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What is a Computer Network?

A Computer Network is a group of two or more interconnected computer systems that use common connection protocols for sharing various resources and files. You can establish a computer network connection using either cable or wireless media. Every network involves hardware and software that connects computers and tools.

In this Computer networking tutorial, you will learn:

Different Types of Computer Networks

There are various types of Computer Networking options available. The classification of network in computers can be done according to their size as well as their purpose.

The size of a network should be expressed by the geographic area and number of computers, which are a part of their networks. It includes devices housed in a single room to millions of devices spread across the world. Following are the popular types of Computer Network:

Types of Computer Networks

PAN (Personal Area Network)

LAN (Local Area Network)

MAN (Metropolitan Area Network)

WAN (Wide Area Network)

Let’s study all of these types of networking in detail.

What is PAN (Personal Area Network)?

PAN (Personal Area Network) is a computer network formed around a person. It generally consists of a computer, mobile, or personal digital assistant. PAN can be used for establishing communication among these personal devices for connecting to a digital network and the internet.

Characteristics of PAN

Below are the main characteristics of PAN:

It is mostly personal devices network equipped within a limited area.

Allows you to handle the interconnection of IT devices at the surrounding of a single user.

PAN includes mobile devices, tablet, and laptop.

It can be wirelessly connected to the internet called WPAN.

Appliances use for PAN: cordless mice, keyboards, and Bluetooth systems.

Advantages of PAN

Here are the important pros/benefits of PAN network:

PAN networks are relatively secure and safe

It offers only short-range solution up to ten meters

Strictly restricted to a small area

Here are the cons/drawbacks of using PAN network:

It may establish a bad connection to other networks at the same radio bands.

Distance limits.

What is a LAN (Local Area Network)?

A Local Area Network (LAN) is a group of computer and peripheral devices which are connected in a limited area such as school, laboratory, home, and office building. It is a widely useful network for sharing resources like files, printers, games, and other application. The simplest type of LAN network is to connect computers and a printer in someone’s home or office. In general, LAN will be used as one type of transmission medium. It is a network which consists of less than 5000 interconnected devices across several buildings.

Local Area Network (LAN)

Characteristics of LAN

Here are the important characteristics of a LAN network:

It is a private network, so an outside regulatory body never controls it.

LAN operates at a relatively higher speed compared to other WAN systems.

There are various kinds of media access control methods like token ring and ethernet.

Advantages of LAN

Here are the pros/benefits of LAN:

Computer resources like hard-disks, DVD-ROM, and printers can share local area networks. This significantly reduces the cost of hardware purchases.

You can use the same software over the network instead of purchasing the licensed software for each client in the network.

Data of all network users can be stored on a single hard disk of the server computer.

You can easily transfer data and messages over networked computers.

It will be easy to manage data at only one place, which makes data more secure.

Local Area Network offers the facility to share a single internet connection among all the LAN users.

Here are the cons/drawbacks of LAN:

LAN will indeed save cost because of shared computer resources, but the initial cost of installing Local Area Networks is quite high.

The LAN admin can check personal data files of every LAN user, so it does not offer good privacy.

Unauthorized users can access critical data of an organization in case LAN admin is not able to secure centralized data repository.

Local Area Network requires a constant LAN administration as there are issues related to software setup and hardware failures

What is WAN (Wide Area Network)?

WAN (Wide Area Network) is another important computer network that which is spread across a large geographical area. WAN network system could be a connection of a LAN which connects with other LAN’s using telephone lines and radio waves. It is mostly limited to an enterprise or an organization.

Wide Area Network (WAN)

Characteristics of WAN

Below are the characteristics of WAN:

The software files will be shared among all the users; therefore, all can access to the latest files.

Any organization can form its global integrated network using WAN.

Advantages of WAN

Here are the benefits/pros of WAN:

WAN helps you to cover a larger geographical area. Therefore business offices situated at longer distances can easily communicate.

Contains devices like mobile phones, laptop, tablet, computers, gaming consoles, etc.

WLAN connections work using radio transmitters and receivers built into client devices.

Here are the drawbacks/cons of WAN network:

The initial setup cost of investment is very high.

It is difficult to maintain the WAN network. You need skilled technicians and network administrators.

