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Electronic logging devices (ELDs) are used on commercial vehicles to, among other things, record how long drivers are on the road.

ELDs are required by law to be used by many commercial vehicles with engines that have been manufactured in the model year 2000 or later.

Businesses that don’t abide by the federal ELD mandate are subject to a range of penalties and fines.

This article is for business owners wanting to learn more about ELDs and whether their vehicles are required to have them installed.

Driving trucks or company-owned vehicles can be a dangerous job. In an effort to create a safe work environment for drivers, many businesses that operate a fleet of vehicles are required to have electronic logging devices (ELD) installed in their trucks and busses. If your business has a fleet of vehicles, it is important to have a clear understanding of what an ELD is, how they operate, their benefits and who is required to use them.

What is an electronic logging device (ELD)?

An electronic logging device (ELD) is a device that automatically records driving time and hours of service (HOS) records for drivers of commercial motor vehicles. It also records data on the vehicle’s engine, movement and miles driven. Truck drivers, fleet managers, and dispatchers can use the ELD’s real-time information about the driver’s status to ensure fleet compliance with industry regulations, support planning of schedules, and adherence to required inspections.

To obtain all of this information, ELDs are connected to the vehicle’s engine. Information from those devices is then automatically uploaded into fleet management software.

ELD rule

The federal ELD mandate, which is part of the Federal Highway Administration’s MAP-21 Act, requires that commercial drivers use ELDs when they are required to prepare HOS records of duty status (RODS). The rule sets performance and design standards for ELDs, which must be certified and registered with the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), and determines what documents drivers must keep to meet the rule.

What do ELDs do?

The ELD connects to the commercial motor vehicle’s engine and records driving time to track HOS. It automatically records driving activity, miles driven, engine hours, ignition status, location, and other key data points (e.g., date, time, driver ID, user authentication).

The ELD sends engine and GPS location data to the fleet company’s main server, creates duty status logs, and sends the information to the ELD’s mobile app for drivers and fleet managers to view. The device continually updates this information to provide reports in real time.

Drivers, dispatchers and fleet managers can use the ELD’s mobile app on their smartphone or tablet to access electronic logging information. The mobile app syncs with fleet management software to produce ELD reports, maps, and notifications for fleet and compliance managers.


The FMCSA mandates that ELDs must:

Be registered with the FMCSA

Have manufacturer certification

Meet specific technical specifications

Many ELDs consist of a device that includes a preloaded mobile app. The carrier can also use a bring your own device (BYOD) solution that works with their hardware.

The ELD needs to be able to:

Synchronize with the engine control module

Automatically record driving time and details

Record location via GPS technology

Support electronic data transfer (e.g., wireless, email, USB, Bluetooth)

Prevent tampering with the device

Support certification of driver records (every 24 hours)

Display report for safety officials (on screen or paper)

Potential uses for ELDs

Fleet owners use ELDs to record their drivers’ drive time and electronically track HOS time as per the FMCSA’s ELD rule. Since ELDs record a lot of data in addition to driver logs, fleet owners can use them to support their fleet management system. Companies across many different industries can use ELDs, and the data they collect, to support various strategies and applications, including:

Compliance: ELDs electronically record HOS and duty status in electronic logs. This ensures their vehicles comply with the FMCSA’s ELD mandate. It also removes the need to maintain paper logs.

Safety: Modern ELDs include built-in accelerometers and gyroscopes that enable the detection of certain types of “harsh events” (e.g., collisions, hard braking, severe turns). Fleet managers can use historical data to identify where events occurred, train drivers on safer driving practices and back up drivers in cases where they are falsely accused of causing accidents.

Dispatch and routing: ELDs include built-in GPS devices that provide real-time location data when drivers are on the road. Fleet managers and dispatchers can use this information to determine where their vehicles are at all times. They can also use the data to plan more efficient routes and help drivers avoid traffic congestion.

Reporting: Fleet managers can produce numerous reports using data collected from They can use these reports to improve efficiency and cost-saving opportunities. For example, reports can focus on idle time, rising fuel costs, risky driving behavior, unusually long delivery times and other events tied to specific drivers or vehicles.

