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Few releases of any distribution have received as much attention as Ubuntu 11.04 (codenamed Natty Narwhal). Most of the buzz is about the switch to the new Unity desktop — and deservedly so, since it is radically different from the GNOME desktop it replaces. However, Natty also features some changes to widgets, the installer, and the Ubuntu Software Center, many of which — like Unity itself — reflect Ubuntu’s ongoing concerns about usability and design issues, while having mixed levels of success.

This concern has always loomed large in Ubuntu. However, it became even stronger several years ago, when Shuttleworth decided that usability and design were areas where Ubuntu and its corporate arm Canonical could “make a significant contribution” to open source software. Since then, Ubuntu has introduced such innovations as the app indicators, the repositioning of title bar buttons, and a new color-coded default theme reminiscent of Apple’s.

In 11.04, this concern continues on all levels. At the level of widgets — the pieces of windows used to manipulate them — you might notice that Natty has done away with the traditional scroll bar.

Instead, Natty offers what its developers call “overlay scrollbars”: a red gauge a few pixels thick to indicate the current position in the window. When you need to change your position in the window, running the cursor over the gauge summons a set of arrows outside the window that you can drag upon.

This novelty is economical, but you might wonder about the point of it — on today’s wide screen monitors, do we really need to save the few pixels required by the scroll bar? On a netbook especially, the new gauge can be hard to see (which is no doubt why it is colored red).

The same sort of minimalist widget appears — more successfully — on the launcher, the replacement for the main menu, favorites menu, and taskbar. Instead of the space-stealing taskbar, the launcher marks open applications with an arrow to the left of its icon, and adds an arrow to the right to indicate the currently active application.

A second innovation on the launcher is seen when the icons on the launcher fill the entire height of the screen. When that happens, icons on the bottom of the launcher are collapsed. Run a mouse over a collapsed icon, and the launcher’s display repositions itself to show the collapsed icons.

Although finding an application among the collapsed icons can sometimes be challenging, the fact that several collapsed icons display at once means that you do not have to be completely accurate when you choose collapsed icons. On the whole, it’s another elegant alternative to the scroll bar.

Another area where you can see usability tinkering in Natty is the built-in help for the installer. However, like the widgets, Ubuntu’s installer help is a mixed success.

At its best, the installer help is colloquial and clear, using contractions to create a casual tone. For example, the title for the installer page for setting the time zone is simply, “Where Are You,” and the field for manually entering a location is annotated, “[type here to change].”

At its worst, though, the clarity of the language degenerates into an unhelpful vagueness. Glossing “Your computer’s name” as “the name it uses when it talks to other computers” is not particularly helpful, and neither are the partitioning choices of “Erase disk and install” and “Something Else.”

As for the list of features that displays while files are being copied and installed, I seriously doubt that any apps will “make your computer delightful to use,” no matter how magical or handy they are. At such points, the language of the installer seems to have become pure marketing-speak, and ceases being useful.

Desktop tools like the Ubuntu Software Center are not new. However, in the past, many of them have been weakened by the fact that the descriptions of packages were taken directly from those included in the packages — and, being written by developers, those descriptions were often terse and vague to the point of being cryptic.

Now, in Natty, the Ubuntu Software Center includes reviews and ratings by users, creating an Amazon-like atmosphere. Not only can you now get a variety of opinions, but the reviews are almost always more complete and more thoughtful than the package descriptions.

Once you install a package, you can return the favor and create an account with Ubuntu Software Center to write your own review.

The Unity Stakes

Originally Ubuntu Netbook Edition, Unity has been anticipated both eagerly and fearfully ever since the announcement that it would replace GNOME in Natty.

You're reading Ubuntu 11.04, Natty Narwhal: Successes And Failures

Examples Of Digital Marketing Strategy Failures

What can we learn from these examples of failed digital marketing strategies?

There is a tendency for both brands and agencies to accentuate the positive in case studies and write-ups of campaigns and case studies. It’s understandable to take this positive approach to hide bad news out of sight of investors, clients and consumers. However, we can often learn more when marketing failures are reviewed. In this article I’ll take a look at 4 examples of digital strategy failures that highlight good practices by showing poor practices.

