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The hard drive is fast, and the router creates is capable with good range and throughput. You can’t set it up via Ehternet, but other than that, everything worked fine. After a firmware update.

With such a winning design idea, you’d think nailing the particulars would be easy. But as they say, the devil is in the details, and my satisfaction with the Stack was short-lived.

Setting it up

The Stack system consists of four modules, identical in their measurements at three inches wide and just under six inches long. Thickness varies from about a half inch to a full inch, depending on function. Said functions are storing data (a 1TB hard drive), providing a personal Wi-Fi network (an 802.11ac router), powering the stack and charging your devices (a battery), and making noise (a Bluetooth speaker).

The modules are priced at $220 for the router and hard drive combo, which acts as an ad hoc NAS box; $70 for the battery; and $100 for the Bluetooth speaker. Though the hard drive and router are sold as a package, they may also be used separately, as may the battery and speaker.

Once the Stack was configured and updated, everything worked. But I experienced several minor issues, starting with the setup. I know wireless is the go-to for most people, but there’s an Ethernet port on the router, so why can’t it be used it to configure the unit? It’s not that hard to dual-purpose (Internet and local) an Ethernet port. 

Instead I had to go grab my iPad, then when the iOS app failed because a required button wasn’t visible, I was forced to boot a Windows laptop to initialize the router. This involves connecting to the router’s hotspot, downloading and installing the Stack Assistant, creating passwords, then setting the whole thing to operate. If you operate from a laptop as a matter of course, you can pretty much ignore that gripe.

The Lenovo Stack Assitant helps you configure the router and work with files, and provides information on the status of the various modules.

I also have some quibbles with the design. Each module has a mating port on the top and bottom consisting of 14 exposed metal (magnetic) contacts. Fine. Except that the topmost port remains exposed. It’s kind of ugly, and when I laid some DVDs on top of it, the red light on top of the uppermost module started to blink. That’s Stack-speak for “I’m trying to join the stack now.” How about a cap to cover the uppermost port? Quibbling? Perhaps. Perhaps not.

I was also not particularly fond of the 10/100 Ethernet port’s position on the back side of router, when there’s room 90 degrees away on the end—where every other port on all four modules is located. If you’re making design a reason to buy, little things like cable clutter matter. Lenovo

Why Lenovo decided to put the Ethernet port on one side when all the other ports are 90 degrees away is anyone’s guess.

All those were mere annoyances, but there was one particularly vexing operational issue with the Stack—unless you completely isolate the battery, it drains very quickly. I’m not sure what kind of maintenance is required by the other modules, or if this is a bug, but I soon learned to keep the battery separate from the stack when it wasn’t in use, in which case there was no significant drain over the span of a week. A bit of a pain that.

Speaking of power, all four of the units may be powered and/or recharged individually via USB. The hard drive has a Standard-A USB 3.0 connector, while the other modules use micro-USB types.

Putting it to use

The big disappointment of the Stack is the Bluetooth speaker. There’s nothing wrong with it operationally, it just doesn’t sound good. Muddy with a dirty midrange sums it up. For phone calls, it’ll do—barely. For music? Forget it.

Note: The upper portion of the speaker enclosure acts like a coupled planar transducer that needs to be exposed at the top of the stack (forget the photos showing it in the middle). Otherwise it sounds even worse.


The side of the Stack with all of the ports, except for some reason, the Ethernet port, which is located on the side.

The performance of the Stack hard drive was a welcome return to quality. It managed about 125MBps reading and writing over USB 3.0, which is about what you’ll get from a good external drive from Seagate or WD.

You can use the drive as direct attached storage, but it’s also available as a network resource (and mapped automatically as a Windows drive) when you’re connected to the Stack router via Wi-Fi. The router runs on Linux, and you have to drill down a couple of layers to get to your files (DISKS/SDA1/…) but it’s actually formatted in NTFS.

The hard drive’s power state is controlled by the router so it doesn’t have its own power button. It also turns on automatically with USB, so that’s not an issue. In my first hands-on, the power light didn’t stay on, but that was fixed by a firmware upgrade.

I had no difficulty connecting to either the 2.4GHz or 5GHz bands of the Stack 802.11ac router. Range and throughput were both quite decent. The router may also serve as a bridge to another Wi-Fi network, though it still functions as an independent network—you can’t inherit the parent’s DHCP assignments or network resources.