There are more errors and issues because of the wide coverage and the use of different technologies.

It requires more time to resolve issues because of the involvement of multiple wired and wireless technologies.

Offers lower security compared to other types of network in computer.

What is MAN (Metropolitan Area Network)?

A Metropolitan Area Network or MAN is consisting of a computer network across an entire city, college campus, or a small region. This type of network is large than a LAN, which is mostly limited to a single building or site. Depending upon the type of configuration, this type of network allows you to cover an area from several miles to tens of miles.

Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)

Characteristics of MAN

Here are important characteristics of the MAN network:

It mostly covers towns and cities in a maximum 50 km range

Mostly used medium is optical fibers, cables

Data rates adequate for distributed computing applications.

Advantages of MAN

Here are the pros/benefits of MAN network:

It offers fast communication using high-speed carriers, like fiber optic cables.

It provides excellent support for an extensive size network and greater access to WANs.

The dual bus in MAN network provides support to transmit data in both directions concurrently.

A MAN network mostly includes some areas of a city or an entire city.

Here are drawbacks/cons of using the MAN network:

You need more cable to establish MAN connection from one place to another.

In MAN network it is tough to make the system secure from hackers

Other Types of Computer Networks

Apart from above mentioned computer networks, here are some other important types of networks:

WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network)

Storage Area Network

System Area Network

Home Area Network

POLAN- Passive Optical LAN

Enterprise private network

Campus Area Network

Virtual Area Network

Let’s see all these different types of networks in detail:


WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network) helps you to link single or multiple devices using wireless communication within a limited area like home, school, or office building. It gives users an ability to move around within a local coverage area which may be connected to the network. Today most modern day’s WLAN systems are based on IEEE 802.11 standards.

2) Storage-Area Network (SAN)

A Storage Area Network is a type of network which allows consolidated, block-level data storage. It is mainly used to make storage devices, like disk arrays, optical jukeboxes, and tape libraries.

3) System-Area Network

System Area Network is used for a local network. It offers high-speed connection in server-to-server and processor-to-processor applications. The computers connected on a SAN network operate as a single system at quite high speed.

4) Passive Optical Local Area Network

POLAN is a networking technology which helps you to integrate into structured cabling. It allows you to resolve the issues of supporting Ethernet protocols and network apps.

POLAN allows you to use optical splitter which helps you to separate an optical signal from a single-mode optical fiber. It converts this single signal into multiple signals.

5) Home Area Network (HAN):

A Home Area Network is always built using two or more interconnected computers to form a local area network (LAN) within the home. For example, in the United States, about 15 million homes have more than one computer.

These types of network connections help computer owners to interconnect with multiple computers. This network allows sharing files, programs, printers, and other peripherals.

6) Enterprise Private Network :

Enterprise private network (EPN) networks are build and owned by businesses that want to securely connect numerous locations in order to share various computer resources.

7) Campus Area Network (CAN):

A Campus Area Network is made up of an interconnection of LANs within a specific geographical area. For example, a university campus can be linked with a variety of campus buildings to connect all the academic departments.

8) Virtual Private Network:

A VPN is a private network which uses a public network to connect remote sites or users together. The VPN network uses “virtual” connections routed through the internet from the enterprise’s private network or a third-party VPN service to the remote site.

It is a free or paid service that keeps your web browsing secure and private over public WiFi hotspots.


Types of connections in computer networks can be categorized according to their size as well as their purpose

PAN is a computer network which generally consists of a computer, mobile, or personal digital assistant

LAN (Local Area Network) is a group of computer and peripheral devices which are connected in a limited area

WAN (Wide Area Network) is another important computer network that which is spread across a large geographical area

A metropolitan area network or MAN is consisting of a computer network across an entire city, college campus, or a small region

WLAN is a wireless local area network that helps you to link single or multiple devices using. It uses wireless communication within a limited area like home, school, or office building.

SAN is a storage area network is a type of network which allows consolidated, block-level data storage

System area network offers high-speed connection in server-to-server applications, storage area networks, and processor-to-processor applications

POLAN is a networking technology which helps you to integrate into structured cabling

Home network (HAN) is a always built using two or more interconnected computers to form a local area network (LAN) within the home

Enterprise private network (EPN) networks are build and owned by businesses that want to securely connect various locations

Campus area network (CAN) is made up of an interconnection of LANs in a specific geographical area

A VPN is a private network which uses a public network to connect remote sites or users together

What does LAN stand for? – LAN stands for Local Area Network.

