Trending December 2023 # Top 5 Traits Of Effective Learners And Methods To Build Them # Suggested January 2024 # Top 21 Popular

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A 2023 Statista survey revealed that 25% of online students in the U.S.—current, prospective, and former—expressed concerns about balancing their education with family, work, and household obligations. It can be a challenge to find the time to study while juggling your professional and personal life, particularly if you’re learning remotely. It therefore becomes important to be an efficient and effective learner, especially when you are a working professional trying to juggle an online course. And to achieve success in this endeavor, you need to absorb and retain as much knowledge as possible while managing time efficiently.

If you’re wondering how to enhance your learning ability, chart out an effective study plan, and execute it successfully to attain your learning objectives, read on and find out! 

What are the Five Habits of Highly Effective Learners?

The ability to learn effectively is influenced by a variety of different habits such as being organized, paying attention to detail, and managing time efficiently. To become successful learners, especially in an online setting, students will benefit by inculcating the following traits: 

1. Get Organized

One of the most important habits of highly effective learners is being organized. They can keep track of their assignments, deadlines, and schedules, prioritize tasks, and manage their time well. Being organized helps learners to stay on top of their studies as well as ensure that they complete their assignments on time.

2. Be Meticulous

Another important habit of successful learners is being meticulous. A meticulous learner pays attention to detail and can identify patterns, connections, and trends in the information they are gaining. They can effectively analyze and evaluate the information they receive, which helps them to retain it better. Being meticulous also helps learners to identify and course correct quickly.

3. Manage Time Effectively

Time management is the process of effectively allocating time between different tasks. It involves setting goals, creating a schedule, and sticking to it. Time management skills are crucial for learners to be able to balance their studies with other commitments such as work and family responsibilities. 

4. Have a Clear Plan

Clear planning helps learners to stay organized and on top of their tasks. Clear planners can break down large projects into smaller tasks and prioritize them. Moreover, they can also set themselves deadlines, and successfully meet them through effective time management and developing the ability to multitask.

5. Be Prepared to Adapt

ALSO READ: Top 8 Career Resolutions and Effective Tips to Stick to Them in 2023

How to Develop These Five Habits?

Now that you know what it is that is needed to be an effective learner, find out what you can do to be one yourself. In this section, we look at the steps you can take to scale up your learning ability to help you maximize your learning outcomes. 

1. Start with Decluttering

To get organized, start by decluttering your space. This can be your home, office, or even your computer. Get rid of anything that you no longer need or use. Once you have decluttered, create an organized system for everything that you need. This could be labeling or color-coding your files, folders, even storage containers. 

2. Pay Attention to Minute Details

The first step to becoming meticulous is to pay close attention to the minute details. This means taking the time to evaluate your learning methods, double-checking your assignments, and being mindful of the progress you are making. Given that this habit will take time and effort to develop, start by focusing on one thing at a time and slowly work your way into other areas.

3. Create a Schedule and Stick to it

To improve your time management skills, start by creating a schedule—a daily, weekly, or monthly one. Make sure to include everything that you need to do, including the professional and the personal. Also make sure you find time to relax. Once that’s done, stick to it as much as possible. If you find that you are still constantly running out of time, try to streamline your tasks and learning methods.  

4. Maintain a Weekly/Monthly Planner

To become a clear planner, you need to first create a learning plan, set goals, and follow through with them. Make a list of the tasks you need to achieve, such as your weekly or monthly to-do list, to attain your learning goals. Prioritize the tasks you have scheduled by their order of importance. Thereafter, make sure to check your list regularly and update it as needed if your goals or priorities change. 

5. Be Open to Change

To become agile and ready to adapt, you need to be open to change. To develop this attitude, try to approach new situations with an open mind and be willing to consider different perspectives. Practice being proactive instead of reactive. This way, you’ll be able to anticipate and adapt to changes more effectively.

Importance of Managing a Healthy Work-Life-Study Balance

It’s necessary to strike a balance between the time you spend on work, your personal life, and education. All three are crucial for a fresh mind that will further enhance your learning ability. The benefits of a work-life-study balance include:

1. Improved Physical and Mental Health

Maintaining a healthy work-life-study balance helps avoid excessive stress and burnout caused due to overwork. Moreover, it helps to improve mental and physical health as well as reduce the risk of stress-related illnesses such as hypertension or heart disease. 