3G and 4G dongles are supported via the router’s USB port, but the documentation only mentions types used in China. Lenovo said just about any module should work. Dial-up is also mentioned in the documentation, but the app doesn’t allude to USB modems. I can tell you that the Shark Leopard modem (yes, I know) that I keep around out of a sense of nostalgia didn’t register on the router’s radar. If 3G/4G/dial-up capabilities are important you, bug the company for more info. Maybe it’ll be more conscientious about detailing such things in the future.

Nicely, especially in light of the poor speaker sound, there’s a DLNA server on board. It’s labeled miniDLNA, which I’m guessing is because it only streams music. But it does supports a nice variety of audio file types including MP3, WMA, M4A, and even OGG.

Weighing in at 8.8 ounces, the power-cell battery is worthy of the name, providing a whopping 10,000mAh of juice that will keep the stack operating for a decent amount of time. If, as I said before, you detach the battery when you’re not using the stack.

As with other travel batteries, you can use it to charge your mobile devices. In this, case, two at a time via dual standard-sized USB Type-A ports.

A great concept that misses the mark

I like the Stack as a concept, and once I’d endured the pain of setting it up and debugging it, I enjoyed using it. But for $390, I’d like to see more attention to detail, documentation for the U.S., and much better sound. 

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Review: If You’re Bored Waiting For Airpower, Here Are Two Multi

Update: We’ve now received a number of reader complaints about this company, suggesting the company has not fulfilled crowdfunded orders ahead of public ones, and difficulties exchanging faulty products.

More than a year after Apple first announced its AirPower wireless charger, there’s still absolutely no sign of it. We’re all still using third-party wireless chargers with our iPhones.

There’s been a mix of encouraging and discouraging news of late. One pessimistic report said that Apple has hit problems with both overheating and coil interference, and may even end up abandoning the project altogether. On the plus side, though, AirPower is referenced in the iPhone XS packaging, and iOS 12.1 code shows that development is continuing for now at least.

But if you are fed up of waiting, I tried out a couple of third-party wireless chargers capable of charging three devices at once: the SliceCharge, and the Zens Dual+Watch – alongside a case that allows you to wirelessly charge your existing AirPods …

Let’s get the bad news out of the way first. The headline feature of AirPower is that you can place any device anywhere on the pad, and it will charge. Apple embeds a whole bunch of overlapping coils into the pad, so no matter where you position a device, it will be sitting over a coil and will charge. As we recently noted, nobody has yet pulled off this trick.

Which means that neither of the products we’re looking at here are true AirPower style devices. Instead, they are fitted with three charging coils, and you have to place your devices in the right place for them to charge.

The good news, however, is that I didn’t find this a problem in practice – and both wireless chargers are considerably cheaper than the $160-190 price tag AirPower is expected to carry.

SliceCharge costs $49.95, plus $19.95 for the optional ElectroLeather AirPods Wireless Charging case. Zens Dual+Watch works out at $126, but has a design that will work with all Apple Watch bands – in contrast to SliceCharge, which isn’t compatible with Link bracelets and anything other band that doesn’t open completely.

Look and feel

The SliceCharge is clearly designed to have a similar look to AirPower. Only more … existent. It’s a flat pad available in a choice of blue, red and white. It has a white flat cable running to the supplied 18W power adapter.

The pad has a fabric finish which the company says is non-scratch. The underside is plastic-coated, and the chassis itself is aluminum.

The Zens Dual+Watch also has an aluminum chassis, with a plastic base and a slightly rubbery non-scratch surface. The Apple Watch charger is on a stand, which makes it look a little fussier than the SliceCharge, but also more practical.

Power adapters

We’re very used these days to gadgets having USB ports for power. Most devices still have microUSB ports, while newer ones are gradually switching to USB-C.

I’m a huge fan of this, as it means that I can plug in pretty much anything at any of the points in my home where I might want to use them, thanks to a redundant array of inexpensive USB cables and a bunch of standard plug adapters or USB hub.

That isn’t practical with these wireless chargers, however. Because charging three devices simultaneously demands more power, each has its own power brick. The SliceCharge one is hard-wired, while the Zens one is an old-fashioned jack plug.

Both chargers support 7.5W fast charging.

The wireless chargers in use

I found both devices reliable. In both cases, the Watch charger could only be used for that purpose, but either of the two main charging coils could be used for any device – including a second Watch.

Both are reasonably sensitive to position – even 1cm off either way means that your iPhone doesn’t charge. But while that sounds fiddly, it’s not in practice: you just put the phone in the obvious place and it charges.

