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4G cellular network is actually the fourth generation of cellular communications.

Features of 4G

It comes up with many features which are given below −

10x high speed as compared to 3G

The cost is also less for each bit used.

It is highly secured too.

It comes up with LTE i.e. Long term evaluation which refers to high-speed data connection for mobile devices.

Now let us talk about the security features of 4G.

Security features of the 4G cellular network

Security features are the different types of security measures a 4G network possesses such as the following −

Configuration of security − It is the most beautiful feature of the 4g network that a user can check that the security operations are functional or not. if the user finds it’s not working that user can report and save him/her self.

User Security − In this security measure, we check that the access to the mobile stations by the user should be secure. This makes the 4G network more secure as the transmission is secured.

Application Security − It is responsible for establishing a secure connection at the application layer where the security is at its high risk. this feature makes it possible to be secured always

Network domain security − It is responsible for the secure transmission of data over the network. It also prevents signals and many elements of the network.

Network Access security − It is responsible for the secure access of the user to the service.

These are some security features of 4G cellular networks that make the 4G network a secured network to use but it is also true that nothing is perfect so 4G cellular networks also have some limitations.

Security risk of 4G cellular network − we shall talk about the risk one by one in the form of points so, please read the below points very carefully.

As the speed increases in the 4G network, it simply means that the bandwidth increases so when you use 2G and 3G connection, you use 26 kb to 256 kb but now in 4G, we use up to 150 Mbit 4G networks. This actually increases the area of attack for cybercriminals.

They actually consume your new bandwidth which you pay to use 4G but instead, they are using your bandwidth and you still get the 3G speed. This is also known as Architectural private network (APN) flooding which is responsible to connect mobile with 4G network.

So when you use 3G, all the traffic goes into Core IP address but in 4G is an IP based network and it can travel to one mobile to another with the help of APN.

So this makes 4G less secure as one mobile can leak the information of other mobiles, therefore, this is also very high risk in 4G

The VoLTE service in the 4G network which means that voice over LTE that we can now use the call feature with the internet. this is a good feature but it also comes up with can danger as many attackers use the VOIP for the attacks on Volte that makes Volte vulnerable.

So these are some main security risks with the 4G cellular network that makes sense that nothing can be perfect.

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What Are The Features Of Metaverse: All You Need To Know In 2023

Metaverse features are essential to know to boost productivity with cutting-edge technologies

Metaverse is attracting the current generation with multiple and lucrative features. It is well-known that the Metaverse is created with cutting-edge technologies such as augmented reality, virtual reality, cryptocurrency, artificial intelligence, IoT, blockchain, and many more. Tech investors and online players want to have a deep understanding of multiple features of Metaverse that can help them to invest time and money efficiently and effectively. Features help to interact with each other and digital assets with different avatars beyond the universe. There are vast possibilities and events that can potentially happen in the Metaverse in the upcoming years. Metaverse features can evolve rapidly with the dramatic rise in the demand for cryptocurrencies, NFTs, the online gaming industry, and many more additional elements. There are already some Metaverse trends depending on the following features that are thriving in the newly created digital world. The seamlessness of internet connection and the availability of smartphones have made the Metaverse the next iteration of the internet world in the nearby future.  The following features are set to transform the experience of virtual solutions. Let’s explore some of the top Metaverse features that have escalated in recent times, driving the brand value of Metaverse in this global tech market.

Key infrastructure is one of the top features of Metaverse including the cutting-edge and the connectivity technologies. The connectivity technologies include the highest level of internet connection such as 5G, cloud computing, IoT, and so on. This is just the beginning of the Metaverse expansion, taking over the global tech market. It offers ultra-low latency, super-fast speed, and increased capacity as its key infrastructures for the players in this digital world.

Digital avatars are flourishing in the Metaverse as a very important feature to attract investors and players from across the world. Global users can make their own digital avatars to interact with other people present in the digital world. These AI avatars can interact with multiple emotions, feelings, personalized characteristics, and so on. It can be a digital replica of one’s role model, superhero, animal, and many more options to choose from. It tends to provide a revolutionary experience to interact with other players efficiently without any external meeting.