2. Increased Productivity

You can focus entirely on successfully finishing the assigned tasks at work, leading to enhanced organizational productivity. Moreover, this will help you meet more work targets and enhance your performance.

3. Strong Relationships

A balance between work, personal life, and education allows you to spend more time with family and friends. This, in turn, increases happiness and peace of mind and can even motivate you to perform better professionally. 

4. Improved Learning Ability

Maintaining a healthy work-life-study balance allows you to focus effectively on optimizing your learning goals. Since you are no longer stressed due to overworking, you can concentrate better on your studies, thus making it possible to gain a deep understanding of subjects, retain valuable information, and derive better learning outcomes. 

ALSO READ: ​​Emeritus Global Career Impact Survey Shows 94% of Learners See a Positive Impact on Their Career

Embark on the Career Development Journey with Emeritus

Learning is a lifelong process, and it’s never too late to start developing crucial habits that can optimize your learning experience. By enriching the lives of more than 100,000 students per year across 80 countries, Emeritus has transformed the online learning experience for professionals with state-of-the-art technology, innovative curriculum, and hands-on instruction from top mentors and faculty members. Get in touch with our experts to embark on a journey toward career development in your chosen industry by mastering the key habits and skills needed to achieve success. Choose from over 150 world-class courses today.  

By Rupam Deb

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Top 10 Trending Features Of Linkedin And Naukri For Effective Usage

We live in an era where connecting with global talent could not have been easier. Companies can hire talent from across the globe at minimal cost, and individuals can search for and apply for jobs of their interest from across the globe at almost no cost. Hiring today happens with applications like LinkedIn, Naukri, chúng tôi Hirst, Flex C, Facebook, Blue Learning, chúng tôi and a thousand other websites and applications. This is also known as “hiring through social media.” In this article, we will be understanding some of the tactics so that the candidates can have a better ranking in these job portals, get the job of their choice, and easily outrun the competition.

Understanding the Job Portals and Their Purpose LinkedIn Application

LinkedIn is not just another recruitment portal. LinkedIn provides users with a platform through which they can connect with like-minded industry individuals, stay current on business and economic trends, search for jobs, post job requirements, understand the candidate better than their work profile, follow companies, do trending and knowledgeable courses, and even create their own communities. LinkedIn is free for users, and most of the features are at their disposal. Individuals can unlock the premium features with subscriptions as well. LinkedIn is a community of 750 million members.

Naukri Application

The core of Naukri is to provide candidates and recruiters with a platform on which they can connect and discuss job openings. It solely revolves around recruitment and selection. Naukri is also free for users. However, to unlock the premium features, one can get a premium account. Companies register themselves as recruiters, which has a fee, and post jobs or search for candidates as per requirement, and the candidates or job applicants can browse through different openings and apply for jobs of their interest.

Top 10 Features of Naukri and LinkedIn for Job Applicants

Use keywords in your resume and Naukri and LinkedIn profile − The relevant keywords on your profiles and resume will set you apart from the 60+ million Naukri users and the 750+ million LinkedIn users. Recruiters today are using the ATS (Application Tracking System). This helps recruiters find the best candidate according to the keyword in their job description. Use keywords related to the job that you have or want to have. For example, a software developer should always include the various technologies that he has worked on or has extensive knowledge of in his resume. The repetition will ensure a better ranking. It is applicable to both LinkedIn and Naukri.

Use the spotlight feature of LinkedIn − LinkedIn has come up with the #opentowork and #hiring tags. This helps the recruiter identify the candidates who are really interested in a job change. By simply updating the “open to work” tag on his LinkedIn profile, a user can rank among the top in the spotlight.

Update your salary expectation and notice period on the Naukri portal − This might seem trivial, but it is very important for recruiters. Recruiters use this information to determine whether or not to pursue the candidate further. This will ensure that you get emails only from companies that are ready to meet your salary expectations and are okay with your notice periods. It saves time. Sadly, both filters are unavailable for recruiters or users on LinkedIn.

