no rewriting of tests.

Test Configuration should NOT be confused with test parameters. Hence we should understand the difference between parameter and test configurations. The Parameters are used to create variable and assign values for a specific step (parameterizing the test) while test configuration is applicable for all the steps and generally used to test different business use cases/Workflow. During Execution users can change values of the created parameters while a Test Case is executed for the selected configuration.

For Example, An online bill payment Application, user can select the payment mode. In case of ‘Credit Card’ Payments, user can either select master card, visa or American express. Each one of those having its own customer reward points. In order to test it, we can design a test such that each one of them are added into test configurations to verify the reward points.

Step 22) The ‘Req Coverage’ Tab helps the testers to map the test against a particular requirement(s) which helps users to generate coverage and traceability.

Select the ‘Requirement’ which should be mapped against this particular test case

Step 24) History tab shows the list of changes made over time against this particular test case right from time of creating the test.

Uploading Tests:

Sometimes, user won’t be creating test cases manually as it is pretty much time consuming process. Most Organizations develop manual tests in Excel and upload into ALM in bulk rather than creating each manual tests one by one. In order to facilitate uploading into ALM, HP has come up with an Addin with which the user can upload from MS excel/MS Word directly. Let us understand the step by step procedure to upload requirements into QC from Excel.

How to Upload Tests using Microsoft Excel

Step 1) Before uploading the tests from excel, we need to prepare the Excel such that it can be uploaded.

Select the Fields that you wish to upload into ALM and create a header in Excel for those fields.

Enter a valid data in each one of those fields as shown below.

Step 6) Select the type of data that we would like to upload. In this case, it is tests. We will also upload Defects in the upcoming chapters.

The left pane grid items that are listed correspond to the fields that are available for upload in HP ALM. Please note that the fields marked in ‘RED’ should be mapped as they are mandatory fields.

The right pane grid items refer to the fields that are mapped so that values in Excel will flow into those corresponding fields of ALM.

Step 9) Now let us understand how to map the fields in Excel against the fields in ALM.

    Enter the column name in Excel that corresponds to the appropriate column name in HP ALM.

      Step 10) Upon successful upload, ALM displays the message as shown below. If errors appear please fix the issue and try re-uploading the same.

      Some of the common errors are listed below :

      The Subject/Path is invalid/unavailable or NOT mapped by the user.

      The Field ‘Test Type’ has a value other than Manual. Automated tests CANNOT be uploaded using Excel.

      Test Name field is Empty or NOT Mapped.

      Status shouldn’t have values other than Design, ready, Imported, Repair.

      Step 11) Now let us verify the same under ‘Tests’ Tab. All the test details are uploaded as shown below.

      How to create Test Resources

      The Test Resources enables users to manage resources that are usually picked up by automated/performance tests. Users can upload the script which can be used by one or more tests. They can also be downloaded/edited and uploaded back again into test resources.

      Let us see how we can make use of Test Resources module effectively. This module is demonstrated by uploading the same excel file into test resources that we used for importing the tests from excel into ALM.

      Upload of Test Case excel is recommended so that we can edit the tests whenever required and re-upload only the modified test cases. It is also easy to add new tests and upload just the newly added tests.

      However we can also upload other types of files such as .xls, .vbs, .qfl etc.

      Step 1) Navigate to Test Resources module as shown below. The test resources module page opens.

      Step 3) The folder is created as shown below.

      Step 4) Similarly let us create two more folders viz – Automation and Performance. After Creating a folder for each one of the test resources, the final folder structure will be as shown below:

      Step 5) Let us create a New test resource by uploading the excel file that we have created for writing manual tests which were uploaded into ALM. Select the folder where user would like to upload the test resource.

      Step 7) Upon creating the test resource, now we need to upload the resource so that it is available under ‘Resource Viewer’ Tab which will be used across tests.

      Step 8) After uploading the file, the Status will be shown to the user and it will be available for download.

      Note: The Following types of Test Resources are uploaded that can be used for executing the automated tests.


      Environmental Variables

      Function Libraries

      Recovery Scenarios

      Shared Object Repository

      Video on Test Plan

      key takeaways:-

      You will use the Test Plan module in QualityCenter to design and create your test cases/scripts.