Maintenance: ELDs connect to the vehicle’s onboard diagnostics port, which allows it to access critical engine data (e.g., fault codes, mileage). This enables fleet managers to schedule preventative maintenance and quickly respond when repairs are required. Drivers can also submit electronic driver vehicle inspection reports (DRIRs) via the ELD’s mobile app. This is more efficient than filling out paperwork, saving time for the driver and the administrative staff.

Geofencing:Some ELDs come with geofencing capabilities, which can use acquired data to improve security and reduce financial loss. Geofencing allows the fleet manager to create virtual boundaries around real-world physical locations (e.g., a shipping yard, terminal, parking area, bridge). The software can be programmed to send alerts when a vehicle enters or exits the geofenced area, allowing the fleet manager to react to security issues, thefts or drivers entering prohibited areas.

Key Takeaway

ELDs help ensure vehicle and driver compliance, they promote driver safety, and they can improve fleet efficiency. If you’re looking for a GPS fleet management system to monitor ELD data, read our buyer’s guide.

Who uses ELDs?

The ELD rule applies to commercial motor vehicles. The FMCSA defines commercial motor vehicles as “any self-propelled or towed motor vehicle used on a highway in interstate commerce to transport passengers or property when the vehicle” that meets one or more of the following criteria:

It has a gross vehicle weight rating or gross combination weight rating, or gross vehicle weight or gross combination weight, of at least 4,536 kg (10,001 pounds), whichever is greater

It is designed or used to transport more than eight paid passengers, including the driver

It is designed or used to transport more than 15 unpaid passengers, including the driver

It is used to transport hazardous material as per 49 USC 5103 in a quantity that requires placarding under regulations as per 49 CFR, subtitle B, chapter I, subchapter C

Additionally, commercial motor vehicle drivers who are required to maintain RODS for at least eight days out of 30 days must use an ELD. Drivers who fail to follow the ELD rule are subject to a range of penalties and fines, including being put out of service for 10 hours.

Did You Know?

Depending on the type of vehicle and violation, fines could range from $1,500 to more than $20,000.


Drivers who do not have to keep RODS logs are not required to have an ELD on their vehicle. The FMCSA also exempts drivers from having an ELD in their vehicle if they:

Operate vehicles with engines made before the year 2000

Use RODS for no more than eight days within 30 days

Are driveaway-towaway drivers, where the vehicle they drive is part of the shipment

Qualify under short-haul exceptions and are not required to keep RODS

Transport livestock or insects

Required documentation

Any driver who is required to use an ELD must also keep an ELD information packet in their vehicle. This information packet must include:

A user’s manual that explains how to use the ELD

An instruction sheet that outlines the ELD’s data transfer mechanisms, with instructions on how to produce and transfer the driver’s HOS records to a safety official

An instruction sheet on how to report ELD malfunctions and keep records during ELD malfunctions

An eight-day supply (minimum) of blank driver’s records of duty status (RODS) graph-grids

What are the benefits of ELDs?

The main benefit of ELDs is that they help to improve driver safety. ELDs ensure that drivers and fleet owners comply with HOS regulations, which serves to prevent and reduce driver fatigue.

ELDs provide additional benefits for fleet owners and carriers, including:

Simplifying the process of keeping RODS

Automating the RODS process to ensure HOS compliance

Reducing overall paperwork

Saving the time and resources spent on administrative tasks

Employing automated tracking to reduce the risk of errors

Open platform telematics

ELDs that use open platform telematics technology provide a number of benefits, including the ability to:

Provide access to real-time data that can be used to improve fleet productivity and efficiency

Monitor fuel use and efficiency

Produce reports of engine faults, which supports proactive vehicle maintenance

Report vehicle inspections

Support mileage reporting for fuel tax and International Registration Plan

Scan receipts and invoices

How much do ELDs typically cost?