What is the difference between LAN and WAN? – LAN is a computer network that covers a small geographic area, like a home, office, or group of buildings, while WAN is a computer network that covers a broader area.

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What Is Mesh Network Topology?

There are many different ways to build a computer network. Mesh network topology is slowly becoming the new gold standard for home networks, but what does it mean to have a “mesh topology”?

We’ll explain the most important things you need to know about network topology, why mesh technology is unique, and why it’s becoming so popular. 

Table of Contents

What Does “Topology” Mean?

Topology refers to how things are arranged in relation to each other. For example, an area’s topological map isn’t used much for detailed navigation, but it shows the “big picture” arrangement of points of interest.

In the context of computer science and networks, topology refers to how the elements of a network are linked together. It describes which nodes on a network can communicate directly before going through another node.

Other Types of Network Topology

This is a simple network setup that doesn’t require much cabling. However, the weakness in a bus topology is that the entire network stops functioning if anything goes wrong with the backbone cable. It’s also hard to pinpoint which device on the network might be causing issues, making troubleshooting time-consuming.

Ring Topology networks don’t have a single cable with terminators on each end. Instead, all the nodes are arranged in a circle, with every node always having another node on both sides. Unlike linear bus topology networks, ring topology networks operate in a full-duplex mode so that data can be sent and received simultaneously. Like bus topology, any fault in the cable brings the whole network down.

Star Topology networks are the most common type of home network today. Here, all of the nodes in the network have a direct connection to a central device. This can be a network switch, hub, or router. All network traffic flows through this primary device.

However, in most home networks, this is a non-issue since most devices are connected to the wireless router using Wi-Fi, with Ethernet reserved for a handful of devices.

Tree Topology (aka Expanded Star Topology, aka Hierarchical Topology) takes the idea of a star topology network and expands it into a tree-like architecture. For example, your home router is the center of your star topology, but it’s a node on a bigger star with a local router, which is a node on an even bigger star. 

The different star topology networks are also connected to a backbone cable, so the “trunk” of the tree topology is a linear bus network, and the “branches” are star topology networks.

Keep these general network designs in mind as we unpack mesh topology.

Mesh Topology

A Mesh Topology network offers a direct connection between any two nodes. Unlike bus or ring topologies, network traffic doesn’t have to pass through every node on the network to reach its destination. Nor does network traffic have to pass through a central hub as it does with a star topology. Any two nodes can communicate privately, with no chance that anyone else on the network can eavesdrop.

That’s true of full mesh networks, but there are two types of mesh network topology, so let’s briefly unpack the first.

Full Mesh Topology Versus Partial Mesh Topology

There are two types of mesh topology. In Full Mesh networks, every node on the network has a point-to-point connection to every other node. This means that no matter where two nodes are located on the network, there’s a direct wired or wireless connection between them. This requires the most complex wiring with the number of connections rapidly with every node added.

A Partial Mesh network has the same basic philosophy in its design that nodes on the network connect directly to other nodes, but not every node is connected to every other node. Every node is connected to at least one other node, and often more than one, but the partial mesh isn’t nearly as complex.

The Advantages of Mesh Topology

In that sense, full mesh networks are like the internet as a whole, where at least one viable route for data transmission is always available, even if large network segments go down. Partial mesh networks offer less redundancy, although the network designers can concentrate on giving the most critical nodes the most connections, balancing redundancy, cost, and complexity.

Mesh networks have exceptional privacy since data moves between network devices in full mesh systems.

Finally, mesh networks have excellent scalability without negatively affecting network performance or bandwidth. A mesh network can grow organically over time by adding new nodes and hooking them into the nearest nodes (partial mesh) or all other notes (full mesh).

Mesh networks have higher power consumption than other network types. That’s because all nodes must be active and turned on to provide routing paths for data. There’s also a significant maintenance burden since individual nodes that develop issues for any reason must be fixed or replaced to maintain network performance.