Despite the fact that chúng tôi went spectacularly bust over a decade ago, it still offers a unique insight into one of the biggest and most costly digital business failures in European history. chúng tôi aimed to become a first-to-market global brand selling sportswear and designer clothes.   The business launched in 18 countries in the autumn of 1999, spent £125 million in six months – including £500,000 a month on product photography, significant sums on their own fashion magazine, funding for offices in five countries and $22.4 million on marketing and PR. It then looked for further funding to increase it’s global reach and cover its spiralling costs. They presented expected growth figures in a meeting with respected venture capitalist Larry Linehan, but when they were unable to answer basic questions on conversion rates, customer acquisition costs and required visitor numbers, he’s reported to have told them  – “Sorry for my bluntness, but I think you’re going to be out of business by Christmas.” He was wrong. They held out until 18th May 2000. You can see more about the failed approach in this article by Dave Chaffey reviewing Boo as an example of a failed digital strategy. Key lesson: chúng tôi clearly had a weak digital marketing plan/team. If chúng tôi had a better handle on their key metrics and ecommerce levers such as customer life time value (CLTV), the cost to acquire a customer (CAC) derived from the CLTV and a decent view on traffic sources and conversation rates then they might have been slower to expand and controlled their incredible “burn rate”.

3. Joost 4. Ecomom

Ecomom gives us a more recent example of a failed digital strategy showing that some lessons from the chúng tôi era haven’t been learned. Ecomom was a startup internet retail company selling earth friendly mom and maternity products including food, toys, apparel, and other baby related items. With headquarters in Las Vegas and San Francisco and a third-party fulfillment in Los Angeles, any volume could be shipped within 24 hours. Founded in 2007, by 2011 it had turnover of just over $1 million. This post describes how Ecomum made some fundamental financial management errors in running a business. An accountant joining the company in 2011 found that it had a contribution margin of –48% which he identified when he joined the company. In other words, for every additional $60 average order shipped the variable cost was $89 and the company lost $29. This situation was caused by heavy discounting with common use of 50% discounts on daily deal sites like Groupon. To make matters worse, although discounts were meant to be one time only, the company couldn’t limit them by customer, so every discounted order has a 50% reduction regardless whether they were from a new company or an existing company. To make matters worse, The company sales manager was paid based on sales achieved before discounting… Lessons from this example: This example again shows that it is essential to set the right KPIs to review and control a business. The danger of over-reliance on discounting and sales promotion as a sales tactics is also shown the importance of having a balanced management team with different skills and experiences.

Ubuntu Aims For Linux Desktop Unity

The next release of Ubuntu Linux could have a very different interface than regular Linux desktop users are used to seeing. Ubuntu Founder Mark Shuttleworth today announced that the Ubuntu 11.04 Natty Narwal release would use the Unity interface as its default Linux desktop shell. To date, Unity has been available to Ubuntu users as a netbook-focused user interface.

Shuttleworth announced the dramatic change at the Ubuntu Developer Summit (UDS), which kicked off today in Florida. In addition to the new desktop, Shuttleworth also announced a new effort to enable Ubuntu users to sponsor open source projects with financial donations. Shuttleworth’s overall goal is to continue to improve the quality of Ubuntu Linux as well as the broader ecosystem of open source projects on which it relies.

The move to Unity on the desktop will provide Ubuntu users that have 3D capable hardware with a new desktop experience that is different than the typical GNOME desktop. Though Unity is not technically part of the GNOME project, Shuttleworth noted that Unity is a shell for GNOME and it will run all the same applications that run on GNOME today. He also stressed that Ubuntu remains committed to GNOME, and the move to use Unity for Ubuntu 11.04 should be seen in a positive light.

“We’re working hard to re-assure folks in the GNOME community that our intent is to continue to support the values of GNOME as a project,” Shuttleworth said during a press conference.