ELDs can range in cost from hundreds to thousands of dollars per vehicle. Costs include the device hardware, a monthly software fee and professional installation. While most ELDs offer comparable features, they all have different price points and levels of support. It’s important, therefore, to choose the right ELD provider and GPS fleet management software to meet the fleet carrier’s specific needs.

While many fleet carriers are legally mandated to equip their commercial vehicles with ELDs, the costs are offset by significant savings from improved fuel efficiency, driver safety and fleet productivity.

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What Are Holy Panda Switches?

Holy Panda Switches are a type of mechanical switch created by Quakemz. They are a relatively new product to the mechanical keyboard market and have quickly gained much attention due to their unique design and performance.

Holy Panda Switches are a hybrid switch combining the stem and housing of two switches to create one unique switch. They feature a rounded actuation feel and smooth tactile feedback, making them ideal for gaming and typing.

They have quickly become popular among mechanical keyboard enthusiasts and have a quick response time and smooth keystrokes. This article will discuss what Holy Panda Switches are, how they work, and why they have become so popular!

The Holy Panda switch is a combination of two parts from different switches. The first part is the Invyr housing, a durable plastic housing that provides protection and stability to the switch. The second part is the stem from Halo True switch. The stem provides a smooth, tactile feel. The Invyr housing and Halo True switch stem make the Holy Panda switch an excellent choice for a mechanical keyboard.

The Holy Panda switches are a type of mechanical keyboard switch known for their noticeable tactile design. These switches are popular because they provide a smooth, even typing experience and a distinct tactile bump when pressed. The bump provides noticeable feedback when typing, making it easier to recognize a keystroke. The Holy Panda switches are also durable, making them popular for gaming and typing enthusiasts.

Holy Panda Switches are a unique and popular switch choice for mechanical keyboards. The name is memorable and catchy, and their construction makes them stand out from other switches. The Holy Panda Switches have a tighter feel than other switches, making them one of the most tactile switch options.

The switch’s housing has a higher tolerance than other switches and a greater actuation force of 65g. This offers a round tactile bump that is well-defined and consistent, making the switch more suitable for gaming and typing, as it offers better feedback than other switches. Additionally, this tighter construction gives the switch a longer life span, as it better resists wear and tear.

The stem of the Holy Panda Switch is different from most other switches. It has a cross-shaped stem, which allows it to be more durable. The design enhances the switch’s longevity and is more resistant to dust, dirt, and other particles.

Finally, the Holy Panda Switch has a unique sound to it. It is much quieter than other switches, making it more suitable for people who prefer a quieter typing experience.

Overall, the Holy Panda Switch is a great choice for anyone who wants a high-quality switch with a great tactile feel and a unique sound. It is durable, long-lasting, and provides a great amount of feedback. Its unique design and construction make it a stand-out choice for mechanical keyboard users.

Today, there are several variants of the Holy Panda switch because the original tooling used to make the original Holy Panda switches got lost. Without it, the production of the original Holy Panda is impossible.

The loss of the original tooling has led to the development of different Holy Panda variants, which strive to replicate the original design and provide a similar typing experience.

However, two of the most notable companies are Drop and Glorious. They both make variations of the original Holy Pandas.

Drop Holy Panda


Rating: 4.5 out of 5.

See Price

Drop’s variation is called the Drop Panda switch and features a softer spring that makes it easier to actuate. Glorious’ variation is called the Glorious Panda switch and is excellent for typing, featuring a slightly heavier spring that makes it easier to type. Both switches are compatible  with mechanical keyboards, and both companies offer a variety of colors and variations of their switches.

Below are some features of Drop Holy Panda Switches:


The Drop Panda switches feature a unique look that differentiates them from traditional Holy Panda switches. The Drop Holy Panda features Halo Switch Stems, Polycarbonate top housing, Nylon bottom housing, and a raised “DROP” labeling on the top housing, which completes the unique look.

The combination of nylon and golden tones gives the switches an eye-catching and stylish appearance. The unique design of the Drop Panda switches has been praised by many for its modern and aesthetically pleasing look.