Wireless Mesh Networks in the Home

Local Area Networks (LANs) used in the home have traditionally been star topology networks. All devices connect to a central router, whether by Wi-Fi or Ethernet. The need for internet connectivity in the entire home is growing with the rise of smart devices and home appliances.

A centralized device can cause performance bottlenecks and limit the reach of both wired connections and wireless signals without using repeaters or extenders. Repeaters and extenders come with complex configurations and worse network performance, so they aren’t the ideal solution for whole-home networking.

Mesh network routers in the home are an example of partial mesh networks or perhaps a type of hybrid topology. Not all nodes are connected to every node. Instead, the primary node connects to the WAN (Wide Area Network), which is another way of referring to the greater internet beyond your home network.

That primary node is connected directly to devices like laptops and smartphones, but it also sets up dedicated wireless connections to other mesh network units. Every mesh router connects to the following mesh unit with the best connection speed and reliability. That connection can be over Wi-Fi or through Ethernet “backhaul,” where a high-speed cable connects some mesh router units.

As devices move around the home, they are seamlessly handed off between mesh units as each one relays the path to the internet. Client nodes such as smartphones are not used as part of the mesh. No traffic is routed through one client device directly to another. All traffic passes to the nearest mesh router node. If you want to expand the network to improve performance or coverage, add more mesh units.

As you can see, “mesh” wireless networks for home use don’t quite match the template of an actual mesh network. Instead, it’s more like having several star-topology networks linked together by a set of dedicated mesh sub-connections. 

What Is An Influencer? Explore The Importance And Types

blog / Digital Marketing Discover the Best Ways to Leverage Influencer Marketing for Your Brand

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Influencers and influencer marketing have become a significant part of marketing strategies across the world, but what is an influencer and influencer marketing, and why should you care about it? In this guide, we take you through everything you need to know about the topic. 

Let’s get started by focusing on the question of what is an influencer. An influencer is an individual with the power to affect buying habits and decision-making of consumers due to their expertise and relationship with their audience. They have a large social media following and create content that generates significant engagement. 

The Importance of Influencers to Your Brand

Now that you know what is an influencer, let’s find out why you should consider working with an influencer for your brand. 

Reach your target and undiscovered audience:

Knowing and reaching your target and potential audience is essential for successful marketing. As such, the social media presence and following of influencers help you connect with your ideal as well as the undiscovered audience.

Enhances brand awareness:

Influencers with a large and legitimate following have a high engagement rate and this helps increase your brand exposure. 

Increases brand credibility and trust:

The influencers’ expertise in their domain is one of the main reasons behind their impact on their audience. Working with influencers can help you gain credibility among people, which will enable you to earn their trust. 

Improved conversion rate:

Influencer promotion and review of your brand can influence purchase decisions and drive more people to your products and services.

What is a Social Media Influencer?

Social media influencers are content creators with a large following and influence on social media platforms. These influencers build an established reputation by creating content on social media and showcasing their knowledge and credibility on a specific topic. 

What is Influencer Marketing?

Influencer marketing leverages influencers to endorse a product or service to a large audience. Its impact is profound and has become an increasingly popular marketing strategy for brands. Let’s take a look at some influencer marketing statistics collated by the Influencer Marketing 2023 report: 

The number of influencer marketing-related service offerings globally grew by 26%, reaching 18,900 firms offering such services in 2023

Influencer marketing-focused platforms raised more than $800 million in funding in 2023 

The influencer marketing industry was projected to grow to $16.4 billion in 2023 

How to Get Started with Influencer Marketing

Define your target audience:

Like any marketing strategy, defining and understanding your target market is critical. 

Determine your goals and objectives:

Figure out your goals and objectives for undertaking influencer marketing. It is essential to have a clear vision of what you want to accomplish.

Find the right influencer:


what is an influencer

for your brand. Ideally, they should be trustworthy and relevant to your brand and have a significant reach and engagement rate. Make sure they are the right fit for your product or service according to your target audience. 

Reach out to the influencer:

As influencers typically get many brand deals, reaching out and convincing them can be complex. Have a good pitch and plan in place. You can provide compensation such as commission and cash. It is also possible to offer them free products instead of monetary payment. 

Create your marketing campaign:

You can either create a campaign for the influencer or give the influencer a creative license—with some instructions—to build content for your brand. Letting influencers create content can be a good option to get unique content that looks authentic and increases your brand credibility.