Shuttleworth added that Ubuntu today puts a tremendous amount of effort into the GNOME project. Unity in some respects is a competitive effort to the GNOME Shell project which is expected to debut in the GNOME 3 release in 2011.

“The shell is simply the piece that is used for launching applications and for switching between running applications,” Shuttleworth said. “All of the applications are the same. There are developers within GNOME that just focus on GNOME Shell and that’s the piece that we won’t be integrating, but the rest of GNOME will fit perfectly into the Unity environment.”

Shuttleworth noted that Ubuntu developers have participated in the GNOME Shell effort, though they have taken a divergent view on a number of issues including how application menus should appear in the system. As well, Shuttleworth said that GNOME Shell has taken some technical decisions in its stack that do not align with Ubuntu’s direction. Lastly, Shuttleworth said that GNOME Shell is not yet a technology that is ready for wide usage.

“GNOME Shell is somewhat behind and we couldn’t ship it in this release,” Shuttleworth said. “We needed a solution now.”

Shuttleworth also dismissed any notion that Unity could lead to an open core model for Ubuntu where proprietary software is baked into versions of the Unity interface.

“We have absolutely no plans for any proprietary extensions to Unity,” Shuttleworth said.

Funding Open Source Software

With the 11.04 release, Shuttleworth also expects to debut a new system that will enable Ubuntu users to sponsor open source software projects with financial donations. The new sponsorship system will be built into the Ubuntu Software Center which was recently expanded in the 10.10 release, to enable users to purchase commercial software.

“In general we have a policy that where we are benefitting from open source and we can attribute that benefit to a particular upstream project, we share the benefits with those upstream projects,” Shuttleworth said. “This is a general mechanism for individuals to support projects and we will provide a mechanism for that flow to happen.”

Sean Michael Kerner is a senior editor at chúng tôi the news service of chúng tôi the network for technology professionals.

How To Setup Sendmail In Ubuntu

When it comes to sending email using Linux system, there are a few options to choose from. However, Sendmail is popular choices, and for good reason. Sendmail is efficient and reliable mail transfer agent (MTA) that handle large volume of emails.

In this article, we will show you step-by-step how to set up Sendmail on your Ubuntu system.

Before we start installation process, let’s talk to understand how Sendmail works. Sendmail works by accepting email messages from local or remote mail clients, then relaying them to destination mail servers. This messages can delivered to other machines on the local network or to external addresses on Internet. Sendmail uses Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) to communicate with any mail servers or clients.

Installing Sendmail on Ubuntu

The first step in setting up Sendmail on your Ubuntu system is to install it. To do so, open a terminal and enter following command −

sudo apt-get update sudo apt-get install sendmail

This will download and install Sendmail package on your Ubuntu system.

Configuring Sendmail

Once Sendmail is installed, you need to configure it to work with your system. The main configuration file for Sendmail is located at chúng tôi However, you should not edit this file directly. Instead, you should use chúng tôi file, which is a macro configuration file that is used to generate chúng tôi file.

To edit chúng tôi file, open a terminal and enter following command −

sudo nano /etc/mail/

This will open chúng tôi file in Nano editor. In this file, you can set a variety of options for Sendmail, such as hostname, domain name, and mail relay settings. Here are a few examples of common settings −

define(`_CLASS_A_NET', `')dnl define(`_CLASS_B_NET', `')dnl define(`_CLASS_C_NET', `')dnl define(`_MAX_MESSAGE_SIZE',`10000000')dnl define(`_QUEUE_DELIVERY', `30m')dnl

These settings define IP address ranges that are allowed to relay email through your system, the maximum message size that can be sent, and maximum time that an email can be in queue before it is delivered.

Once you have made your changes to chúng tôi file, you need to generate chúng tôi file. To do this, enter following command in terminal −

This will generate chúng tôi file based on settings in chúng tôi file.

Starting Sendmail

After you have installed and configured Sendmail, you need to start Sendmail service. To do this, enter following command in terminal −

sudo service sendmail start

This will start Sendmail service and enable it to send and receive emails.