      You can link your Tests in Test Plan Module with Requirements in the Requirement Module for easy tracking.

      QualityCenter provides many a features like copying test steps , emailing scripts for review , adding attachments etc. to facilitate faster development of test cases.

      You're reading Test Plan Module In Hp Alm (Quality Center) Tutorial

      Coded Ui Test Automation Framework Tutorial

      A typical software automation Testing requires automation tools like Selenium and QTP. Coded UI is similar to these tools and can be particularly useful for functional tests.

      Coded UI Test ( CUIT) uses Visual Studio IDE to write scripts, as the recording can be done using Visual Studio.

      In this Coded UI tutorial for beginners, you will learn-

      What is Coded UI Test?

      Coded UI Test (CUIT) is an automated test that drives applications through its user interface (UI). Hence, the name Coded UI Test (CUIT). This test involves functional testing of the UI controls. It checks the functionality of the whole application, including the user interface. It is also used to automate an existing manual test.

      UI Test Architecture

      Coded UI Test Features

      Coded UI features include

      Functional Testing

      Generate code in VB/C#

      Integrated with ALM story

      Build, deploy & test in the lab or as part of a build

      Local, remote runs, data collection

      Rich Extensibility

      Intent-aware recording and resilient playback

      Coded UI Test (CUIT) Supported Technologies

      With coded UI, an application which has UI (User Interface) can be easily tested. The application can be either window based or web based.

      Coded UI supports technologies like

      Window based desktop applications

      Web Services (SOAP, ASPX, etc.)

      Window phone applications

      WPF (Windows Presentation Foundation)

      Web applications (HTML, Silverlight, HTML5)

      Why use coded UI for Test Automation

      The reason why coded UI for test automation is preferred

      Developers and Software Testers can collaborate effectively using the same tools/language.

      It supports both web as well as Windows projects.

      The element identification mechanism is a great feature in Coded UI. Also, it supports synchronization

      The Playback Engine supports features such as ‘WaitForControlExist’ , ‘WaitForReadyLevel’, etc

      With the help of ‘Tests Agents,’ automation tests can be run on remote machines

      Automation teams can develop sophisticated tests, using coded UI with a layered framework

      Software testers can capture exceptions and record the result effectively utilizing log4net.dll

      Coded UI tool supports descriptive programming. It allows software testers to automate scenarios based on object properties

      It supports AJAX controls.

      How to Create Coded UI Tests (CUIT)

      To create coded UI tests you can do it in following ways.

      Generating from an Existing Action Recording ( converting from manual test recording)

      Creating a new coded UI test from scratch

      Writing code from scratch

      Contents of a Coded UI Test

      When you create a coded UI test, the coded UI test builder creates a Map. This includes UI under test, test methods, parameters, assertions, etc. For each test, it also creates a class file.

      File Content Editable

      UIMap.Designer.cs Declaration section UIMap Class Methods Properties No

      UIMap.cs UIMap class (partial) Yes

      CodedUITest1.cs CodeUITest1 class Methods Properties Yes

      UIMap.uitest The XML map of the UI for the test. It is edited only through UI Map editor No

      chúng tôi : The designer contains the code view of the UIMap. It is generated when a tester records some UI interaction or when some objects are added manually to the UIMap.

      chúng tôi : Any modification or customization done to the UIMap is stored in this file. Initially, this file will be blank and can be populated later on. If modifications are directly made to the chúng tôi file, make sure it is not recorded otherwise all changes will be lost.

      chúng tôi : This file contains coded UI test class, test methods, assertion invocation and method invocation. All assertion and methods are by default invoked from this file.

      UIMap.uitest: It is an XML representation of the UIMap class. It includes windows, controls, properties, methods, actions and assertions. It is edited only through UI Map editor

      Next in this Coded UI tutorial, we will learn how to perform Coded UI automation test.

      How to Perform Coded UI Test

      Coded UI has two different ways to conduct a test for your application.