Tactile feedback

The Drop Panda switches offer tactile feedback close to the original Holy Panda switches. The Panda switches feature a tactile bump comparable to the original Holy Panda switches, resulting in a satisfying feeling when typing. The switches have an actuation force of 64g, slightly higher than the original Holy Pandas, which have an actuation force of 62g. The Panda X switches also feature a 4mm travel distance, providing a smooth typing experience. They have a lifespan of up to 50 million keystrokes, making them reliable and durable. In addition, the Panda switches offer a variety of different colors to choose from, making them perfect for customizing your keyboard.


This gives you a more tactile experience, with the sound and feel of a mechanical switch. The bump sound of the Drop Panda switches is also more consistent and reliable than other mechanical keyboards, making it a great choice for gamers and typists alike.

Glorious Panda


Rating: 4.5 out of 5.

See Price

Glorious Holy Panda switches provide a unique switching experience not found with other switches. These switches are very tactile and feature a smooth and linear operation. They are also highly durable, making them ideal for gaming and typing. The switches also offer a unique sound. Below are the features of the Glorious Holy Panda switches in more detail:


The first thing you will notice about the Glorious Panda is the packaging. Glorious Panda switches have an off-white/grayish tone, giving them a sleek and modern look. The switches also feature raised, textured text that makes the branding quite noticeable. The switches are also packed with springs you can lubricate, giving the switches a smooth, buttery feel when typing.

Tactile Feedback

The tactile bump of the switches starts as soon as you press it downwards. It offers solid and firm feedback that gives you a great typing experience. The tactile bump ensures the switch is firm enough to provide the necessary feedback for an accurate typing experience. This ensures the switch operates as it should, and you don’t have to worry about misfires or missed keystrokes. With the tactile bump, you can feel the switch engaging and disengaging as you press it, which gives you full control of the typing experience.


The YOK Panda switches are a new mechanical switch manufactured by Novelswitch. The switch features a lower actuation force of 60g, meaning that the switch does not provide tactile feedback when pressed. This makes the switch ideal for gaming because the lower actuation force allows for faster action.

They also feature an array of unique colors and interesting names such as Mint, Trash, and Polar, which gives them an aesthetic appeal. The switch also has a long lifespan and is rated to last for up to 50 million keystrokes. This makes it a great choice for anyone looking for a reliable switch. The YOK Panda switch is a great option for gamers and typists looking for a reliable switch with a lower actuation force and a unique aesthetic. The switches have unique colors and interesting names such as Mint, Trash, and Polar.

The Invyl Panda switches were released in October 2024 after a collaboration between two companies known as Invyr and Mech27. The goal of the collaboration was to produce the smoothest linear switch available in the market, but the companies could not achieve this goal. Many people in the community complained about the feel of the switches, as the experience was not pleasant. The community is an online group that uses the Holy Panda mechanical switches.

There are many other variants of the Holy Panda switches. 

The Holy Panda switch is available in several variations, and the price will vary depending on your choice. The Drop Panda switch is the most expensive of the variations, retailing at around $1 per switch. The Glorious Panda switch retails at about 0.6$ per switch. YOK Pandas, which closely resemble Glorious Pandas, retail at around 0.55$.

You can find these switches online and offline retailers, including Amazon and online specialty stores. It’s important to shop around to ensure you get the best price for your switches.

The controversy surrounding the use of the name “Holy Pandas” has been ongoing for some time now between the Glorious and Drop companies. Both companies produce these types of switches. However, Glorious has already petitioned to use the “Holy Panda” trademark. Drop has filed a motion in response to counter the petition in an attempt to protect their rights to the name.

However, on August 24th, 2023, Glorious successfully acquired the Holy Panda trademark, officially ending the dispute between the two companies. This has allowed Glorious to exclusively use the name for their switches, while Drop has been forced to develop a new name for their product. This has been a big win for Glorious.

Holy Panda switches provide excellent tactile feedback and are great for typists and gamers. Unfortunately, the original Holy Panda switches are no longer available since the original tooling equipment was lost. However, two main variants of the original Holy Panda Switches have been created in their place – The Glorious and Drop Pandas. Drop Pandas provide the closest feeling to the original Holy Panda but are also the most expensive. All in all, Holy Pandas are an excellent choice for both typists and gamers.