Always keep your profile updated − It is mandatory for both LinkedIn and Naukri to keep your profiles updated. The recruiter gets a synopsis of you and your work experience from your profile. Believe me, no one has the time to connect with you personally to get these details. An average recruiter will move ahead to other applicants in the case of incomplete, improper, or incorrect information on the site.

Create an Eye-catching Resume − Prepare an eye-catching, colorful, easy-to-decipher, and brief resume while applying for jobs. Also, ensure to upload the resumes on the job portals so interested recruiters can have a look. An average recruiter comes across a minimum of 50 resumes in a day. It is very important for you to create one that is different from the rest.

Earn skill badges on LinkedIn and update all your skills on your Naukri profile − On LinkedIn, you can earn skill badges by taking tests on the skills you’ve mentioned. It comes in really handy for your hard skills like Excel, Microsoft, PowerPoint, Java, Python, Testing, DevOps, Sysops, and others. This creates a positive and strong image of yours in front of the recruiter and makes you a stronger and more reliable candidate. Also, keep all of your skills up to date on your Naukri profile because whenever you apply for a job, a brief summary of your qualifications is displayed to the recruiter, making it easier for the recruiter to shortlist your profile among the 100s.

Get endorsements on LinkedIn − You can ask your colleagues and friends to give you endorsements on LinkedIn. This means that they confirm your knowledge of this particular skill set and help in building a positive image of yourself.

Upload your photo on your job profile and resume − Though it is not a mandate, it is highly recommended to upload a decent photo of yourself in formal or semi-formal attire on the different job portals and your resume. The picture will help you in creating an impression and also build trust.

Verify all your documents − When you are creating your Naukri and LinkedIn profiles, they will ask you to upload all your documents, like an Adhar card, a PAN card, educational details, and others. Please upload all these documents to get a better star rating on Naukri and a legit account on LinkedIn. Star ratings are very useful when you apply for jobs.

The above-mentioned top 10 pointers are the hygiene parameters to ensure that you are ranking at the top of both LinkedIn and Naukri portals. We live in an era of presentation and aesthetics. You may have all of the necessary skills, but if you do not consider these parameters, it will be very difficult for you to get a job of your choice and a higher ATS ranking. Another tip is to apply only for relevant job posts. You may apply to 50 job posts in a day but it will be of no use if it is not relevant. Give a quick glance at the Job description and then only apply for a job. It is time we put our best foot forward.

Methods And Need Of Branch Accounting

Definition of Branch Accounting

Branch Accounting is an accounting system that provides bookkeeping strategies for the branches of a firm or a business that are established in different areas for expanding the coverage and sales from the business, where each branch is treated as a different entity.

Different books of accounts are maintained for them individually.

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To expand the business and increase sales volume, many firms carrying out their business open many other small shops (branches) in different locations. These shops are called Branches, and the main firm is Head Office. The head office is a different entity and keeps its own bookkeeping records. Similarly, the branches are treated as different entities, and book keeping of the same must be maintained. Branch Accounting provides the methods and ways to properly maintain the records and guidelines for preparing financials.

Objectives of Branch Accounting

Must be aware of the cash flow the branches produce and their financial situation.

To know the profit & loss generated by branches and the financial position of the individual branches.

To know and evaluate the performance of individual branches and compare them with other branches to find the optimal practices for the required growth.

How Does It Work?

In the Branch accounting system, all the branches and head office are treated as separate entities, and accordingly, the books of accounts are maintained. Branch Account is a nominal ledger account where all the income, expenditures, Assets, and liabilities are maintained and tallied. A branch account is open for a particular period (financial year period). Upon the completion of the period, the balances in the branch account are transferred to the Head office account (profit or loss of the period is transferred to the head office account), and the branch account is carried with NIL Balance up until the next period starts.


There are several methods available for the system depending upon the nature of the branches as well as the system of accounting, or bookkeeping opted for the branches (i.e., dependent branch, independent branch). The most common methods used for branch accounting are as follows:

Debtors Method

Stock and Debtors Method

Final Accounts method

Wholesale Branches Method

Income Statement System


To understand the concept furthermore, let’s take an example.