      Coded UI Record and Playback or

      Coded UI Hand coding

      You have to follow the following step to perform Coded UI testing,

      Create a CodedUI test project

      Add a coded UI test file

      Record a sequence of actions

      Verify the values in UI fields such as text boxes

      View the generated test code

      Add more actions and assertions

      Edit the details of the test activities and the assertions

      Run the test

      Best Practices for Coded UI Test (CUIT)

      Here are some best practices for a Coded UI test automation framework:

      Use the Coded UI automation Test Builder whenever possible

      Try not to modify the chúng tôi file directly. Otherwise, the changes you made to the file will be overwritten

      Create your test as a sequence of recorded methods

      Each recorded method should act on a single page, form or dialog box. Also, create a new test method for each new form, page or dialog box

      When you create a method, instead of the default name use a meaningful method name. A meaningful name helps identify the purpose of the method

      If possible, limit each recorded method to less than 10 actions. This approach makes it easier to replace a method if the UI changes.

      To create assertion use CodedUI test builder. It automatically adds an assertion method to the chúng tôi file.

      Re-record the test methods/ assertion methods, if the user interfaces changes or re-records the affected sections of an existing test method.

      If you are directly coding with the API, use the methods and properties in the classes created in the chúng tôi file. These classes will make your work more reliable and easier, and will help you to be more productive.

      Comparison of Coded UI Test Vs Selenium Vs QTP

      Below is the comparison table of Coded UI Vs Selenium Vs QTP:

      Selenium does not support any WPF as well as Windows applications

      Visual Studio CodedUI supports the Window store application testing as well as Window Phone application testing. No other tools support this.

      Test complete does support Window Application but requires a plugin to be installed.

      Comparison of Coded UI Test Vs Selenium Vs QTP


      Automated tests that drive your application through its user interface (UI) are known as CodedUI tests (CUITs).

      Coded UI test automation framework supports technologies like Web Services, Window phone applications, Web applications, etc.

      Coded UI Testing allows developers and Software testers to collaborate effectively using the same tools/language

      Contents or a file created while using CodedUI includes





      Mac Media Center – Setup Any Mac As A Media Center Easily

      You can setup virtually any Mac as a home theater media center, all you need is the right tools. Yes, that means your MacBook Pro, MacBook, Mac Mini, iMac, even Mac Pro, can all turn into a media center, and it’s a lot easier than you might think.

      For the purpose of this article, we are going to assume you have an HDTV that supports HDMI input, and, preferably a Mac that supports HDMI output with audio (for Mac’s that don’t support direct HDMI output with audio, read on anyway there is a solution for you too). When you are finished with this article, you will be able to have a complete Mac Media Center hooked up to your TV, creating an awesome home theater, and you’ll be able to control the whole thing wirelessly from your couch.

      Setting up a Mac Media Center

      Here’s what you’ll need to setup a media center with your Mac:

      HDTV that accepts HDMI input

      Mac that supports video/audio output (newer Mac models that support full HDMI highly recommended, the New Mac Mini is perfect)

      HDMI cable (and/or other appropriate cables if your Mac doesn’t support direct HDMI out)

      Apple Remote Control

      Apple Wireless Keyboard and Apple Wireless Mouse – these are optional but highly recommended if you want to browse the web and play games on your media center

      Plex – Plex is arguably the best media center software solution and runs right on top of Mac OS X as an application. It’s got a beautiful interface, vast media support, and is free to download. What’s not to love?

      Step 1) Get the proper Video Output Adapters

      So first things first, get your cable situation squared away. Newer Mac’s support full HDMI out with audio and video carried over the same cable, but on many models you’ll still need an adapter. For instance, my MacBook Pro 2010 model only needs a Mini DisplayPort to HDMI adapter

      and a standard HDMI cable, because it supports full HDMI output. The new 2010 Mac Mini supports direct HDMI output with no additional cables at all, so you’d only need an HDMI cable.

      and a standard HDMI cable, because it supports full HDMI output. The new 2010 Mac Mini supports direct HDMI output with no additional cables at all, so you’d only need an HDMI cable.

      Your cable requirements are going to vary from machine to machine, so determine which output adapter is needed for your Mac.

      Step 2) Download and Install Plex Media Center Software

      Plex is really great media center software that runs right on top of Mac OS X.