Holy Pandas are widely considered some of the best switches available. They offer smooth, linear tactile feedback, allowing for easy and precise key presses. They are also known to be incredibly durable, with a lifespan of up to 70 million key presses.

One of the best Panda switches is the Drop Holy Panda switch. They have a smooth tactile feel and fast actuation. They are a clone of the original Holy Panda switches with a few twerks. They are also durable and offer an excellent typing experience.

Yes. Holy Panda Switches are worth their price, as they offer a unique feel and sound compared to traditional mechanical switches. They are often more expensive than other switches, but many people find their unique design and performance worth the price.

Yes, you can use Holy Panda switches on your gaming keyboard. They provide a smooth, fast, and linear keystroke ideal for gaming. However, they have a higher actuation force which you might need some getting used to if you are accustomed to keyboards with a lower actuation force.

What Are Restricted Boltzmann Machines?


The Restricted Boltzmann Machine, developed by Geoffrey Hinton in 1985, is indeed a network of symmetrically interconnected systems that functions like neurons and makes stochastic judgments. After the Netflix Competition, where RBM walt is a type of unsupervised utilized as an information retrieval strategy to forecast ratings and reviews for movies and outperform most of its competition, this deep learning model gained a lot of notoriety. It is helpful for collaborative filtering, feature learning, dimensionality reduction, regression, classification, and feature learning.

Let’s understand what are restricted Boltzmann Machines in depth.

Restricted Boltzmann Machine

Restricted Boltzmann Machines have stochastic two-layered neural networks that can automatically identify underlying patterns in data by reconstructing input. They are a subset of energy-based models. They have two layers, one of which is hidden. The hidden layer is made up of nodes that create the visible layer and collect characteristic information from the data. They do not have any output nodes, which might appear weird, and they don’t have the typical binary output that allows for the learning of patterns. They vary because learning cannot take place without that capacity. We don’t concern about hidden nodes; we only care about input nodes.

RBM is utilized in numerous real-time commercial use cases, including.

Since it can be difficult to understand handwritten writing or a random pattern, RBM is used for feature extraction in pattern recognition applications.

Recommendation Engines: RBM is frequently used in information retrieval approaches to forecast the recommendations that should be made to a client in order for that client to enjoy utilizing a specific application or platform. For example, both books and movies come highly recommended.

Radar Target Recognition: In this situation, RBM is used to locate intra pulses in radar systems that have high noise levels and exceptionally low SNR.

Restricted Boltzmann Machine Features

Some key characteristics of the Boltzmann machine are

They employ symmetric and recurring structures.

RBMs aims to connect low-energy states with the highest probability ones as well as vice versa as part of their learning process.

The layers are not connected to one another.

It uses input data lacking labeled responses to generate inferences; this makes it an algorithm in unsupervised learning.

In this section, we will contrast a Boltzmann machine with a constrained Boltzmann machine. Each algorithm has two levels: an apparent level and a secret one. The Boltzmann Machine connects each individual neuron for each layer as well as every neuron inside the visible layer to every neuron in the hidden layer layer. However, RBM differs from previous examples of the Boltzmann machine in that the neurons in the layer are not connected. i.e. There really is no intra-layer communication, making each other independent and easier to implement as provisional freedom means that researchers do need to determine only negligible probability, which is easier to compute.

Operation Of RBM

How does Restricted Boltzmann Machine, an unsupervised learning method, learn without needing any output data, as was previously mentioned? A hidden layer neuron adds a bias value to input data received from a visible layer neuron, multiplies the result by some weights, and then output is produced. Then, the hidden layer neuron’s output value becomes a new input, which is multiplied by the same weights, and the visible layer’s bias is added to create the new input. Reconstruction nor backward pass are the two names for this procedure. The original input and the newly generated input will then be compared to see if they match or not.