Following details are provided for a branch of the company. Prepare the branch account in the head office account of the company.

Opening stock at Branch 15000

Opening Debtors at Branch 25000

Opening Petty cash at Branch 500

Goods sent to Branch 200000

Cash sales 50000

Received from Debtors 200000


           Salary 7000

          Rent 1000

         Petty Cash 1000

Closing stock at Branch 30000

Closing Debtors at Branch 50000

Closing Petty cash at branch 100


Branch Account





To Opening Balance b/d

By Cash



Cash Sales



Received from Debtors


Petty Cash            500.00 By closing balance c/d

To Goods sent to branch




To Bank Account

Petty Cash







Petty expense


To Profit & Loss Account (Profit)


Branch Accounting Format

Proforma Branch Account





To Opening Balance b/d

By Bank Account (Cash Remitted) XXXX

Stock XXXX By Return to HO XXXX

Debtor XXXX By closing balance c/d

Petty Cash XXXX Cash XXXX

To Goods sent to the branch XXXX Debtor XXXX

To Bank Account

Petty Cash XXXX

Salary XXXX Fixed Assets XXXX

Rent XXXX Prepaid Expenses XXXX

Sundry Expenses XXXX Stock XXXX

To Profit & Loss Account (Profit) XXXX By Profit & Loss Account (Loss) XXXX

(The format could be adjusted per the suitable requirements and the nature of the branch accounting method opted.)

Need for Branch Accounting

The need for branch accounting arises to ascertain the profitability of a branch to determine the scalability of business over at that place of business. If the business seems to fail, the management can decide to close the business in that area, and in case it looks scalable, the company may expand business in that area or open more branches. The separate accountability provides the running cost of the business in that area, the profit-making capability of the branches, and a comparison for finding the optimal business activities to follow.


The ability to maintain distinct financial records and books of accounts for various branches is provided by branch accounting.

Branch accounting helps identify the profitability of different branches and determine the requirements of different branches as per their requirements.

Branch accounting enables the head office to find out the progress reports of different branches and find out the most optimal method for making the required profitability for the business.

Branch accounting requires different branches to maintain their books of accounts, and for the same staff, workforces need to be hired, which may cost the business significantly.

The cost also increases due to duplication of responsibility and staff at different branches.

The Branch accounting results in decentralized decision-making and is not solely dependent upon the Head office, which may result in a longer time for any decision. The decision may create conflicts as the same decision may not be made by the Head office and the Branch office.


The Branch Accounting system requires the introduction of a lot of funds for managing the activities of the branches of a business company where the companies have several branches and accounting of all those branches is maintained. In the system, both the Head office & branches are treated as separate entities and helps to evaluate the performance of the branches as well as the comparison between the different branches.

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How To Record Audio (Music) From Youtube: 5 Easy Methods

These applications help you to quickly convert and download a video to MP3 audio file. There are many other options like YouTube to MP3 converters, YouTube mobile apps, webcams, professional sound recording equipment, etc., that can be used to record music from YouTube videos.

Below are ways to capture audio from YouTube videos:

Read more…

Best Tools to Capture YouTube Audio in your PC, Mac, Android, Mac

Tool Name Supported System Supported audio formats Support system audio Support microphone Edit recording Schedule recording tasks

iTubeGo Windows, Mac MP3, MOV, AVI, M4A No Yes No No

Camtasia Windows, Mac AAC Yes Yes Yes Yes

Audacity Linux, Mac, Windows OGG, MP3, WAV, AU, AIFF Yes Yes Yes Yes

VLC Media Player Windows, macOS, Linux, Android, iOS MP4 No No Yes No

YouTube is a video streaming and sharing platform that allows you to watch videos of many different categories. If you want to download or capture audio from YouTube videos, you need dedicated software tools to perform this task.

iTubeGo is a software that helps you to download YouTube videos in an audio format. This tool supports 10,000+ video sites. You can use it to download YouTube videos, playlists, channels, audio, etc. This YouTube audio recorder enables you to convert videos to the formats like MP3, MP4, AVI, MOV, and more.