      Features of Plex Media Server include:

      Easily catalogue, organize, and access all of your media files: movies, music, pictures, etc, directly within Plex

      Automatically download movie, TV show, and album artwork, episode information, IMDB ratings, and more

      Plays HD video content nearly flawlessly

      Plug-in video support for Hulu, Netflix, Youtube, MTV, Vimeo, and more

      Diverse codec support for various video and audio file types

      Interface is completely skinable allowing you to change the appearance to another theme that fits your setup, TV, or preferences

      Subtitle support for foreign language movies

      Shoutcast stream support and awesome visualizers for music

      Weather updates for whatever regions you specify (it will automatically detect one by default)

      RSS feeds support

      Works with the Apple Remote, Wireless Keyboard, or Wireless Mouse

      Support for hardware accelerated H.264 video playback on Nvidia 9400M, GT320M, GT330M chipsets

      As you can see Plex is full featured, and that’s exactly why we’re using it for our Mac Media Center. If there is an app that is easier to use and as full featured as Plex, I haven’t found it yet. Setting it up is an absolute breeze.

      How to setup Plex:

      Download the latest version of Plex

      Drag the app to your Applications folder

      Launch Plex

      Let it sync with your Apple Remote (it may want to install 3rd party drivers as a bug fix, no problem)

      Using your keyboard (or Apple Remote), navigate and select your Video source destination (directory, hard drive, whatever)

      Watch movies, TV shows, play music, whatever

      Yes, it’s that easy, seriously. Plex will automatically pull your music library from iTunes too, so there’s practically no setup.

      Here’s a screenshot of the media browser interface:

      Step 3) Connect your Mac Media Center to your TV

      This step is pretty straight forward, you just need to be sure you have the proper cables. For for the sake of this tutorial we’ll pretend we have a new 2010 Mac Mini, all this machine requires is an HDMI cable to connect from the Mini to an HDMI port on your TV.

      Step 4) Enjoy your Mac Media Center!

      Once you have Plex running and your Mac connected to the TV, that’s all you have to do! Now it’s time to sit back and enjoy your media center. You can also further customize Plex by downloading additional plugins, you can access these directly through the Plex application.

      So that’s it. Now for some Questions and Answers…

      How do I browse the web or play games on my Mac media center?

      Just quit out of Plex and launch Safari or a game. Once your Mac is connected to your TV, the TV is basically a large external monitor for the Mac, so you can treat it as such and play virtually any game, browse the web, or anything else you’d otherwise use a Mac for.

      Why just focus the media center on newer Macs with HDMI out?

      The reason we recommend newer Mac’s that support full HDMI video/audio exporting is just ease of setup. In fact, you can setup the exact same media center on a Mac that doesn’t support full HDMI output, you’ll just need additional items. What can be done with just an HDMI cable on newer Mac’s requires additional cables to perform the same task on an older Mac; for example, an older Mac might need a mini-DVI to DVI adapter, than a DVI to HDMI adapter, plus the HDMI cable, plus an additional AUX cable to output audio. The exact requirements will depend on your Mac model but it’s not complicated as long as you know what you need. In other words, if you have an older Mac, don’t get discouraged, just get the right adapters and the rest of this guide works the same for your media center too!

      My Mac doesn’t export HDMI, what can I do?

      If your Mac doesn’t support direct HDMI output, you can use a DVI to HDMI adapter to still output to HDMI, just remember that you will need an additional cable to carry the audio signal from your audio output jack to audio input on the TV, since DVI does not transmit audio.

      Additional Mac Media Center resources

      Mac Mini Media Center – a guide exclusively for setting up a media center on your Mac Mini, complete with remote torrents support and a webserver

      Rip DVD’s on your Mac – what media center is complete without media to watch? Rip your DVD’s and watch them from your Mac hard drive


      How To Plan For Success In 2023

      We’ve all heard the saying, “Prepare for the worst and hope for the best.” But what if rather than just hoping for the best, we planned for it?

      Yes, you should have a contingency plan in place, but what about if things go right? Julian Placino, a podcaster, recruiter, and keynote speaker, talked to us last year about how, so often, we plan for failure but fail to plan for success. What things do you need to have in place to secure your success and reach your biggest, boldest goals?