Where the Apple Watch is concerned, both chargers have the same magnetic attachment as the official charging puck, so you can’t mis-position this. This is where the main difference between the two shows up.

With the SliceCharge, the Watch sits flat on the base, in the centre of the pad, between the two main charging coils. This is fine for straps that open fully, but not for ones you just loosen to remove – like the Link Bracelet. A third-party copy of this is my normal band (I like the convenience but wasn’t willing to pay Apple’s premium), so it wasn’t suitable for that. I did try charging it through the band, but that unsurprisingly didn’t work.

With the Zens, the charging puck is raised, which means it’s compatible with all bands. However, with my link bracelet, the bracelet catch was resting on the iPhone screen beneath it, which made me a little nervous about scratching the glass. The puck would have to sit much higher to avoid this, which I guess would make it less portable and more expensive, so the company probably made a trade-off here. I took to fastening the bracelet after removing it, which is a slight hassle but keeps the screen safe.

ElectroLeather AirPods Wireless Charging case

SliceCharge has one extra trick up its sleeve: an optional accessory that converts your AirPods case into a device you can charge wirelessly.

This works in the same way as the HyperJuice adapter we recently reviewed. In this case, it’s a lightweight leather case with a Lightning port inside it. Slide your AirPods charging case inside it to mate with the tab, and you can then just place the whole thing on the SliceCharge pad to charge. There’s a small hole in the front flap of the case so that you can confirm the charging LED is lit.

You could, of course, buy the ElectroLeather on its own and use it with any other Qi charger.

I don’t own AirPods myself (I prefer the Master & Dynamic MW07), so I borrowed a friend’s set to test the charger. You can position the case on either of the two main charging coils, and it too charges reliably.

I’m not persuaded by the aesthetics of either the HyperJuice or the ElectroLeather. The former looks clunky, the latter has really thin leather and doesn’t seem a good match for the charging case itself. But if you want wireless charging, something like this is your only option right now – and $20 is a pretty decent price.

Pricing and conclusions

AirPower is clearly the ideal solution – in theory. Just put any device anywhere on the pad and it charges. But since it doesn’t yet exist, and may never exist, that’s rather academic at present.

But even if it does make it to market, assuming the rumored $160-190 price is correct, I have to question whether it could possibly be worth it. That’s a huge amount of money for a wireless charger. For $50, the SliceCharge gets you 98% of the benefit for something like a third to a quarter of the price.

But for my money, I wouldn’t wait for AirPower. Pick up one of these wireless chargers today and be done with it.

SliceCharge costs $49.95, while the optional AirPods case costs $19.95. Zens Dual+Watch costs €99.99 plus €4.99 shipping to the US. At the time of writing, that’s $120.26 all-in.

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Should You Use A Blog Or Email Marketing For Your Travel Brand?

Less than five years ago, starting a blog was a huge marketing focus in the travel community.

Not only did the SEO bonuses have a lot of appeal, but travel blogging was also an incredibly popular format that promised a large target audience if you found the right niche.

While the majority of travel blogs are still going strong, email marketing has been having a moment in the last few years as well.

With its low cost, high ROI, and simple method of keeping customers engaged, questions have recently surfaced about whether sharing content via email is better than posting it to a blog.

First things first: This isn’t a post comparing the two approaches to crown an overall winner.

Blog content creation and email marketing are two pretty different types of content, and both have their benefits.

However, if you’re a new travel brand wondering which format to focus on, or want to change your marketing strategy by pouring more resources into an approach, it’s definitely worth examining each with several different factors in mind.

This post will help you do just that.

The Benefits Of Blog Content

Blogging is a format that has been around for decades now.

Whether you’re a large travel brand with a blog on your website or a dedicated travel enthusiast running a blog to share your stories, there are plenty of benefits to this kind of content.

On average, companies with a blog see 55% more website visitors than those who don’t, so there’s massive potential for growing your customer base.

From an SEO perspective, having a blog that you regularly update with new content can do wonders for how well your website ranks on search engines.

Not only can you increase traffic by producing content that targets longtail keywords, but having a blog also helps indexation supports rankings of your commercial pages.

A blog can also be a really useful tool in link building, which again helps to boost your website’s ranking.

Blog content can help establish your brand as a source of authority in your industry. By consistently sharing valuable and engaging insight, you’ll gain a reputation for being a reliable source of information.

This will lead to greater brand awareness and help to grow your customer base.

Finally, when it comes to brand image, blog content is one of the best ways to establish a “voice” and a tone that your audience will recognize.