One of the top features of Metaverse is decentralization with the integration of blockchain technology. It is gaining popularity for being the openly shared digital world to move from one platform to another without any issue. Decentralization helps users to trade and exchange digital assets with economic value without having any presence of central authority. It takes a very short period of time to provide the freedom to do anything they want in this Metaverse ecosystem.

One notable and crucial Metaverse feature is its security which protects from potential cyberattacks and crypto criminals. There is a dramatic rise in cyberattacks from multiple groups of cybercriminals on the dark web. They always tend to seek weak links to steal all kinds of digital assets with ransomware and malware. Thus, Metaverse is set to provide additional focus on cybersecurity in the form of ethical and privacy standards. If there is better and improved cybersecurity, more players and viewers will get attracted to the new ecosystem with user protection and user identities.

That being said, there are more features of Metaverse and additional new ones will come to surprise the users. Multiple hi-tech companies are focused on bringing new innovations and products for enjoying the newly grown Metaverse ecosystem in the nearby future.

What Are The Limitations Of Chatgpt?

ChatGPT is a popular chatbot released by OpenAI in late 2023. Chatbots, or computer programs that simulate human interactions via artificial intelligence (AI) and natural language processing (NLP), can help answer many academic questions.

While using ChatGPT for your studies can be really useful, particularly for help with exam preparation, homework assignments, or academic writing, it is not without its limitations. It’s essential to keep in mind that AI language models like ChatGPT are still developing technologies and are far from perfect. Current limitations include:

NoteUniversities and other institutions are still developing their stances on how ChatGPT and similar tools may be used. Always follow your institution’s guidelines over any suggestions you read online. Check out our guide to current university policies on AI writing for more information.

ChatGPT limitation 1: Incorrect answers

Because ChatGPT is a constantly evolving language model, it will inevitably make mistakes. It’s critical to double-check your work while using it, as it has been known to make grammatical, mathematical, factual, and reasoning errors (using fallacies).

It’s not always reliable for answering complicated questions about specialist topics like grammar or mathematics, so it’s best to keep these types of questions basic. Double-check the answers it gives to any more specialized queries against credible sources.

Perhaps more concerningly, the chatbot sometimes has difficulty acknowledging that it doesn’t know something and instead fabricates a plausible-sounding answer. In this way, it prioritizes providing what it perceives as a more “complete” answer over factual correctness.

Some sources have highlighted several instances where ChatGPT referred to nonexistent legal provisions that it created in order to avoid saying that it didn’t know an answer. This is especially the case in domains where the chatbot may not have expertise, such as medicine or law, or anything that requires specialized knowledge in order to proceed beyond a general language understanding.

ChatGPT limitation 2: Biased answers

ChatGPT, like all language models, is at risk of inherent biases, and there are valid concerns that widespread usage of AI tools can perpetuate cultural, racial, and gender stigma. This is due to a few factors:

How the initial training datasets were designed

Who designed them

How well the model “learns” over time

If biased inputs are what determines the pool of knowledge the chatbot refers to, chances are that biased outputs will result, particularly in regards to how it responds to certain topics or the language it uses. While this is a challenge faced by nearly every AI tool, bias in technology at large represents a significant future issue.

ChatGPT limitation 3: Lack of human insight

While ChatGPT is quite adept at generating coherent responses to specific prompts or questions, it ultimately is not human. As such, it can only mimic human behavior, not experience it itself. This has a variety of implications:

It does not always understand the full context of a topic, which can lead to nonsensical or overly literal responses.

It does not have emotional intelligence and does not recognize or respond to emotional cues like sarcasm, irony, or humor.

It does not always recognize idioms, regionalisms, or slang. Instead, it may take a phrase like “raining cats and dogs” literally.

It does not have a physical presence and cannot see, hear, or interact with the world like humans do. This makes it unable to understand the world based on direct experience rather than textual sources.

It answers questions very robotically, making it easy to see that its outputs are machine-generated and often flow from a template.

It takes questions at face value and does not necessarily understand subtext. In other words, it cannot “read between the lines” or take sides. While a bias for neutrality is often a good thing, some questions require you to choose a side.

It does not have real-world experiences or commonsense knowledge and cannot understand and respond to situations that require this kind of knowledge.

It can summarize and explain a topic but cannot offer a unique insight. Humans need knowledge to create, but lived experiences and subjective opinions also are crucial to this process—ChatGPT cannot provide these.