      We thought this was a perfect topic to tackle as we enter a new year (and a new decade!). It’s a time to start fresh. You might have some New Year’s resolutions around your business, your marketing, and your own personal development. So, while you’re kicking off those resolutions, why not plan for the success of this year?

      Here’s how to go about it.

      Define Success for Yourself

      The first step to planning for success is defining what success means to you. The answer will be different for each and every one of us. But, the only way to plan for your own idea of success is to know what it looks like.

      Do you want to grow a global business or become the most beloved local institution in your hometown? Do you want to do work that helps save the environment or empowers a minority group? Does your dream work scenario leave you ample time to travel the world?

      Doing a blue-sky exercise, where you get a clear idea of what success looks like to you, helps you to get clear about the steps you’ll need to take to get there.

      Think Realistically About What that Success Means

      It’s important to determine what success can look like in all parts of your business and have a plan in place for if and when that happens. Are you accepting applications now to expand your team if you need more hands on deck? Do you have a lead management system to track all the contacts coming in? Do you know what your business can realistically handle? These are all things to think about when planning for success.

      Get Your Network in Place

      The best way to achieve your goals is to ensure you have a solid support network in place. This can mean everyone from mentors, who have been in your shoes and can offer guidance and inspiration, to a great group of employees, to your closest family and friends, who are there to cheer you on from the sidelines.

      It truly does take a village to start, grow, and run a successful business. If you don’t have a network of supporters to help challenge your ideas, support your goals, and offer the resources you need to get it all done, then you’re making the journey that much more difficult for yourself.

      Turn to Your Network for Collaboration & Challenges

      Once you have your network in place, you want to lean on them. Ask them for their input. Collaboration is a key part of getting big ideas off the ground.

      If you want to launch a new product but aren’t sure how to set up the appropriate supply chain, reach out to your network for suggestions, connections, and information. So much of building a successful business is about asking for help. You’ll never get it if you don’t ask for it.

      You also want to make sure you’ve assembled a network that will challenge your ideas. You could think your new product is the greatest thing since sliced bread, but maybe one of your mentors or employees sees a potential roadblock. Don’t fear opposing viewpoints; encourage them.

      The best ideas go through multiple iterations before getting to a good place. Ask your network to be honest and share their real reservations about your plans. That’s how you’ll create your best work.

      Create Structure for Your Days

      When you’re an entrepreneur, you’re often pulled in a million directions. It can be easy to let the day run you rather than the other way around. But creating a structured approach to your activities gives you more control and agency, and it allows you to make time for those projects that are the most important to you.

      Set aside blocks of time for accomplishing those tasks that are integral to accomplishing your goals. Establish times for yourself where you are solely focused on those projects, and treat those calendar blocks as sacred. Don’t let them become overrun by client calls, extra meetings, or other distractions.

      Make Time for Yourself

      Your business is your baby. You want to give it all of your time and attention so that it has the greatest shot at success. But it’s also important for you to create time to take care of yourself.

      The entrepreneurial lifestyle is often exhausting and non-stop. Unfortunately, even if you’re the world’s greatest entrepreneur, you’re still only human. You need to be sure you’re making time to get the rest and exercise your body needs. Make time to do yoga, go for a run, or enjoy a glass of wine with friends or family.

      Running a business is about embracing failure and making mistakes. But when you focus on achieving success, rather than planning for failure, you put yourself in a position where you can be proactive about building the best version of your business.

      Related Articles

      How Podcasts can Make You a Happier, More Productive Business Owner

      How You Can Beat the Downside of Business Ownership & Entrepreneurship

      3 Steps for Using Data to Make Your Business More Efficient

      Stephanie Heitman

      Stephanie is the Associate Director of Content for LocaliQ and WordStream. She has over 10 years of experience in content and social media marketing and loves writing about all things digital marketing. When she’s not researching the latest and greatest marketing news and updates, she’s probably watching reality TV with her husband, reading, or playing with her two pups.

      Other posts by Stephanie Heitman

      Difference Between Antibody Test And Pcr Test

      Testing has use beyond only establishing whether or not a person has a virus. After a virus has been identified, its severity must be assessed to decide whether or not hospitalisation is necessary. Diagnostic tests and antibody tests are two types of testing. Molecular testing and antigen tests are two subsets of diagnostic procedures. Therefore, PCR tests are classified as a type of molecular test that looks for viral DNA. Blood antibody testing are one method of monitoring antibody levels.