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Here are the steps to download audio from YouTube without recording it:

Step 2) Install the software on your computer

Step 4) Now, perform the following steps:

Select the “Download MP3” option

Step 5) You will see the following dialogue box

Your video will start downloading and converting in MP3, as shown in the following screen

Camtasia is a tool that enables you to record audio from YouTube with ease. It enables you to quickly capture and record from a webcam. This YouTube audio recorder also offers a music and audio library.

Below are the steps to record audio from a YouTube video using Camtasia:

Step 1) Perform the following steps to record MP3 from YouTube

Step 4) Recording Audio

Step 5) Turn on the “System Audio” button

Step 6) Start recording YouTube audio

Step 8) Playing the recorded audio

3) Audacity

Audacity is one of the best music recording software that uses a multi-track editor to edit any sound. This app enables you to import or export videos in various files like MP3, WAV, OGG, FLAC, and more.

Here are the steps to record audio from YouTube using Audacity:

Select “WINDOWS”

Step 7) Perform the following steps:

Go to “File” menu.

Step 9) Perform the following steps:

Enter details like Artist Name, Track Title, Album Title, Track Number, Year, Genre, and Comments

4) VLC Media Player

The VLC media player is a very popular free sound recorder for Windows PC and Mac. This YouTube audio recorder can play almost all multimedia file formats as well as audio CDs, VCDs, and DVDs. This software supports a wide range of audio compression methods.

Perform the following steps to record MP3 from YouTube using VLC Media Player:

Step 4) You will see a page with a text editor.

Paste the copied YouTube video URL you want to download.

Copy the information from the location textbox, available at the bottom of the page.

Step 7) Now, convert it to an MP3 file with any video converter

Download YouTube Video and Convert to MP3 in your Mobile Phone

iTubeGo YouTube Downloader for Android is a free audio/video downloading application. It enables you to store MP3, 4K, MP4 output formats from more than 10000 websites.

This program can be used to save all your music and videos directly from the Internet to your Android smartphone at the fastest speed.

Here is how to download a YouTube video and convert it to MP3 on a mobile phone:

Step 1) Download iTubeGo Android App from here.

Tap on the “Free Download” button to download and install the application in your smartphone.

Step 2) Open the App and tap on the “YouTube” button.

Step 3) Search and play the video clip you want to save into your device and tap on the “Download Video” button.

Step 4) The following screen will be displayed.

Tap on the down arrow beside “Format”.

Tap on “MP3”.

Step 5) You can see the downloaded MP3 file by tapping on the “Download” tab.

Step 6) Wait till the video is getting downloaded.

After this, you will be able to play it.

Other ways to record YouTube Videos 1) Webcam

Webcams allow you to record both audio and video in a very personal and informal style. It comes in-built with laptops and a lot of newer computers. A typical web camera includes a microphone that enables you to record sound from YouTube or any site and store it in your computer.

2) YouTube App for Mobile Devices

If you want to record MP3 from YouTube App in your mobile device, then you need to install iTubeGo for Android. After this, the steps are the same as you download any audio using iTubeGo.

3) Professional Recording Equipment

If you want to create a clearer sound, you’ll need to make a larger investment in your recording equipment, along with a high-quality microphone. You may also need to purchase professional and separate audio editing software. These applications enable you to cut, copy, and paste your audio files. You can use these tools to export your files in many formats, including MP3, OGG, WAV, and more.

FAQ: ❓ How to download songs from YouTube?

Perform the following steps to download audio from YouTube :

Step 1) Download and install any YouTube to MP3 converter tool from the above-given list or go to the tool’s website.

Step 2) Now, open any browser and open YouTube

Step 3) Search and find the song’s video which you want to convert.

Step 4) Copy the URL link of the video.

Step 5) Open the YouTube to MP3 converter tool and paste the link in the given bar.

Step 6) Now, select the format as MP3 and press the “Download” button.

Step 7) The YouTube video of the song will be converted into MP3 format and will be downloaded into your system.

⚡ How to add music to a YouTube video?

If you want to add music to a YouTube video, then you need to use any good video editing software. These software enables you to add songs and audio effects to your video clips. Once you are done with it, you can simply upload entire video to YouTube.

🏅 What audio quality conversion is supported by YouTube to MP3 converters?