ChatGPT limitation 4: Overly long or wordy answers

ChatGPT’s training datasets encourage it to cover a topic from many different angles, answering questions in every way it can conceive of.

While this is positive in some ways—it explains complicated topics very thoroughly—there are certainly topics where the best answer is the most direct one, or even a “yes” or “no.” This tendency to over-explain can make ChatGPT’s answers overly formal, redundant, and very lengthy.

Other interesting articles

If you want to know more about ChatGPT, using AI tools, fallacies, and research bias, make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.

Frequently asked questions about ChatGPT Cite this Scribbr article

George, T. (2023, June 22). What Are the Limitations of ChatGPT?. Scribbr. Retrieved July 19, 2023,

Cite this article

What Are The Python Features You Wish You Did Known Earlier

In this article, we’ll look at several Python secret features you might not have known about earlier.

The following are some of the hidden Python features that we must know −


Pandas is one of the most well-known Python machine-learning libraries. This library is intended to be used for data analysis and manipulation. Furthermore, it is useful since it incorporates some of Python’s greatest and most trustworthy libraries into a single package. As a result, it is simple to use and apply.

Argument Unpacking

When used on a function, list unpacking fails; Python does not natively unpack a list or tuple when passed to a function. This is due to the possibility of ambiguity: it is up to the developer to indicate when this must be done.

Slice Assignment

Suppose you have a list. But you have to replace multiple items in the list with a single assignment. What will you do? This is when slice assignment comes in handy. Python allows you to replace a part in a list with whatever you want with only one line.

List Comprehensions in Python

List comprehension is one of Python’s most powerful techniques. It aids in deriving one list from another through the use of a concise syntax. List comprehensions come in handy when you want to filter items in a list or apply a function to them. As a result, it is one of the most essential hidden Python features.

Formatting of code using Black

What if you could review your code more quickly and efficiently? That’s where Black, a Python code formatter, comes into play. One of the finest Python unknown techniques is formatted, which allows you to create code in your preferred manner. And Black formats it, which speeds up the entire code review process.

Python Debugger

We get stuck on some errors and spend a long time trying to fix them. Moreover, all of our efforts will be fruitless. The solution is unknown, but our efforts have all been in vain. That is when you must use the Python debugger to simplify your task.

The Python Debugger allows you to easily review the code line by line. As a result, it is one of Python’s greatest features.

Usage of emojis in code

Did you know Python provides a module that allows you to add emojis to your strings? Yes, you read that correctly! To include emojis, you can use either the emoji module or Unicode.

Importing Data Science Libraries

We frequently spend a significant amount of time importing common libraries such as seaborn or pandas. And manually importing them can be time-consuming.

As a result, there is a solution in the form of a pyforest library to help you sail past this challenge. This module is a benefit and one of Python’s hidden features. It is more convenient to operate directly than than importing individually.

Negative Indexing

Negative indexing is one of Python’s hidden features. We are all aware that indexes are utilized in arrays in all programming languages. These indices are then used to access the items of an array.

However, all programming languages restrict the use of negative indexes such as ‘-2.’ However, Python is an exception because it enables array negative indexing. As a result, -1 should be the last element and -2 should be the second last one.

Chaining Comparison Operators

Many computer languages make it straightforward to compare values using syntax. As an example −

Wouldn’t it be amazing if the “and” operator was removed from the syntax? Fortunately, Python allows you to use comparison operators one after the other, as illustrated below.

This is due to “Operator Preference and Associativity.” It is utilized in the expression and is useful when there are multiple operators with different precedence. Furthermore, assisting in determining which procedure should be executed first and foremost.

Hassle-free Swapping of Variables

Python aids in the simplification of tough jobs. For example, suppose you have two variables and need to exchange their values. What will you do then? While the other values are swapped, manually create a temporary variable. This method is not flawed, but some may find it tedious. Instead, Python facilitates swapping without the use of a temporary variable.

Example # intializing two variables x = 20 y = 50 # swapping the values of x, y variables x, y = y, x # printing x, y values after swapping print("x value after swapping:", x) print("y value after swapping:", y) Output x value after swapping: 50 y value after swapping: 20

In this case, Python deletes the temporary variable in the background after the operation is completed. As a result, it aids in the creation of efficient and clear code.