      What is Antibody Test?

      Immunoglobulins, also known as gamma globulin proteins, are the building blocks of antibodies. Vertebrate blood and other bodily fluids include antibodies. They aid vertebrate immune systems in recognising and eliminating pathogens. This is why detecting antibodies in the blood is what an antibody test does. The human body naturally generates antibodies for self-defense, however vaccination may be used to artificially increase antibody production.

      Testing for certain antibodies in the blood can reveal whether or not a person has been exposed to a particular virus or infection. The test only reveals whether or not the subject was previously infected, not whether or not they are now sick. A previous infection with SARS-CoV-2, for instance, is evidenced by a positive result for COVID-19 antibodies.

      What is PCR Test?

      Monitoring gene expression, determining the number of food-borne pathogens, determining the amount of a virus, and making a clinical diagnosis are just few of the many uses for the powerful molecular test known as polymerase chain reaction (or PCR). In vitro PCR is a laboratory technique for the enzymatic production of targeted DNA sequences.

      Differences: Antibody Test and PCR Test

      The following table highlights the major differences between Antibody Test and PCR Test −


      Antibody Test

      PCR Test


      The antibody test and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test are the gold standards for determining whether or not a patient has contracted a virus. These two methodologies have continued to dominate COVID-19 testing even after the current coronavirus epidemic.

      In contrast to tests that rely on antibodies or the body’s immunological response, polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) may detect the presence of antigens directly.


      A history of infection can be deduced from a blood antibody test. Due to the fact that antibodies are usually produced by the body a few days after an infection, rather than before, this test cannot be used to detect whether or not a person is currently sick.

      However, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test is a diagnostic tool for identifying infections in their earliest stages, before antibodies have had time to build. In vitro PCR is a laboratory technique for the enzymatic production of targeted DNA sequences.

      To detect the presence of a virus, it first multiplies a small section of DNA many times over (by the millions or billions) before analysing the results.


      Tests for antibodies in the blood can reveal whether or not a person has been infected with a particular virus or other infection in the past.

      The method identifies the virus indirectly by examining the body’s defences against it.

      DNA polymerase is an enzyme that causes DNA to duplicate in cycles, and this is what a PCR test does to amplify a specific section of DNA.

      The test looks for the virus’s genetic material in a fluid sample taken from the nose or throat passages.


      Antibodies play an important role in the immune system by assisting in the detection and destruction of invading pathogens. Detecting antibodies in the blood is what an antibody test does.

      The PCR test provides definitive results, allowing for the isolation of infected individuals to prevent the spread of the virus.

      Root Cause Analysis And Corrective Action In Quality Management

      Quality management is essential for ensuring customer satisfaction and business success. It involves setting quality standards, developing processes to meet those standards, monitoring performance against them, and taking corrective action when needed.

      Quality management can also help reduce costs by reducing waste, rework, and errors in production or service delivery. By creating a culture of continuous improvement throughout the organization, quality management can lead to increased efficiency gains over time which results in greater profitability for the company.

      CA focuses on implementing appropriate solutions to prevent similar issues from occurring in the future. Ultimately, these tools enable organizations to create more efficient processes, reduce risk, and improve overall performance by identifying areas of improvement.

      By using detailed data-driven analysis to determine what went wrong and why it happened, RCA provides powerful insights into how best to solve current problems while preventing new ones from arising in the future.

      With this information at hand, corrective action can then be taken quickly with confidence that it will result in improved outcomes over time.

      Root Cause Analysis (RCA) Definition of RCA and its Purpose

      RCA stands for root cause analysis, which is a problem-solving method used to identify the underlying causes of problems and incidents. The process involves breaking down complex issues into smaller components so that each can be analyzed in more detail.

      Once the root causes are identified, they can be addressed by implementing corrective actions or preventive measures. This allows organizations to find solutions efficiently and prevent similar incidents from occurring in the future.

      Additionally, RCA provides valuable insight into how systems work together and influences decisions about how those systems should be designed or optimized in order to improve performance and reduce costs.