The audio quality conversion supported by YouTube to MP3 converters is 320kbps.

🚀 Is it legal to convert YouTube videos to MP3?

Though it is legal to watch YouTube videos, it is illegal to convert or capture audio from YouTube videos to MP3. You are allowed to do it, only if there is no involvement in creating a video or sharing on YouTube.

❗ How can you choose the right YouTube screen recorder?

YouTube audio recorders are a good productivity tool for businesses. Choosing the right audio recorder depends on your needs. You should look for the features like video editing features, accessibility, cloud sharing features, and more.

👉 What are Android apps to record audio and upload it to YouTube as video?

You can use Speaker Studio app that is available for Android. This application can record file and upload them as video clips to your desired YouTube Channel.

💻 How do you download YouTube videos to MP4 or MP3 for iPhone and Android?

You can use iTubeGo for Android and VLC media player for iOS to download YouTube videos to MP4 or MP3 files.

How To Measure Execution Time In R (5 Methods + Examples)

Measuring the execution time is common in programming to get a better idea of how a program or a part of the code is performing.

This is a comprehensive guide to measuring the elapsed time in R. In this guide, there are some built-in mechanisms and examples of popular libraries’ ways of computing the execution times.

Here’s a short overview of the approaches you will learn in this guide:



Tictoc library

Microbenchmark Library

Rbenchmark Library

Let’s take a closer look at these methods and see some examples.

Method 1: Use Sys.time()

An easy way to measure the execution time of a piece of code is by using the built-in Sys.time() function.

To measure the execution time with the Sys.time() function:

Call Sys.time() before the part of code you want to measure and store the time instance into a variable.

Run the piece of code whose execution time you want to measure.

Call Sys.time() again and store the time instance to a variable.

Subtract the last Sys.time() call from the first Sys.time() call. This returns a description of the time difference between these two instances of time.

Here’s an example code where I measure the time of a function called example_func:

example_func <- function() { Sys.sleep(5) } start <- Sys.time() example_func() end <- Sys.time() print(end - start)


Time difference of 5.000719 secs Method 2: Use system.time()

Another way to measure the execution time in R is by using the system.time() function. Unlike the Sys.time() function, the system.time() function takes an expression, evaluates it, and measures the elapsed time.

Here’s an example of measuring how long it takes to run an example function:

example_func <- function() { Sys.sleep(5) } system.time({example_func()})


user system elapsed 0.001 0.000 5.018

But what do these values mean? To put it short, the elapsed column reveals the time it took to run your code.

Here’s a more specific breakdown of the returned values:

user. This is the user CPU time spent by the current R session.

system. This is the system CPU time that the operating system spent on behalf of the current process.

elapsed. The execution time of the actual code you are measuring.

Method 3: Use tictoc Library

Thus far, you’ve seen examples of measuring the execution time with built-in mechanisms. Sometimes using an external library to measure elapsed time can be handy as it makes code readable and intuitive.

One example of such a library is the tictoc library.

Notice that you need to install the tictoc library first before you can use it.

The idea of the tictoc function is to make measuring the elapsed time easy and readable:

Call tic() to start the clock.

Run some code.

Call toc() to stop the clock.

Calling toc() shows the elapsed time in the console.

Here’s an example of measuring the execution time of a sample function in R:

library(tictoc) example_func <- function() { Sys.sleep(3.5) } tic() example_func() toc()


3.525 sec elapsed Method 4: Use microbenchmark Library

Another library you might want to consider to measure the execution time of your program is the microbenchmark library.

To then use this library to measure the elapsed time, you need to run code inside the microbenchmark() function call.

This function not only returns the time it took to execute your code but also some useful details, such as minimum time, maximum time, median elapsed time, and such based on the numerous runs the function performs.

For example:

library(microbenchmark) example_func <- function() { Sys.sleep(0.1) } microbenchmark(example_func())


Unit: milliseconds expr min lq mean median uq max neval example_func() 100.1813 100.4506 101.3933 100.5973 100.8105 142.5669 100

Let’s take a quick look at the returned values:

expr is the code expression you want to find the execution time for.

min is the minimum amount of time it took to run the code out of the numerous tries.

lq is the lower quartile, that is, 25% of the runs took at most this amount of time to run.

mean is the average execution time.

median is the median time it took to run the code.

uq is the upper quartile, that is, 75% of the runs took at most this amount of time to run.

max is the maximum amount of time that the code ran.

neval is the number of evaluations which is 100 by default.