Testing Sendmail

To test if Sendmail is working properly, you can send a test email from command line. To do this, enter following command −

Troubleshooting Sendmail

If you encounter any issues with Sendmail, there are a few things you can check. First, make sure that Sendmail service is running by entering following command in terminal −

sudo service sendmail status

This will show you the status of Sendmail service and whether it is running or not. If it is not running, you can start it by entering following command −

sudo service sendmail start

If Sendmail service is running but you are still having issues, you can check the logs for any error messages. The Sendmail logs are located in chúng tôi file. You can view logs by entering following command in terminal −

sudo less /var/log/mail.log

This will open log file in less text editor. You can use arrow keys to scroll through logs and look for any error messages.

Additional Configuration Options

In addition to basic configuration options we covered earlier, there are many other options you can configure in chúng tôi file. Here are a few examples −

Relaying options − You can configure Sendmail to relay emails to specific domains or IP addresses, or to require authentication for relaying. This is useful if you want to limit who can use your Sendmail server to send emails. For example, you can add following line to chúng tôi file to allow relaying only for a specific domain −

FEATURE(`relay_hosts_only')dnl FEATURE(`access_db')dnl

Virtual domains − You can configure Sendmail to handle email for multiple virtual domains, each with its own set of users and aliases. This is useful if you are hosting multiple domains on a single server. For example, you can add following lines to chúng tôi file to set up a virtual domain −

FEATURE(`virtusertable', `hash -o /etc/mail/virtusertable')dnl VIRTUSER_DOMAIN_FILE(`/etc/mail/virtusertable')dnl

Anti-spam measures − You can configure Sendmail to implement various anti-spam measures, such as filtering out emails with suspicious content or rejecting emails from blacklisted IP addresses. For example, you can add following lines to chúng tôi file to enable spam filtering −

FEATURE(`dnsbl', `')dnl FEATURE(`blacklist_recipients')dnl FEATURE(`badmx', `')dnl FEATURE(`accept_unresolvable_domains')dnl

By configuring these and other options in chúng tôi file, you can customize Sendmail to meet your specific needs.

Using Sendmail with Web Applications

If you are running a web application on your Ubuntu system that needs to send emails, you can use Sendmail as mail transport agent. Most web applications, such as WordPress or Drupal, have an option to configure mail settings. To use Sendmail, you simply need to specify the path to Sendmail executable in application’s mail settings.

By configuring your web application to use Sendmail, you can ensure that emails sent from your application are delivered reliably and efficiently.


In this article, we have provided you with a step-by-step guide on how to set up Sendmail on your Ubuntu system. We have covered installation process, how to configure Sendmail using chúng tôi file, how to start Sendmail service, and how to test and troubleshoot Sendmail. By following these steps, you can set up a reliable and efficient mail transfer agent on your Ubuntu system.

What Version Of Ubuntu Do I Have?

You can check what version of Ubuntu you have using several methods, and each has its benefits. Some give you the major version; others give you all the little details.

Why Should You Find Your Version of Ubuntu?

You know you’ve got Ubuntu. Why does the version matter?

Table of Contents

Like the different versions of Windows, some things will work in some versions of Ubuntu, and some will work only in others. You need to know what version you have to install the proper drivers for your hardware and apps that will work best on your version.

It also helps you identify what updates your Ubuntu operating system needs.

Some versions of Ubuntu are best used as servers, and some are best for desktop environments.

When asking someone for help with Ubuntu, they’ll want to know what version you have.

What Are the Versions of Ubuntu?

Windows and macOS are straightforward when it comes to versions. Many PCs are either Windows 11 or Windows 10. MacOS’ most recent versions are Monterey, Big Sur, and Catalina.

Ubuntu version numbers are based on the year and month of release. Ubuntu releases also come with code names made of two alliterative words. It’s an adjective and an animal name, so the result is a name like Bionic Beaver. For example, the latest standard Ubuntu release is 21.10 Impish Indri. (An indri is a large species of lemur.)