Regularly sharing new posts on your travel blog that all embody your brand values will help improve recognition and strengthen your image, particularly if this tone is reflected across all your other marketing channels.

The Benefits Of Email Marketing

Email marketing has as many benefits as writing blog content, whether sending regular newsletters, moving potential customers down the buyer funnel, keeping in touch with existing customers, or increasing engagement among your target audience.

More commercial brands tend to use email marketing to promote products and offers, but email marketing is often another channel for sharing content and communicating with customers in the travel industry.

One of the biggest benefits of email marketing is that it’s a pretty low-cost strategy, which is ideal if you’re a relatively small business or a travel blogger working on your own.

You can also run campaigns without too much effort if you’re willing to put in the work at the beginning, making this approach quite simple to carry out even without much experience.

A key benefit often mentioned with email marketing is its impressive return on investment (ROI).

Exact figures will differ depending on your industry and the type of campaign but, on average, brands can make around $36 for every $1 spent on email marketing, which is an impressive statistic.

The nature of email marketing means that recipients of your content have to provide their contact details to join your mailing list, which means that everyone reading your content is already interested in what you share.

This means your audience is much more engaged with your content than any other channel, leading to greater levels of interaction and more successful conversion.

Another benefit is that uninterested recipients can opt out, so you won’t waste time or resources pitching your content to people who won’t engage with it.

Engagement is a general benefit of email marketing, both with existing and potential customers.

When you send out email content, you’re delivering (sometimes personalized) messages right into your audience’s inboxes, which means they’re much more likely to interact with this content than any of your other marketing efforts and will feel closer to your brand because of it.

Sending out regular email content can be very useful for travel brands that want to keep their offering in front of their audience’s minds.

When potential customers decide they want to book a holiday, for example, that brand’s website is where they go first.

Email marketing ensures that you maintain regular contact with your audience and builds up a relationship with this communication that will hopefully lead to customers thinking of your brand independently and increasing conversion rates.

Finally, another of the key benefits of email marketing is that it’s a brilliant channel for distributing personalized content.

80% of consumers have said that they are more likely to make purchases from brands that offer personalized experiences, so tailoring your emails and providing your mailing list with relevant content means that you’re much more likely to grow your audience.

Audience Engagement

Trying to pit email marketing and blog content against one another is unproductive. The two approaches have very different intentions and are often used together as part of a wider marketing strategy.

However, one area of overlap between the two is audience engagement, which provides some interesting points of comparison to investigate.

Engagement is an essential part of customer experience, and good customer experience is the key to a positive brand image, repeat customers, and business growth.

Today’s consumers have more choices than ever regarding their content and the brands they support.

The travel industry is a sector where competition is particularly fierce, so engagement is something that almost every brand strives to improve.

Travel blog content can improve audience engagement if you take the time to craft interesting, emotive, and valuable content that your audience is genuinely excited to read.

Once a reader is on your site, use banners and calls to action to get them to engage with other blog posts and landing pages, establishing your brand more firmly in their mind, and hopefully starting to move down the buyer funnel toward booking.

However, you need to get interested readers arriving on your blog in the first place.

And if they don’t make a purchase or inquiry on their first visit, you need to make a strong enough impression that they’re going to come back to your blog of their own accord and read more of the content on there.

That’s one hell of a challenge.

The state of the world we live in today means that brands aren’t only competing with one another for the attention of potential customers. They’re also competing to fill the limited amount of time that modern consumers have each day to read and engage with new content.

Most people don’t have the time to seek out new things to consume; they want the content to arrive at their fingertips to instantly engage without too much effort.

This is where email marketing comes into its own.

Blogging certainly had its heyday and remains a very valuable channel that isn’t going anywhere soon.

But to catch your customer’s attention while they’re commuting, boiling the kettle, or scrolling before bed, reading an email that is already in their inbox containing a curated selection of stories, ideas, and further reading will be a clear first choice over seeking out a blog post to engage with instead.

Is there still a place for blogs that regularly post long-form content for their audience?

Of course!

But with attention spans dwindling, device separation anxiety growing, and the desire for instant gratification higher than ever, email marketing has plenty going for it that makes it the perfect format for reaching and engaging today’s consumer.

When Should You Create Blog Content?

As outlined at the start of this article, there’s no “winner” when comparing blogging with email marketing.

There are plenty of instances where creating blog content is the best choice in a travel marketing strategy, which we have listed below.

You can produce large amounts of content.

Your target audience enjoys engaging with long-form, informational content.