To change the number of times the code is timed, specify the optional times parameter in the microbenchmark() function call.

For example, let’s only do 10 runs:

library(microbenchmark) example_func <- function() { Sys.sleep(0.1) } microbenchmark(example_func(), times=10)


Unit: milliseconds expr min lq mean median uq max neval example_func() 100.3563 100.6037 103.1201 100.6237 100.7375 125.16 10

Using the microbenchmark library offers a great replacement for the system.time() function thanks to the level of detail it gives you about the code execution.

Method 5: Use rbenchmark Library

rbenchmark is another useful timing library for measuring execution times. rbenchmark is a great alternative to the system.time() function is the rbenchmark library.

Once again, you need to install this library before using it!

Very similar to the previous examples, the rbenchmark library comes with a built-in timing function, benchmark(). This function takes the piece of code you want to time as an argument. It then returns a bunch of data related to the runs it performed.

Notice that this method returns the total amount of time elapsed. By default, the function runs your code 100 times. So for example, if your code takes 1 second to run, this method returns an elapsed time of 100 seconds because it runs the code 100 times.

For example, let’s measure the execution time of an example function.

library(rbenchmark) example_func <- function() { Sys.sleep(0.2) } benchmark(example_func())


test replications elapsed relative chúng tôi sys.self 1 example_func() 100 20.183 1 0.1 0

As another example, let’s change the number of runs to 10 from the 100 default:

library(rbenchmark) example_func <- function() { Sys.sleep(0.2) } benchmark(example_func(), replications=10)


test replications elapsed relative chúng tôi sys.self 1 example_func() 10 2.036 1 0.02 0 Summary

Today you learned how to measure the execution time of your program in R.

A simple and native way to measure elapsed time is by using the system.time() function or the Sys.time() function.

If you want to make the code more clean, you use the tictoc library. It makes computing the execution time easy by using the tic() and toc() function calls.

To get more details about the elapsed time, you can use a library like rbenchmark or microbenchmark.

Thanks for reading. Happy coding!

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Reliability Measures: Meaning And Methods

Reliability is the concept that any meaningful findings ought to be repeatable. It must be possible for other researchers to conduct the same experiment under identical circumstances and produce the same outcomes. This will support the findings and guarantee that all researchers will accept the theory. The prerequisites of testability have not been fully met by experiment and research without this repetition of statistically significant results. This condition must be met for a hypothesis to become a recognized scientific truth. It is generally acceptable to believe that the instruments will maintain true and exact time and are trustworthy.

To reduce the likelihood of a malfunction and maintain the validity and reliability of their data, scientists, however, take measurements repeatedly. On the other hand, any experiment that relies on human judgment will always be questioned. Individual observers may judge things differently based on the time of day and their current mood, which makes human judgment unpredictable. This implies that such experiments are intrinsically less trustworthy and harder to repeat. In order to assess an experiment’s overall validity and strengthen the conclusions, reliability is a crucial component.

What is Reliability?

Reliability is the consistency of your measurement or the degree to which an instrument measures the same way each time it is used under the same conditions with the same individuals. In a nutshell, it is the reproducibility of the measurement. A measure is deemed dependable if a person’s score on the same test given twice is similar. It is critical to remember that reliability is not measured but rather inferred. For example, if a test is designed to assess a certain feature, such as neuroticism, it should produce consistent findings each time it is performed. A test is deemed trustworthy if the same result is obtained several times.

Methods of Estimating Reliability

There are several ways of estimating the reliability of an instrument. Various procedures can be classified into two groups −

External Consistency Procedures

Internal Consistency Procedures

External Consistency Procedures

External consistency procedures compare findings from two independent data collection processes with each other to verify the measure’s reliability.