Short Module Names

Are you bored of repeating long library names? Then the following hack will undoubtedly be beneficial to you. Python allows developers to use the keyword “as” to create any library name they want.

List of Easter Eggs

Some people may find programming as tedious as writing argumentative essays and other academic tasks. But what if we say Python contains Easter eggs? This may seem odd because Easter eggs are commonly discovered in video games, movies, cartoons, and other media.

Launch Web Server

Python’s hidden features are just as useful as website support. Consider the following scenario: you want to set up your own web server to exchange files from your computer.

A simple command would be useful for this. It will start a web server on any available port. To ensure that everything goes smoothly, change the port number from 0 to 65353. There are further parameters you can explore.

# Running Web Server Conclusion

Whether you are just getting started with Python or are an expert, this language can still surprise you. There are numerous Python features that you were unaware of.

These features are not only useful for developers, but they are also simple to understand. So, if you believe you know everything there is to know about Python, read this article and learn something new about one of the most popular programming languages.

What Are The 5 Cs Of Leadership?

The biggest goal of any leader is to improve employee engagement. The engagement affects your employees’ productivity, desire to contribute to organizational growth, and ability to do routine tasks. The company’s leadership plays a pivotal role in employee engagement. A great leader is someone that employees feel great to talk to. They don’t just set the mission and vision for the organization but work as an active member of the company, helping the teams achieve their goals. As a leader, you should ask yourself these questions −

Do people trust my leadership?

Do I do what I preach?

Do I communicate the goals to the team and stakeholders?

What leadership style do I follow?

Do people look up to me?

People judge your leadership based on your ability to drive your organization to success when faced with challenges. Since the leader plays the most important role in any company, the leadership team is built after careful evaluation of the individual’s qualifications, experience, and understanding of the company. Most importantly, leaders are selected based on their soft skills. Let’s discover the 5 Cs of leadership you will see in every great leader.

5 Cs of Great Leaders

Not every leader is a born leader. You learn these skills over time. Most companies select leaders that have worked in the firm as managers or are in senior-level executive posts. That’s because nobody knows the company as well as people who have been managing it for years.

How people perceive you depends on the leadership style you adopt. So, how do you know whether you are a good or bad leader, how you can improve, and where your strengths and weaknesses lie?

You can evaluate your leadership based on these five crucial Cs.


People get inspired by their leaders. If you expect your team to follow your direction and work how you want, you need to set a great example. You must be willing to work on the tasks, small or big, on your own. No employee wants a leader that just orders around and sits back, watching their team do all the work.

You must participate in each project and help your team finish their milestones efficiently. Of course, you are supposed to be honest about your employees’ performances, which means you might have to hurt their feelings with your honest feedback. A great leader knows how to give constructive feedback in a polite way so that the employees get your feedback and work on it instead of resigning. A good leader is an excellent coach. Your team shouldn’t just admire your work, but they must learn from you.


A leader is responsible for setting the company’s vision. What sets good leaders apart from the average ones is their communication skills. To be a great leader, you need to be a good communicator. That’s the first and most important soft skill a company looks for when building leadership. A leader is supposed to instruct the team on how to execute their responsibilities. You must be good at giving the right direction to your team so that they can understand their roles and feel free to ask you questions.

A leader isn’t just good at communicating the company’s goals with the team, but they know how to negotiate when necessary. They are also capable of resolving conflicts. To be a good leader, you must schedule meetings with your colleagues and staff to remind them of the company’s goals and check your progress on achieving long-term corporate objectives.


The biggest difference between a leader and an employee of an organization is that the leader focuses on the company’s goals. They do everything in their power to serve the company. Once they have set the goals, they build a team and provide resources to achieve those.

A company can’t start a new project until the leader has checked and approved it. The leader ensures that all projects the company accepts are aligned with the organizational objectives and contribute to the company’s growth. Commitment is the most prominent yet difficult C of leadership. You need to develop a solid management approach that generates positive outcomes.


There’s a common misconception that a leader’s duty is to communicate with senior-level management and work on the company’s goals. These are just the parts of leadership. A great leader stays connected to the team. They talk to the employees individually and share their performance reports. They organize regular meetings to discuss the company’s status, objectives, and other issues. They are open to feedback and are willing to work on them to improve their performance.