You are skilled at writing content that keeps the reader engaged, emotionally resonates with them, and helps transport them from the present moment.

You already have an established blog with some repeat readers.

You are targeting longtail keyword phrases as part of an SEO strategy.

You are looking to increase the amount of traffic coming to your website.

When Should You Create Email Content?

Some factors indicate that creating email content like a newsletter or regular “round up” would be the best approach.

You have limited content writing resources which means producing short email newsletters is more manageable.

You have a limited budget for building out your marketing strategy.

You have a knack for writing shorter, instantly engaging pieces of content.

You want to develop a sense of “community” between your customers and build closer relationships with them.

You already have a good amount of content on your website that you can share.

You are looking for ways to move more potential customers down the buyer funnel.

The Best Way Forward

If possible, the best way forward is to dedicate time to developing both blog content and email content as part of your wider marketing strategy.

Many brand newsletters include links to the content on their blog, which is a fantastic way to link these two approaches together and encourage more website traffic while also appealing to the customer’s need for instant, easily consumable content.

The best way forward is to combine your approaches and use both blogging and email marketing in an integrated way.

Begin by focusing on creating engaging, evergreen blog content. Once you’ve reached a good stock of content, shift your focus more to email, where you can use that content to build community and engagement more actively.

If you’re an established travel brand it’s likely you already have both of these techniques in your marketing strategy.

In this case, it’s worth considering the impact your email content can have on customer engagement and whether you could adapt the content you send out to improve this while also keeping your blog updated and linking back to these new posts in your emails.

If you’re a new brand developing a marketing strategy, consider the conditions above and decide where you want to focus your efforts depending on your goals and capacity.

As this post has highlighted, both email marketing and blog content creation have their merits. Both are incredibly useful methods that travel businesses can use to establish a recognizable brand image and engage their audience.

Instead of crowning a victor between the two, consider the value that each of these formats has to today’s consumers and adapt your offering accordingly to get the best possible results.

More resources:

Featured Image: ra2 studio/Shutterstock

Stack In C++ Stl With Example

What is std::stack?

A stack is a data structure that operates based on LIFO (Last In First Out) technique. The std::stack allows elements to be added and removed from one end only.

The std::stack class is a container adapter. Container objects hold data of a similar data type. You can create a stack from various sequence containers. If no container is provided, the deque containe will be used by default. Container adapters don’t support iterators, so it can’t be used to manipulate data.

In this C++ tutorial, you will learn

Stack Syntax

Type – is the Type of element contained in the std::stack. It can be any valid C++ type or even a user-defined type.

Container – is the Type of underlying container object.

Member Types

Here are stack member types:

value_type- The first template parameter, T. It denotes the element types.

container_type- The second template parameter, Container. It denotes the underlying container type.

size_type- Unsigned integral type.

Operations in Stack

A C++ stack supports the following basic operations:

push – It adds/pushes an item into the stack.

pop – It removes/pops an item from the stack.

peek – Returns the top item of the stack without removing it.

isFull – Checks whether a stack is full.

isEmpty – Checks whether a stack is empty.

Stack Implementation

Step 1) We initially have an empty stack. The top of an empty stack is set to -1.

Step 2) Next, we have pushed the element 5 into the stack. The top of the stack will points to the element 5.

Step 3) Next, we have pushed the element 50 into the stack. The top of the stack shifts and points to the element 50.

Step 4) We have then performed a pop operation, removing the top element from the stack. The element 50 is popped from the stack. The top of the stack now points to the element 5.

push() and pop()

The stack::push() functions adds new item to the top of stack. The stack size is increased by a 1 after the insertion. The function takes this syntax:


The value is the item to insert into the stack.

The stack:: pop() function removes the top element of the stack. This is the newest item of the stack. The stack size is reduced by 1 after the removal. Here is the function syntax:


The function takes no parameters.

Example 1:

using namespace std; int main() { st.push(10); st.push(20); st.push(30); st.push(40);

st.pop(); st.pop();

while (!st.empty()) { cout << ‘ ‘ <<; st.pop(); } }


Here is a screenshot of the code:

Code Explanation:

Include the iostream header file in our code to use its functions.

Include the stack header file in our code to use its functions.

Include the std namespace in our code to use its classes without calling it.

Call the main() function. The program logic should be added within this function.

Create a stack st to store integer values.

Use the push() function to insert the value 10 into the stack.

Use the push() function to insert the value 20 into the stack.