      RCA Process and Steps

      The RCA process includes the following steps −

      Problem Identification − This is the initial step in which you identify the problem and its root causes. You need to collect data from multiple sources such as interviews, surveys, inspections, etc., in order to accurately identify the problem at hand.

      Analyze Data − Once you have identified the problem, you need to perform data analysis in order to properly diagnose it and determine potential solutions. You can use techniques such as Cause & Effect Diagrams, Fishbone Diagrams, etc., for this purpose and also conduct stakeholder meetings with subject matter experts who can provide insights into possible solutions based on their experience/expertise in similar scenarios.

      Develop Solutions − In this phase, you evaluate various options available for solving the issue at hand while considering factors like cost-effectiveness & feasibility of implementation along with technical considerations associated with each option before deciding upon one solution path forward that gives maximum benefit at minimum cost & effort invested over a given timeframe.

      Common Tools and Techniques Used in RCA

      Brainstorming is a process used to generate ideas by encouraging open discussion among members of the RCA team. QFD helps prioritize customer needs in order to focus on the most important issues when conducting an RCA. FMEA helps identify potential failures before they occur and is usually completed during product development.

      FTA maps out all possible causes for an incident or problem, allowing the RCA team to determine the root cause more quickly and accurately.

      Lastly, cause-and-effect diagrams are graphical representations that help reveal causal relationships between factors related to an event or situation under investigation.

      RCA Team Roles and Responsibilities

      Team roles can include Decision Maker, Facilitator, Researcher, Writer/Editor, Technical Expert, and Liaison. The decision maker is responsible for making decisions on behalf of the group; this person has the final say in what happens with the project.

      Corrective Action (CA) Definition of CA and its Purpose

      Corrective Action (CA) is defined as any action taken to identify and correct the cause of a non-conformance or potential non-conformance from a quality system. The purpose of corrective actions is to prevent a recurrence, determine the root cause, improve processes, and in general help maintain the desired level of quality.

      It involves analyzing data collected during monitoring activities such as inspections, audits, and surveys; identifying undesired variations between actual performance and expected results; determining what caused those variations; implementing solutions that reduce or eliminate the causes; documenting corrective action plans; managing implementation plans effectively with appropriate resources; measuring the effectiveness of solutions applied by controlling key variables over time.

      CA Process and Steps

      It involves initially identifying, analyzing, and researching the issue in order to develop an action plan or corrective action that will be implemented with the objective of resolving it.

      The process should include steps such as determining which actions need to be taken, who is responsible for taking those actions, how long those actions should take, what resources are necessary for the successful completion of these tasks, and how progress can be tracked.

      Common Tools and Techniques Used in CA

      FMEA is a method for proactively eliminating potential problems before they occur, by analyzing possible causes of failure in the design process. Finally, Kaizen is an approach focused on continuous improvement through small incremental changes over time.

      CA helps businesses identify areas needing improvement or change, develop strategies to address those improvements and ensure that these strategies are implemented as intended with measurable results.

      The Role of RCA and CA in the Quality Management System

      They provide a comprehensive approach to quality, using statistical methods and tools to evaluate the processes involved in creating a product or service. RCA focuses on identifying the root causes of problems while CA helps identify solutions by correcting existing issues.

      Both teams work together to develop procedures and systems for controlling quality throughout the organization by monitoring production processes, evaluating customer feedback, and managing supplier relationships.

      This ensures that products are consistently produced at the highest possible level of quality while reducing costs associated with product defects and non-conformances. Ultimately, an effective Quality Management System allows businesses to produce higher-quality goods faster than their competitors while also providing customers with reliable products that meet their expectations every time.


      Root cause analysis and corrective action are essential parts of quality management. By identifying the root causes of problems, organizations can take appropriate remedial actions to prevent them from occurring in the future.

      Root cause analysis helps identify systemic issues that have caused a problem and which need to be addressed in order to ensure consistent quality across all processes.

      Corrective action then allows organizations to address these issues and implement measures that will maintain or improve product quality while minimizing time, money, and resources spent on addressing individual problems.

      Through this combination of proactive approaches, businesses can better manage their operations for improved performance outcomes.

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