Monitor campaigns:

Finally, monitor the performance of the campaigns to see if your goals and objectives are met. 

ALSO READ: How to Become an Influencer: A Guide to Mega Growth on Social Media 

Types of Influencers

Nano influencers like @youthsweets are new influencers who start their journey with a small number of highly engaged followers due to their expertise in niche areas. They have a following of 10,000 or fewer.


Micro-influencers like @tinasbeautytips have a considerably large following ranging from 10,000 to 100,000. 

Credit: Tina Le (@tinasbeautytips) • Instagram 

Macro Influencers:

Macro influencers like @hyram have an audience size of 100,00 to one million.

Credit: Hyram (@hyram) Instagram

Mega Influencers:

Mega influencers like @zoesugg have a super-large audience of at least one million followers. These influencers typically have a very high engagement and content visibility rate. 

Credit: Zoë Sugg (@zoesugg) • Instagram

How Much do Influencers Cost?

Their rates are based on a number of factors, such as the demand for influencers in the market, the social media platform, reach, engagement, exclusivity, industry, and content. It also depends on how you pay them based on the marketing Return on Investment (ROI) by evaluating the campaign performance and impact. Some brands even offer influencers free products instead of monetary payment.

How Much do Influencers Make Per Post?

According to InfluencerMarketingHub, here are some typical ‘per post’ rates charged by influencers on different social media: 

Social Media  Nano 























How to Find an Ideal Influencer?

Here are a few more tips on how to find an ideal influencer for your brand: 

Research and list influencers who align with your goals and objectives

Check their engagement metrics

Look beyond their following/followers and focus on their content 

Check the credibility and expertise of the influencer in your industry

Ensure their audience overlaps with your brand to potentially expand your customer base 

Learning, the Emeritus Way

Now that you know what is an influencer and how essential it can be for your brand, it’s time to get started! Learn how to boost your engagement and sales with Emeritus’ digital marketing courses. 

By Krati Joshi 

Write to us at [email protected]

Computer Network Vs Data Communication

Difference Between Computer Network vs Data Communication

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Computer Network

There are different types of implementation of computer networks in the current market and software industry standards. Find below different types of networks that are used in the current industry:

Local Area Network (LAN)

Wide Area Network (WAN)

Home Area Network (HAN)

Metropolitan Area Networks (MAN)

Personal Area Networks (PAN)

Enterprise Private Networks

Global Area Networks (GAN)



Campus Networks

Find below few important uses of computer networks:

It is used for communication among multiple devices and transforms the output into a single device and thus the output becomes more customized.

It implements file sharing features on a more convenient and easier way,

It implements communication processes through email, video chatbox, messaging, etc.

It helps the web information to traverse more easily and conveniently.

Data communication

Both analog and digital data can be transferred through mainly these two processes:

Analog Signal: These are mainly continuous waveforms in nature and transmitted across different mediums and all of these can be done through electromagnetic waves.

Digital Signal: These are mainly discrete in nature and used to represent different voltage pulses. These are mainly associated with the inter-related circuit system and play one of the important roles regarding the communication processes.

Find below a few important technologies for Data Communication:

Satellite Communication.


Computer Networking and Communication Methodologies.

Head To Head Comparison Between Computer Network and Data Communication (Infographics)

Below are the top 7 comparisons between Computer Network and Data Communication:

Key differences between Computer Network and Data Communication

A computer network is basically a set or group of a computer system and other related hardware devices which are interrelated through different communication channels to implement proper communication procedures and related networking methodologies whereas data communication is basically a transmission process that includes digital data transfers between two or more computers or similar devices and vice versa.

There are different types of computer networks that are used in the current industry to process the digital and electronic medium of data transmission and communication.

Computer Networks can be considered as a subset of Data Communication. There can be different ways of transmission procedures for data and among which computer network medium is one of them

Computer networks are mainly dealing with the singles node transmission across different geographies whereas Data communication deals with the transmission of data through multiple nodes and through different mediums.

Data Communication evolves around the different technologies and approaches with the objective of enabling any form of electronic communication whereas computer networking plays one of the most important roles for the same.

Computer networking transfers information through different sharing process and interphases whereas data communication deals with the inter-related methodologies for transferring data and information for the same.