Use the push() function to insert the value 30 into the stack.

Use the push() function to insert the value 40 into the stack.

Use the pop() function to remove the top element from the stack, that is, 40. The top element now becomes 30.

Use the pop() function to remove the top element from the stack, that is, 30. The top element now becomes 20.

Use a while loop and empty() function to check whether the stack is NOT empty. The ! is the NOT operator.

Printing the current contents of the stack on the console.

Call the pop() function on the stack.

End of the body of the while loop.

End of the main() function body.

Stacks have inbuilt functions that you can use to play around with the stack and its values. These include:

empty()- checks whether a stack is empty or not.

size()- returns the size of stack, that is, number of elements in a stack.

top()- accesses stack element at the top.

Example 2:

using namespace std; { while (!ms.empty()) { cout << ‘t’ <<; ms.pop(); } cout << ‘n’; } int main() { st.push(32); st.push(21); st.push(39); st.push(89); st.push(25);

cout << “The stack st is: “; createStack(st); cout << “n st.size() : ” << st.size(); cout << “n : ” <<; cout << “n st.pop() : “; st.pop(); createStack(st); return 0; }


Here is a screenshot of the code:

Code Explanation:

Include the iostream header file in our code in order to use its functions.

Include the stack header file in our code in order to use its functions.

Include the std namespace in our program in order to use its classes without calling it.

Create the function createStack that we can use to create the stack mystack. The stack will hold a set of integers.

The beginning of the body of the createStack function.

Create an instance of the mystack datatype and giving it the name ms.

Use the while loop and the empty() function to check whether the stack is empty.

The start of the body of the while loop.

Use the top() function stored at the top of the stack. The t character will create a new tab.

Use the pop() function to delete the element at the top of the stack.

End of the body of the while loop.

Print a blank line on the console.

End of the body of the createStack function.

Call the main() function. The program logic should be added within the body of the main() function.

The start of the body of function main().

Create a stack object st.

Use the push() function to insert the element 32 into the stack.

Use the push() function to insert the element 21 into the stack.

Use the push() function to insert the element 39 into the stack.

Use the push() function to insert the element 89 into the stack.

Use the push() function to insert the element 25 into the stack.

Print some text on the console.

Call the createStack function to execute the above insert operations into the stack.

Print the size of the stack on the console alongside other text.

Print the element at the top of the stack on the console.

Print some text on the console.

Delete the element at the top of the stack. It will then return the elements remaining in the stack.

Call the createStack function to execute the above operations.

The program must return value upon successful completion.

End of the body of function main().

emplace() and swap()

These are other inbuilt stack functions:

emplace()- constructs then inserts new element to top of stack.

swap()- exchanges stack contents with another stack’s contents.

Example 3:

using namespace std; int main() {

st1.emplace(12); st1.emplace(19);

st2.emplace(20); st2.emplace(23);


cout << “st1 = “; while (!st1.empty()) { cout << << ” “; st1.pop(); }

cout << endl << “st2 = “; while (!st2.empty()) { cout << << ” “; st2.pop(); } }


Here is a screenshot of the code:

Code Explanation:

Include the iostream header file in our code to use its functions.

Include the stack header file in our code to use its functions.

Include the cstdlib header file in our code to use its functions.

Include the std namespace in our code to use its classes without calling it.

Call the main() function. The program logic will be added within the body of this function.

Declare a stack named st1 to store integer values.

Declare a stack named st2 to store integer values.

Use the emplace() function to insert the integer 12 into the stack named st1.

Use the emplace() function to insert the integer 19 into the stack named st1.

Use the emplace() function to insert the integer 20 into the stack named st2.

Use the emplace() function to insert the integer 23 into the stack named st2.

Use the swap() function to swap the contents of the two stacks, st1 and st2. The contents of the stack st1 should be moved to the stack st2. The contents of the stack st2 should be moved to the stack st1.

Print some text on the console.

Use the while statement and the empty() function to check whether the stack st1 is not empty.

Print the contents of the stack st1 on the console. The ” ” adds space between the stack elements when printing them on the console.

Execute the pop() function on the stack st1 to remove the top element.

End of the body of the while statement.

Print some text on the console. The endl is a C++ keyword for end line. It moves the mouse cursor to the next line to begin printing from there.

Use the while statement and the empty() function to check whether the stack st2 is not empty.

Print the contents of the stack st2 on the console. The ” ” adds space between the stack elements when printing them on the console.

Execute the pop() function on the stack st2 to remove the top element.