If that wasn’t confusing enough, there are two current versions at any time. There are the interim release and long-term service (LTS) versions. Support for the interim Ubuntu release is 9-months from release. The LTS version is used where the stability of the instance is critical. It gets five years of standard support and can have another five years under the Extended Security Maintenance (ESM). ESM is free for personal use and is a paid subscription for enterprises.

Canonical Ltd. builds Ubuntu on the open-source Linux kernel, so the Linux kernel version can be important to know. A current Linux kernel version number may look like 5.15. The first number is the major release version, and the remaining numbers are the minor release.

Put them all together, and you could get an Ubuntu version like 22.04 LTS Jammy Jellyfish, Linux kernel 5.15.

How to Find The Version of Ubuntu in the Windows Linux Subsystem

Yes, you can run Ubuntu within Windows with Microsoft’s Windows Linux Subsystem (WSL).


Ubuntu for Windows


Upon starting, Ubuntu shares the version and more information in the command line. The version in the example is

Ubuntu 20.04 LTS

. It also shows the Linux kernel used as

. Note the


part. There are two versions of Ubuntu Linux for WSL, 1 and 2, and each has its pros and cons.

Already opened Ubuntu WSL, and that line is gone? Check the section below on finding the Ubuntu version through the command line. They also work in WSL.

How to Find the

Version of Ubuntu

in the Command Line

If you regularly use terms like “Linux distro” or “bash,” the command line interface is for you.







to open the command line terminal.

Use any of the following commands to check the Ubuntu version. Each command shows varying amounts of information about the version and the system.

lsb_release -d

For the shortest result, use the command lsb_release -d. The lsb_release command reveals the Linux Standard Base (lsb) information for any Linux distribution.

lsb_release -a

Using the -a gives complete information about Ubuntu, including Distributor ID, Description, Release, and Codename. Oddly, Codename doesn’t reveal the full codename, which is Jammy Jellyfish in the version shown below.


The hostnamectl utility changes or returns information about the host or hostname. Using it without any options only returns the hostname info. Look for the Operating System line to get the Ubuntu version and the Kernel line for the Linux kernel version.

cat /etc/issue

The concatenate (cat) command is usually used to join files together. When used without any options and just the filepath/filename (etc/issue), it displays the contents of the issue file. Ignore the n l. It’s not important in this context.

cat /etc/os-release

Just like the command above, this shows the contents of the os-release file. Note the Version line, which shows the entire codename.

uname -r

To see just the Linux core version, use the command uname -r. The uname utility gives information about the system but not about Ubuntu itself.

How to Find the Version of Ubuntu Using Neofetch

Neofetch is a bash app that displays system information creatively with ASCII art.

Open the bash terminal and install with the command

sudo apt install neofetch

. Then enter your password, and it will find the neofetch.

Once the neofetch package has been found, enter Y to begin the installation.

When the installation is done, enter the command



To install a similar utility called Superfetch (not to be confused with Windows Superfetch), follow the same procedure above, substituting superfetch where you used neofetch. Each returns slightly different information, so pick the one with the information you’ll need most often.

How to Find the Version of Ubuntu Using the GUI

Maybe getting into the terminal and working with bash and the command line is more than you want to do.

Select the

Show Applications

icon and then select



It should open to show the


screen where you can find the

OS Name

. If not, scroll to the bottom of the Settings window and select



Now You Know Your Ubuntu

With ten ways to find the Ubuntu version, many of them providing other system information, you’ll know Ubuntu better. You’ll be able to decide what updates you need, find apps that’ll work on it, and know when it’s time to upgrade to the newest version of Ubuntu.

Complete Guide To Different Steps To Install Ubuntu

How to Install Ubuntu?

The following article provides an outline for How to Install Ubuntu. Ubuntu is an Operating system. Ubuntu Release Links. It’s an open-source LINUX distribution based primarily on DEBIAN. Ubuntu is released every 6 months, its Long term support (LTS) releases every 2 years. Ubuntu’s latest release is 18.10; we will work and show the installation process on 18.04 LTS.