A leader should invite employees to share their opinions on important matters. That builds their trust and makes them feel valued. They are likely to give their best performances when their voice is heard. Listen to their ideas and implement them if they seem reliable. Your team should never hesitate to bring their complaints and concerns to you.


Your employees judge you by the way you conduct yourself. Confidence is the most important quality of a great leader. Then again, it isn’t something you are born with, but you develop over time and after learning from your leaders. Remember, there’s a very thin line between confidence and arrogance.

Bossing around people and creating an environment where only you matter is not a trait of a good leader. You should portray this confidence through your actions, communication, and by making good decisions. You should have faith in your abilities. It’s also important that you learn continuously. Just because you are a leader doesn’t mean you don’t need to learn anything anymore. With great power comes great responsibility. Show your confidence in a subtle way so that people know you are a confident leader.

Bottom Line

These were the 5 Cs of a great leader. Coach your employees, communicate with your team regularly and efficiently, connect with them, stay committed to your company’s goals, and show confidence in positive ways. These qualities will make you a good leader.

What Are The Basic Concepts Of Python?

Python is a general-purpose interpreted, interactive, object-oriented, and high-level programming language.

Features of Python

Following are key features of Python −

Python supports functional and structured programming methods as well as OOP.

It can be used as a scripting language or can be compiled to byte-code for building large applications.

It provides very high-level dynamic data types and supports dynamic type checking.

It supports automatic garbage collection.

Variables in Python

Variables are nothing but reserved memory locations to store values. This means that when you create a variable you reserve some space in memory. Let’s create a variable.

a = 10

Above, a is a variable assigned integer value 10.

Numeric Datatype in Python

Number data types store numeric values. They are immutable data types, means that changing the value of a number data type results in a newly allocated object.

Python supports four different numerical types.

int (signed integers) − They are often called just integers or ints, are positive or negative whole numbers with no decimal point.

long (long integers ) − Also called longs, they are integers of unlimited size, written like integers and followed by an uppercase or lowercase L.

float (floating point real values) − Also called floats, they represent real numbers and are written with a decimal point dividing the integer and fractional parts. Floats may also be in scientific notation, with E or e indicating the power of 10 (2.5e2 = 2.5 x 102 = 250).

complex (complex numbers) − are of the form a + bJ, where a and b are floats and J (or j) represents the square root of -1 (which is an imaginary number). The real part of the number is a, and the imaginary part is b. Complex numbers are not used much in Python programming.

Strings in Python

Strings are amongst the most popular types in Python. We can create them simply by enclosing characters in quotes. Python treats single quotes the same as double quotes. Creating strings is as simple as assigning a value to a variable.

Let’s see how to easily create a String in Python.




Lists in Python

The list is a most versatile datatype available in Python which can be written as a list of commaseparated values (items) between square bracket. Let’s see how to create lists with different types.





















Tuples in Python

Tuples are sequences, just like lists. The differences between tuples and lists are, the tuples cannot be changed unlike lists and tuples use parentheses, whereas lists use square brackets.

Creating a tuple is as simple as putting different comma-separated values. Optionally you can put these comma-separated values between parentheses also. Let’s see how to create a Tuple.






















Dictionary in Python

Dictionary is a sequence in Python. In a Dictionary, each key is separated from its value by a colon (:), the items are separated by commas, and the whole thing is enclosed in curly braces. Keys are unique within a dictionary while values may not be. The values of a dictionary can be of any type, but the keys must be of an immutable data type such as strings, numbers, or tuples.

Let’s see how to create a Dictionary −































































Classes & Objects in Python

A class is a user-defined prototype for an object that defines a set of attributes that characterize any object of the class. The attributes are data members and methods, accessed via dot notation.

An object is a unique instance of a data structure that’s defined by its class. An object comprises both data members (class variables and instance variables) and methods.

Functions in Python

function is a block of organized, reusable code that is used to perform a single, related action. Functions provide better modularity for your application and a high degree of code reusing.

Function blocks begin with the keyword def followed by the function name and parentheses ( ( ) ). Let’s create a function.








“Function Called”


Output Function Called

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