End of the body of the while statement.

End of the body of the main() function.

Stack in STL

The STL (Standard Template Library) comes with template classes that provide common C++ data structures. Therefore, a stack can also be implemented in STL. We simply include this library in our code and use it to define a stack.

The above syntax declares a stack st to elements of data type T.

Example 3:

using namespace std; int main() { st.push(12); st.push(19); st.push(20); cout <<; cout << st.size(); }


Here is a screenshot of the code:

Code Explanation:

Include the iostream header file in our code to use its functions.

Include the stack header file in our code to use its functions.

Include the cstdlib header file in our code to use its functions.

Include the std namespace in our code to use its classes without calling it.

Call the main() function. The program logic should be added within the body of this function.

Declare a stack st to store integer data.

Add the element 12 to the stack.

Add the element 19 to the stack.

Add the element 20 to the stack.

Print the element at the top of the stack on the console.

Print the size of the stack on the console.

End of the body of the function main().


A stack is a data structure that operates based on the LIFO (Last In first Out) technique.

The std::stack only allows items to be added and removed from one end.

The std::stack class is a container adapter, holding items of a similar data type.

A stack can be created from various sequence containers.

If you don’t provide a container, the deque container will be used by default.

The push() function is for inserting items into the stack.

The pop() function is for removing the top item from the step.

The empty() function is for checking whether a stack is empty or not.

Why Entrepreneurs Should Develop Unique Products

Bottom Line

To build a brand that stands out and increasingly attracts customers, design products that meet customer needs in a way that the market isn’t currently doing.

What are the opportunities you can take when developing your own products? 1. The sky’s the limit.

When you successfully develop and launch your own product, there is no end in sight. Being the sole manufacturer of that product gives you the flexibility to sell your products to anyone without the threat of a crowded playing field.

2. Entrepreneurs enjoy higher margins.

If you create a product based on feedback from your customers, they will be willing to pay a higher premium, since it matches their specifications. Since no one but you is selling this product, you’ll see higher profit margins.

3. Product manufacturers enjoy more control.

When you have control over your product, you’ll have the flexibility to make any changes needed to improve customer satisfaction.

4. Your brand generates awareness.

Listening to your customers and launching products that are catered to them will create loyal customers. [Read more about how your product packaging can win buyers’ hearts]

How should entrepreneurs start manufacturing their own products?

First, understand that successful product development depends on the fusion of two types of information: the need and the solution. 

The need

The need is determined by a company or individual that knows exactly what the market is missing. They might not understand how to develop or build that missing piece, but they know what it is. The best way to gather this information is to engage with your customers and listen to their feedback. 

The solution

The solution comes from a company or individual that knows how to digest the needed information and bring it to life. These are usually engineers, designers, developers, or a factory that has the capability to understand what the need is and turn it into something physical. 

As an entrepreneur, it’s your job to provide a clear description of your vision to the team that can turn it into reality. Remember that they won’t have a perfect understanding of your product, so you be thorough with your description and reasoning. 

There is a myth that the development steps are long and demanding and could leave you broke. However, if you follow the correct steps and maintain transparency between the need and solution parties, the process will be smoother. When you get to the solution steps, you might not be the leader, but you should understand the process. 


High-quality products increase your brand’s reliability and your chance of retaining customers.

The development process Step 1: Product engineering and design

The first step the solution team must carry out is engineering a product as envisioned by the person or people who identified the need for it. This first step provided by the solution information is also the most critical step. If the engineering is done incorrectly, the product will never be functional and will have poor reviews. It’s imperative that the product design, materials and production are high quality. 

To eliminate failures, design the most critical part first and test it. Make samples of this part to ensure that the product works as it’s supposed to. If it doesn’t, go back to the drawing board. 

Step 2: Prototypes 

The purpose of a prototype is to verify that the design works the way it’s intended. A prototype opens up many doors because you can start to market the product, take preorders, seek investment, or start a Kickstarter campaign to raise funds.

Step 3: Tooling 

For the purpose of this article, we are assuming that you have built a relationship with your factory that will be building this product. If you’re lucky, your factory can also provide you with the resources to develop this product. 

A positive aspect of product trading is that you never need to worry about opening up new tools. However, if you are the sole seller of this product, then opening up a tool is well worth the investment and the short amount of time needed to make the tool. 

Remember when negotiating with your supplier that the tool is yours and that the supplier will not be able to use that tool for any other customer. 


Look for what’s missing in the market and what customers need. This will make your products stand out and seem more attractive.