Data Communication deals with the communicating process across different regions and through different process whereas Computer Networking transfers information, files across different localities to communicate data along with it.

Computer Network and Data Communication Comparison Table

Let’s look at the top comparisons between Computer Network and Data Communication.

 Basis of Comparison Between Computer Network and Data Communication Performance Computer Network Data Communication

 Basic Performance Computer Network is one of the known and best networking methodologies to transfer data and information across different geographies. Data Communication deals with the communication and data transfers across different nodes and which helps in networking methodologies for the same.

Architectural Performance Computer networks can be defined into different  types of architectural layers such as Client-Server, peer-to-peer or hybrid and all of them is primarily depending upon its architecture and the interconnected layers Data Communication uses mainly 3 layers of architectural designs and then deals with the multi-node transmission across different regions and communicating with the same also

Geographical Performance based on Templating Computer Network offers to template through different geographies across different cities and locations. The performance can be based on the layers of networking Data Communication uses different magnetic multimedia and three layers of structures. The twisted pair cable can be used to transfer across different layers and cables and communication performance depends on the same

Performance Testing Performance testing is more preferred in Computer Network than Data Communication Data Communication doesn’t provide any data binding process and direct interrelated testing for the communication parameter is a bit difficult than networking.

Support and Performance Upgradation Computer Network has large community support and extensive documentation libraries. Data Communication also has one of the largest community supports.

Routing Performance Computer Network implements a two-way binding process and thus it is a bit complex and less preferable than Data Communication in terms of routing perspective Data Communication doesn’t provide any data binding and has a simple and easier approach towards routing than Computer Network

Transmission Performance Computer Network has a different set of transmission methodologies across different locations and regions Data Communication has three layers of transmission approaches and different sets of wireless methodologies for the same.


Both Computer Network vs Data Communication is important in transmission methodologies and communication industries. Data Communication mainly consists of different transmission methodologies and computer networking is one of them. Computer networking is used to transfer both digital and electronical data to communicate that information across different geographies and mediums. Thus it can be concluded that both are very important and inter-related to each other with their own importance and plays one of the most important roles in the communication and software industries.

Recommended Articles

This was a guide to the top difference between the Computer Network vs Data Communication. Here we discuss the key differences between the Computer Network vs Data Communication with infographics and comparison table. You may also have a look at the following articles to learn more

Application Protocols In Computer Network

Application Protocols in Computer Network

There are several protocols which work for users in Application Layer. Application layer protocols can be broadly divided into two categories:

Protocols which are used by chúng tôi email for example, eMail.

Protocols which help and support protocols used by chúng tôi example DNS.

Few of Application layer protocols are described below:

Domain Name System

The Domain Name System (DNS) works on Client Server model. It uses UDP protocol for transport layer communication. DNS uses hierarchical domain based naming scheme. The DNS server is configured with Fully Qualified Domain Names (FQDN) and email addresses mapped with their respective Internet Protocol addresses.

A DNS server is requested with FQDN and it responds back with the IP address mapped with it. DNS uses UDP port 53.

Simple Mail Transfer Protocol

The Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is used to transfer electronic mail from one user to another. This task is done by means of email client software (User Agents) the user is using. User Agents help the user to type and format the email and store it until internet is available. When an email is submitted to send, the sending process is handled by Message Transfer Agent which is normally comes inbuilt in email client software.

Message Transfer Agent uses SMTP to forward the email to another Message Transfer Agent (Server side). While SMTP is used by end user to only send the emails, the Servers normally use SMTP to send as well as receive emails. SMTP uses TCP port number 25 and 587.

Client software uses Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) or POP protocols to receive emails.

File Transfer Protocol

The File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is the most widely used protocol for file transfer over the network. FTP uses TCP/IP for communication and it works on TCP port 21. FTP works on Client/Server Model where a client requests file from Server and server sends requested resource back to the client.

FTP uses out-of-band controlling i.e. FTP uses TCP port 20 for exchanging controlling information and the actual data is sent over TCP port 21.

The client requests the server for a file. When the server receives a request for a file, it opens a TCP connection for the client and transfers the file. After the transfer is complete, the server closes the connection. For a second file, client requests again and the server reopens a new TCP connection.