Test Re-test Reliability

The most common strategy for determining test reliability is performing the same test on the same sample across two periods. In this example, the reliability coefficient is the correlation between the score earned by the same person on two administrations of tTest-retest reliability is assessed when the same test is administered to the same assessed. As a result, it refers to the consistency of a test over two separate periods and administrations. This strategy is based on the premise that the measurement of the construct in issue would remain the same after administration several times. The time gap between measures is crucial; the shorter the time gap, the better the correlation value, and vice versa. If the test is trustworthy, the scores obtained on the first administration should equal those obtained on the second. The two administrations’ relationship should be favorable.

Parallel Forms Reliability

Parallel-Forms Alternate forms reliability, similar form reliability, and comparable form reliability are all terms for reliability. The reliability of parallel forms compares two equivalent forms of a test that assess the same property. The components used in the two formats are different. However, the guidelines for selecting objects of a specific difficulty level are the same. When two exam versions are available, the performance of one can be compared to the performance of the other. On occasion, the two forms are given to the same set of persons on the same day.

The Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient is utilized as an estimate of reliability. When two exam versions are available, the performance of one can be compared to the performance of the other. The two forms are given to the same set of persons on the same day. As an estimate of reliability, the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient is utilized. The only causes of variance when both versions of the exam are administered on the same day are random error and the difference between the forms of the test.

The two formats of the test are sometimes administered at separate periods. In these circumstances, the error associated with time sampling is also included in the reliability estimate. One of the most stringent examinations of reliability widely used is the approach of parallel forms. Unfortunately, parallel forms are used less frequently than would be ideal. It is frequently difficult for test engineers to

Unfortunately, parallel forms are used less frequently than would be ideal. It is sometimes difficult for test engineers to create two versions of the same test, and practical restrictions make retesting the same set of folks problematic. On the other hand, many test developers base their estimation or reliability on a particular type of test. Psychologists only sometimes have two versions of a test available, and they frequently have one test form and must assess the reliability of a specific collection of items. There are several approaches to assessing the various causes of variance within a single test. One way is to divide the test into subcomponents and examine its internal consistency.

Internal Consistency Procedures

The idea behind internal consistency procedures is that items measuring the same phenomena should produce similar results. Following internal consistency procedures are commonly used for estimating reliability −

Split-Half Method

The split-half approach is another popular method for checking the reliability of measuring instruments for internal consistency. A test is given, divided into halves, and evaluated separately in the split-half technique. The score of one half of the test is compared to the score of the remaining half to assess the reliability. Divide the exam into halves first in the split-half approach. The most typical method is to allocate odd-numbered objects to one side of the test and even-numbered things to the other, known as Odd-Even reliability. 2nd- Using the Pearson r method, determine the correlation of scores between the two halves. Third, use the Spearman-Brown formula to adjust or revise the correlation, which further boosts the estimated reliability.

Comparison of Reliability Estimators

Cronbach’s Alpha is beneficial when there are many objects. Test-retest reliability is commonly used in experimental and quasi-experimental methods. This is also dependent on the string of availability of a control group, assessed on two distinct dates. Only when a post-test is performed will information on reliability be available. As a result, each of the estimators will produce a different estimate for reliability. Due to engagement in measurement at different periods or with multiple raters, test-retest, and inter-rater reliability estimates are often less valuable than parallel forms and internal consistency.

How to Improve Reliability?

There are two techniques to increase the reliability of measurement devices.

By standardizing the measurement circumstances, we must guarantee that external causes of variance, such as boredom, exhaustion, and so on, are eliminated to the greatest extent feasible to increase the stability aspect.

By carefully creating measuring directions that are consistent from group to group, by using skilled and motivated researchers, and by expanding the sample of items used to increase equivalence.


In psychological testing, reliability refers to the property of measurement consistency. There are several levels of reliability. To assess the consistency of psychological test scores, utilize the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient. This type of reliability is known as test-retest reliability. Alternate-forms reliability is calculated by connecting scores on two comparable forms given to a wide group of diverse participants in a counterbalanced method. Split-half reliability, in which results on half tests are connected, and coefficient alpha, which may be thought of as the mean of all potential split-half coefficients, are two internal consistency approaches to reliability. Interscorer reliability is required for examinations that involve examiner judgment to award scores.

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