Review: Nomad’s Nomadclip, Nomadkey + Nomadplus Are Practical Charging Solutions For Iphones And Ipads

Lightning cables and battery packs are often so similar that I rarely have a strong preference for “nicer” alternatives over basic ones. But Nomad has been working to change that by creating practical charging accessories that you’ll actually want to carry around everywhere. Last year, it debuted the NomadKey ($25), which places a Lightning to USB cable on your keychain, as well as NomadPlus ($40), an iPhone battery pack that combines with Apple’s 5W USB Power Adapter to become an 1800mAh “anywhere” recharger.

Now it’s shipping the NomadClip ($40), which combines a super-sturdy carabiner clip with a Lightning cable. I’ll walk you through all three accessories below in this combined review.

Key Details:

NomadKey and NomadClip are Apple-licensed Lightning cables designed to be taken everywhere.

Their plastic housings feel very strong, particularly NomadClip’s.

NomadKey allows its plugs to be exposed; NomadClip doesn’t.

NomadPlus is between an iPad and MacBook adapter in volume.

Each ships in an eco-friendly box.


The most excitingly different of these accessories is the newest, NomadClip, which just began shipping in late January. Measuring roughly 3.6″ by 2.1″ by 0.4″ at its largest points, NomadClip is one of the largest, sturdiest-feeling plastic and metal clips I’ve ever handled, combining a D-shaped, spring-loaded stainless steel hook with a rugged plastic frame. Nomad was wise to mold text reading “not for climbing” into one of the sides, because the clip feels like it could support a lot of weight.

Practically, you’ll want to use NomadClip to hang things from a bag or clothing loop, and after testing it, I have every bit of confidence that it’ll serve either purpose quite well. Full-sized USB and Lightning plugs recess completely into the frame for protection, coming out easily with deliberate tugs, but without any sense that they’ll be accidentally dislodged. And they obviously work, too, best serving as a connection point between your iPad, iPhone, or iPod and a laptop. Since the total end-to-end length of the cable is under five inches, it’s best for on-the-go use. While it’s not cheap, it’s built well, and the Nomad web site’s 20% off discount makes the price reasonable given the quality and functionality.


Over the years, I’ve tested a bunch of accessories that leveraged Apple’s MacBook or iPad chargers, but NomadPlus is a rarer design that relies upon the 5W USB Power Adapter included with every iPhone (and some iPad minis). NomadPlus adds an 1800mAh battery and pass-through USB port to Apple’s adapter, enabling you to have spare power on the road, as well as refueling both the iPhone and internal battery – notably, in sequence rather than simultaneously – when you can access wall power.

The 2.1″ by 2.1″ by 1.2″ black box is more angular than Apple’s (and most third-party) adapter designs, but has a USB plug-laden slot on the back that lets you slide the 5W Adapter in and out; a firm tug on the blades is all that’s needed to separate them, if you want to do so for travel. Three lights on the front surround a power indicator button; NomadPlus’s outbound charging turns on automatically when a USB cable is connected.

In my testing, the battery was able to add 50% of power to an iPhone 6 Plus, so users of smaller iPhones can expect 70% (iPhone 6) or greater recharges; iPad mini users with the 5W USB Power Adapter will obviously see smaller percentage gains but still hours of additional run time. Like NomadClip, NomadPlus’s durable-feeling hard plastic body and practicality offer very real value at the company’s 20% off price point, though it would be great to see Nomad develop a self-sufficient version with folding wall blades.


Last in the collection is NomadKey, which arguably has the broadest appeal but also the most glaring issues. Only 3″ long from end to end with a real cable length of around 2.25″, NomadKey is ultra-practical in that a heavily reinforced plastic hole on one edge can keep it on your keychain at all times – a guarantee that you’ll have it with you if you carry home or car keys around all day. But it’s also super-short, and includes no protection for either its USB or Lightning connectors.

My only problem is the exposed plugs; caps to cover them would likely get lost or have durability problems (like Bluelounge’s competing, much more expensive Kii). If you’re willing to take the risk on NomadKey at Nomad’s discounted 20% off price of $20, you’re not paying much more than you would for a spare Apple-branded cable, and may find the convenience appealing.

All three of these accessories are appealingly designed and practical; I also liked that they were very efficiently packaged in small, eco-friendly cardboard boxes without the unnecessary plastics and inserts I so commonly see in Apple accessories. As of press time, the best prices for all three accessories are through Nomad’s web site itself rather than through third-party vendors.

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