Start Your Free Software Development Course

Web development, programming languages, Software testing & others


IA-32, AMD64

ARMhf (ARMv7 + VFPv3-D16)


Only for servers: POWER8 (ppc64le) and s390x

Getting Started:

A user needs to get a copy of the Ubuntu installation image for USBs or DVDs. These are some of the most preferred options to install Ubuntu.

System Requirement:

1 GHz x86 processor (Pentium 4 or better)

1 GB of system memory (ram)

5 GB of disk space (at least 15 GB is recommended)

Video support capable of 1024×768 resolution

Audio support

An Internet connection (highly recommended, but not required)

Note: If you have a 64-bit version, prefer the 64-bit download and the same for the 32-bit users.

Creating a Bootable USB Drive

Set the USB in your device USB slot.

Open cmd application and ‘Run as administrator from the context menu. A user will get a small window with some actions to perform.

Type ‘diskpart’ and confirm. This will start the storage device manager.

Now enter the command ‘list disk’; this will display all the available storage devices.

Choose your disk from here as a user will have to select the disk to proceed.

Now enter the command ‘sel nickname.’

Now enter the command ‘clean’ to delete all the files from the USB.

Now enter the command ‘create partition primary’ for the main partition (into the disk).

Now enter the command ‘list pair’ and select ‘sel par 1.’

Now activate the partition with the command ‘active.’

Some last adjustments, format the USB using this command.

"format fs=FAT32 label="WINDOWS USB" quick override."

Once the process is finished, users must enter the command “assign’ to automatically assign a drive later to your USB.

Enter ‘exit’ to close your DiskPart, and then ‘exit’ again to close the command prompt.

This is how the screen looks if everything is rightly done. This bootable USB not only works as installation media but also allow its users to test Ubuntu without avoiding any permanent changes to the computer system. A user can run the entire OS from the USB. So you have the bootable USB drive, let’s see the process to install Ubuntu.

Process To Install Ubuntu

Plug your USB in the computer slot and restart your computer. Once your computer finds this plugged USB stick, you will get a quick loading screen with a Welcome window’. Move ahead by selecting the preferred language, and the screen u will get from now onwards is shown below.

Select the ‘Install Ubuntu’ button; this will start the installation process.

Note: The action taken in the above screen completely depends upon the users (like internet connection selection and updates while installing). These will not affect the application performances in any way. So, a user can deselect them as well.

Now, a user has to allocate space; let’s see how. The Ubuntu installer will automatically detect any existing OS installed on your machine.

Install alongside other OS

Upgrade Ubuntu

Erase and install Ubuntu

Something Else

We will choose the ‘install alongside other OS’.

Who are you? A screen is meant to fetch some personal details (including the credentials) from the users. Ubuntu needs to know the account details. After successful configuration, these details will be reflected and used to work.


What you want to call your computer

Username details


How you want Ubuntu to log in


You have done all your installation work; the last configuration is needed.

This is the Login option. At the bottom of the screen, a user has two options regarding how to log into Ubuntu.

Login automatically: Here, Ubuntu will log in to your primary account automatically when you start your device. In this case, you dot have to provide your username and password.

Require my password to login: This is the default selection. This will provide unauthorized access to your device. After the installation, if a user has opted, this login screen will pop out every time. Any user can have different login credentials for the same computer.

Encrypt my home folder: This is more secure and has an additional layer of security. By selecting this, Ubuntu will automatically enable encryption on your home folder.

Most of us prefer to use Windows as it is very user-friendly, but there are some limitations of Windows when compared to Ubuntu.

Given below are some facts about how Ubuntu scores over Windows:

Unlike Windows, Ubuntu is Free.

Ubuntu is completely customizable; the moment you install Ubuntu, you can see the behavior. You can personalize every single element on your UI/UX like notification sounds, popup styles and layouts, fonts, workspaces, and even animations related to the system.

Ubuntu is more secure; you can set a password for any number of folders and files.

Good for development purposes.

It can be updated without restarting.

Ubuntu is Open source, unlike Windows.

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