Training In RBM

Gibbs Sampling & Contrastive Divergence are used to train RBM.

to make an approximation of the gradient, which is a graphical slope depicting the link between such a network’s weights as well as its error, Contrastive A crude Maximum-Likelihood learning strategy is divergence. It is used when we cannot directly evaluate a functional as well as set of probabilities and need to approximate the learning slope of the algorithm and determine what direction to go in.

RBM Applications Conclusion

What Are Solid State Batteries And Why Are They Important?

However, batteries could always be better! 

Table of Contents

What Does “Solid State” Mean?

Whether it’s a lead acid car battery, alkaline disposables, or lithium polymer batteries in a phone, they all use a liquid electrolyte. The electrolyte is a conductive substance that connects the two internal terminals of the battery. Electrons flow through the electrolyte, allowing the battery to either build up an electrical charge or to discharge it.

A solid state battery uses a solid electrolyte, instead of the traditional liquid electrolyte. That’s the only fundamental difference between the two battery technologies. It sounds simple enough, but engineers and scientists have been struggling for decades to come up with a solid material that can act as an electrolyte.

What’s Hard About Solid State Batteries?

Various materials, such as ceramics and lithium metals, offer potential as solid state electrolytes. The problem is that the ceramic approach has resulted in poor battery performance. Lithium metals are promising, but have a fatal flaw. As the battery is charged and discharged, metal “dendrites” grow through the electrolyte. The battery can short-circuit and turn into a hazard.

Finding practical and economically viable solutions to these issues has been the mission of several companies and research teams over the past few years. Now that work is about to pay off. 

Why go through all this trouble? Let’s look at the benefits that solid state batteries promise over traditional ones.


Batteries store large amounts of energy and there’s always a danger that this energy can be released in an uncontrolled way. When that happens, it can mean fire, explosions and other unwanted outcomes. Solid state batteries, assuming the dendrite issue is resolved, promise to be safer and more stable. For one thing, they aren’t flammable, so battery fires should be a thing of the past.

This is not only important for electric vehicles such as cars and drones, but also for personal electronics such as smartphones and laptops. Many people are injured every year by battery fires in their electronic gadgets. Entire houses have been burned to the ground as a result!

Recharge Speed

Modern lithium batteries can charge at impressive speeds, but they still take a long time to fill up. There’s a limit to how much energy you can pour into a traditional lithium ion battery before it all goes sideways. Solid state batteries promise to charge as much as six times faster than the batteries we currently use. That means charging up your phone from empty to full in five minutes or charging an electric car to 80% in 15.

Energy Capacity and Size

Lithium ion batteries currently have the highest energy density of any battery type sold to the public. Yet it’s still many times less dense than gasoline. While solid state batteries don’t bring batteries up to par with gas, it does promise to more than double the energy density per volume. 

In other words, if you changed the battery in your phone using a solid state model, it could theoretically run twice as long without increasing in size. This is yet another big selling point for electric vehicles, which aren’t as popular as they could be, thanks to range anxiety.

Lifespan and Durability

Most current lithium ion batteries start to degrade after about 500 full charge-discharge cycles. After that point the battery begins to lose its capacity until it can barely hold a charge at all. In smartphones, which now tend to have sealed batteries, this puts a hard limit on device lifespan. Solid state batteries promise to greatly increase that limit. As much as five times. 

So, where a typical daily-use phone battery might start to degrade after two to three years, a solid state battery would remain at its rated capacity for up to fifteen years. In electric cars, where the replacement of batteries is extremely costly, that could have a dramatic effect on the cost of ownership for this class of vehicles. 

Solid State Battery Weaknesses

If this all sounds too good to be true, there are a few caveats to the technology. Some of these still need to be solved before widespread adoption of solid state battery technology is achieved.

Cost is perhaps the greatest foe. Research teams and startup companies are working hard on making the production process for these batteries cheaper and scalable. Some companies claim to be close, but we won’t know how successful they’ve been until we see the actual prices on products with these batteries.

These batteries also struggle at low temperatures. Therefore, solutions that involve insulating them or keeping them at a good operational temperature are part of the challenge.