Post Office Protocol (POP)

The Post Office Protocol version 3 (POP 3) is a simple mail retrieval protocol used by User Agents (client email software) to retrieve mails from mail server.

When a client needs to retrieve mails from server, it opens a connection with the server on TCP port 110. User can then access his mails and download them to the local computer. POP3 works in two modes. The most common mode the delete mode, is to delete the emails from remote server after they are downloaded to local machines. The second mode, the keep mode, does not delete the email from mail server and gives the user an option to access mails later on mail server.

Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP)

The Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is the foundation of World Wide Web. Hypertext is well organized documentation system which uses hyperlinks to link the pages in the text documents. HTTP works on client server model. When a user wants to access any HTTP page on the internet, the client machine at user end initiates a TCP connection to server on port 80. When the server accepts the client request, the client is authorized to access web pages.

To access the web pages, a client normally uses web browsers, who are responsible for initiating, maintaining, and closing TCP connections. HTTP is a stateless protocol, which means the Server maintains no information about earlier requests by clients.

HTTP versions

HTTP 1.0 uses non persistent HTTP. At most one object can be sent over a single TCP connection.

HTTP 1.1 uses persistent HTTP. In this version, multiple objects can be sent over a single TCP connection.


The Remote Computer Requires Network Level Authentication

With proper configuration, Windows 10 can be used to connect to another remote computer over either a local connection or over the internet. However, many users have reported an error, where they cannot connect to remote computers over the network, getting an error that says the following:

“The remote computer requires network level authentication, which your computer does not support. For assistance, contact your system administrator or technical support.”


“The remote computer that you are trying to connect to requires Network level authentication but your Windows domain controller cannot be contacted to perform NLA. If you are an administrator on the remote computer, you can disable NLA by using the options on the Remote tab of the System Properties dialog box.”

Here, I shall discuss how you can resolve the issue if you get the network level authentication error on your system.

Here is a simple step that you can follow to disable network level authentication easily. This is done using the System Properties dialog box. Follow these steps carefully to solve the ‘the remote computer requires network level authentication’ error message.

Open a Run dialog by pressing Win + R.

Type chúng tôi and press Enter to launch the System Properties window.

Go to the Remote

Under the Remote desktop subsection, uncheck the box next to ‘Allow connections only from computers running Remote Desktop with Network level authentication (recommended)’

Reboot your system.

Now check if you are able to connect to the remote computer with this setting disabled. This should solve the error on your device. There are some other ways to disable the network level authentication on your system as well.

One of the easiest methods to disable NLA consists using PowerShell commands to perform the desired action. PowerShell allows you to tap into the remote computer and after targeting the machine, execute the command to disable NLA.

Note: Replace Target-Machine-Name with your machine name

(Get-WmiObject -class “Win32_TSGeneralSetting” -Namespace rootcimv2terminalservices -ComputerName $TargetMachine -Filter “TerminalName=’RDP-tcp’”).SetUserAuthenticationRequired(0)

Group policy editor is a powerful tool that can help you customize many important Windows settings without having to go through editing registry. Disabling NLA using the group policy editor can be very useful especially if you are blanket disabling. Follow these steps to disable ‘remote desktop network level authentication’ using local group policy editor.

Open a Run dialog by pressing Win + R.

Type gpedit.msc and press Enter to launch the Local Group Policy Editor.

Require user authentication for remote connections by using Network level authentication

Check if the error has been resolved on your device by attempting to connect to the remote desktop using NLA disabled.

You can also use the registry to solve the ‘the remote computer requires network level authentication’ error on your network system. Follow these steps to solve the remote desktop authentication error on your remote desktop.

Note: The registry is one the most powerful and important tools in Windows, and making any changes without knowing the consequences can possibly brick your device. Make sure to prepare a backup before making any changes to your device, and follow the provided steps precisely.

Open a Run dialog by pressing Win + R.



Close the registry editor and reboot your device.

Now check if the network level authentication error is resolved on your device.

Remote desktops can be very useful in sharing and interacting with computers in other locations in a local manner. However, the ‘the remote computer requires network level authentication’ error can prevent remote connections and prevent sharing of resources. Now you know how to solve this using the solutions provided above. Comment below if you found this useful, and to discuss further the same.

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