When Can You Buy Solid State Batteries?

Solid state batteries by Solid Power

There are a few companies like Solid Power and QuantumScape, which claim to be at the cusp of commercial solid state battery applications. 

Toyota plans to have solid state battery electric vehicles for sale as early as 2023. Both Solid Power and QuantumScape are aiming for a rollout of batteries for vehicles in 2023 and 2024 respectively.  This means that in the next couple of years we could be right at the start of a battery revolution. 

That’s before we even get into the possibilities that come from using graphene. This wonder material promises even better batteries, whether they have liquid or solid electrolytes in them. Getting graphene to play ball has eluded scientists and engineers for longer than expected, but you can already buy a hybrid graphene powerbank right now. Truly, the future is here.

What Are The Limitations Of Chatgpt?

ChatGPT is a popular chatbot released by OpenAI in late 2023. Chatbots, or computer programs that simulate human interactions via artificial intelligence (AI) and natural language processing (NLP), can help answer many academic questions.

While using ChatGPT for your studies can be really useful, particularly for help with exam preparation, homework assignments, or academic writing, it is not without its limitations. It’s essential to keep in mind that AI language models like ChatGPT are still developing technologies and are far from perfect. Current limitations include:

NoteUniversities and other institutions are still developing their stances on how ChatGPT and similar tools may be used. Always follow your institution’s guidelines over any suggestions you read online. Check out our guide to current university policies on AI writing for more information.

ChatGPT limitation 1: Incorrect answers

Because ChatGPT is a constantly evolving language model, it will inevitably make mistakes. It’s critical to double-check your work while using it, as it has been known to make grammatical, mathematical, factual, and reasoning errors (using fallacies).

It’s not always reliable for answering complicated questions about specialist topics like grammar or mathematics, so it’s best to keep these types of questions basic. Double-check the answers it gives to any more specialized queries against credible sources.

Perhaps more concerningly, the chatbot sometimes has difficulty acknowledging that it doesn’t know something and instead fabricates a plausible-sounding answer. In this way, it prioritizes providing what it perceives as a more “complete” answer over factual correctness.

Some sources have highlighted several instances where ChatGPT referred to nonexistent legal provisions that it created in order to avoid saying that it didn’t know an answer. This is especially the case in domains where the chatbot may not have expertise, such as medicine or law, or anything that requires specialized knowledge in order to proceed beyond a general language understanding.

ChatGPT limitation 2: Biased answers

ChatGPT, like all language models, is at risk of inherent biases, and there are valid concerns that widespread usage of AI tools can perpetuate cultural, racial, and gender stigma. This is due to a few factors:

How the initial training datasets were designed

Who designed them

How well the model “learns” over time

If biased inputs are what determines the pool of knowledge the chatbot refers to, chances are that biased outputs will result, particularly in regards to how it responds to certain topics or the language it uses. While this is a challenge faced by nearly every AI tool, bias in technology at large represents a significant future issue.

ChatGPT limitation 3: Lack of human insight

While ChatGPT is quite adept at generating coherent responses to specific prompts or questions, it ultimately is not human. As such, it can only mimic human behavior, not experience it itself. This has a variety of implications:

It does not always understand the full context of a topic, which can lead to nonsensical or overly literal responses.

It does not have emotional intelligence and does not recognize or respond to emotional cues like sarcasm, irony, or humor.

It does not always recognize idioms, regionalisms, or slang. Instead, it may take a phrase like “raining cats and dogs” literally.

It does not have a physical presence and cannot see, hear, or interact with the world like humans do. This makes it unable to understand the world based on direct experience rather than textual sources.

It answers questions very robotically, making it easy to see that its outputs are machine-generated and often flow from a template.

It takes questions at face value and does not necessarily understand subtext. In other words, it cannot “read between the lines” or take sides. While a bias for neutrality is often a good thing, some questions require you to choose a side.

It does not have real-world experiences or commonsense knowledge and cannot understand and respond to situations that require this kind of knowledge.

It can summarize and explain a topic but cannot offer a unique insight. Humans need knowledge to create, but lived experiences and subjective opinions also are crucial to this process—ChatGPT cannot provide these.

ChatGPT limitation 4: Overly long or wordy answers

ChatGPT’s training datasets encourage it to cover a topic from many different angles, answering questions in every way it can conceive of.

While this is positive in some ways—it explains complicated topics very thoroughly—there are certainly topics where the best answer is the most direct one, or even a “yes” or “no.” This tendency to over-explain can make ChatGPT’s answers overly formal, redundant, and very lengthy.

Other interesting articles

If you want to know more about ChatGPT, using AI tools, fallacies, and research bias, make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.

Frequently asked questions about ChatGPT Cite this Scribbr article

George, T. (2023, June 22). What Are the Limitations of ChatGPT?. Scribbr. Retrieved July 19, 2023,

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What Are Call And Put Options?

Options are “derivative investments”, meaning the price movements of the investments are based on the price movements of another financial product. The financial product from which the derivative is obtained is called the “underlying.”

Call and Put Options

Options are contracts that provide the buyer the right to buy or sell an underlying asset, at a predetermined price and before a specific date.

A call option is bought by a trader if the investor expects the price of the underlying to rise within a certain time frame.

A put option is bought by a trader if he/she expects the price of the underlying to fall within a given time frame.

How Call Options Work

For American-style options, the call option buyers get the right to buy an underlying asset at a pre-decided price at any time before expiry.

In case of European-style options, the buyers may exercise the option— to buy the underlying—only on the expiration date. Options expirations may vary and can be either short-term or long-term.

Here, the strike price is that at which a put buyer can sell the underlying asset. For example, the investor who chooses to go for a stock put option with a strike price of $10 can use the option to sell that stock at $10.

The Buyer Gets 

The call buyer can buy a stock at the strike price before the expiration. To get the right, the call buyer needs to pay a premium. If the underlying’s price moves above the strike price, the option will be worth money. The buyer can sell the option for a profit or exercise the option, which means he would receive the shares from the person who wrote the option).

The Call Seller Gets

The call writer/seller which is usually a bank receives the premium. Writing call options is a way to generate income. However, the income from a call option is limited to the premium, but a call buyer has theoretically unlimited potential of earning profit.

Calculating the Call Option’s Cost

One stock call option contract usually contains 100 shares of the underlying stock where each stock’s call prices are basically quoted as per share rate. Therefore, to determine the price of a contract, the price of the option should be multiplied by 100.

Call options can be “in”, “at”, or “out of” the money −

In-the-money refers to the underlying asset price that is above the call strike price.

Out-of-the-money refers to the underlying price that is below the strike price.

At-the-money is when the underlying price and the strike price are the same.

How Put Options Work

For American-style options, a put options contract provides the buyer the right to sell an underlying asset at a predetermined price at any time up to the expiration date.

The purchasers of European-style options should exercise the option, that is sell the underlying only on the expiration date.

Here, the strike price is that at which a put buyer can sell the underlying asset. For example, the investor who chooses to go for a stock put option with a strike price of $10 can use the option to sell that stock at $10.

The Put Buyer Gets 

The put buyer gets the right to sell a stock at the strike price. For gaining that right, the put buyer needs to pay a premium. When the underlying’s price moves below the strike price, the option will be worth money. The buyer can also sell the options for a profit or exercise the option, that is sell the shares.

The Put Seller Gets 

The put seller, or writer, gets the premium from the sale. Writing put options is also a way to generate income. However, generating income from writing put options is limited to the premium, while a put buyer can continue to maximize their profit until the stock price goes to zero.

Calculating the Put Option’s Cost

Put contracts also represent 100 shares of the underlying stock. To find the price of the whole contract, one needs to multiply the underlying’s share price by 100.

Put options can be “in”, “at”, or “out of” the money, just like call options −

In-the-money refers to the fact that the underlying asset price is below the put strike price.

Out-of-the-money refers to the fact that the underlying price is above the strike price.

At-the-money implies that the underlying price and the strike price are the same.

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