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Blockchain technologies are constantly evolving to meet the needs of their users. One such innovation is adaptive state sharding, which is designed to improve the scalability of blockchains. In this article, we’ll take a look at what adaptive state sharding is and how it works.

What is state sharding?

State sharding is a process of horizontally partitioning data in a database across multiple nodes. This can be done to improve performance, availability, and scalability. There are two types of state sharding− static and adaptive. Static state sharding is where the partitions are fixed and do not change.

Adaptive state sharding is where the partitions can change based on load or other conditions. Adaptive state sharding can offer better performance and availability than static state sharding because it can more easily adapt to changing conditions. For example, if there is a sudden increase in traffic, adaptive state sharding can dynamically add more nodes to the system to handle the increased load.

If you are considering using state sharding for your database, adaptive state sharding may be the best option.

What is adaptive state sharding?

Adaptive state sharding is a type of state sharding that is designed to be flexible and adaptable to changing conditions. It allows for the addition or removal of shards as needed, and can also change the way data is stored within shards. This can make it easier to update a blockchain network as new technologies or user needs arise.

How does adaptive state sharding work?

Adaptive state sharding is a way of partitioning data in a database so that each partition can be stored on a different server. This can improve performance by allowing each server to handle only a portion of the data. To shard data, each record is assigned to a specific server based on a key value. For example, records with keys that start with A would be stored on Server 1, those with keys that start with B would be stored on Server 2, and so on. When a client requests data, the key is used to determine which server stores the requested data. The client then retrieves the data from that server.

Adaptive state sharding can improve performance if the keys are chosen such that the servers are evenly balanced. For example, if most of the requests are for data that is stored on Server 1, then that server will become overloaded while the other servers will have spare capacity. To avoid this problem, the key values can be chosen dynamically so that they are spread evenly across all of the servers. This approach is known as adaptive state sharding.

Ultimately, it’s up to each individual blockchain network to decide which type of state sharding is best for them.

When to use adaptive state sharding

As your application grows, the amount of data that needs to be managed increases exponentially. At some point, you will need to start sharding your data to improve performance and keep your application running smoothly. But how do you know when it’s time to start sharding your data?

There is no definitive answer, but there are a few signs that indicate that it might be time to consider adaptive state sharding −

Your application is slow or unresponsive.

You are consistently running out of storage space.

Your database is becoming increasingly fragmented.

You are receiving more errors or timeouts.

If you are experiencing any of these issues, it might be time to look into adaptive state sharding. State sharding can be a complex process, but it can be a great way to improve the performance and stability of your application.


In conclusion, adaptive state sharding is a process of automatically splitting up data based on certain criteria in order to improve performance and efficiency. This method has many benefits, but also some drawbacks that should be considered before implementing it. Overall, adaptive state sharding can be a great way to improve the performance of your system, but make sure you weigh all the pros and cons before decide whether or not to use it.

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Which Solid State Drive Is Best For Gaming?

A gaming PC is generally much more powerful than a business PC, or even a graphics workstation, because games can stress every part of a system – CPU, graphics processor (GPU), memory and storage may all be taxed, depending on the type of game. To remove potential bottlenecks, gaming PCs are often equipped with the fastest solid state drive (SSD) available, or even with multiple SSDs in a RAID configuration to further enhance performance.

Games don’t simply use gigabytes of storage — loading new models, parts of a virtual map, or video that explain new challenges can require loading large amounts of data from storage into memory. The faster the storage available, the smoother and less intrusive loading these large amounts of data becomes.

Lower Cost, Higher Performance

Before SSDs became affordable, a gaming PC was often equipped with more than one hard drive, so that by spreading data across multiple drives in a RAID array, higher performance could be achieved. However, this resulted in higher costs, since three or four hard drives were required.

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A single SSD can achieve better performance than multiple hard drives, and at lower cost. Solid state drives have been improving at the same rate as CPUs, owing to Moore’s Law, which states that electronics double in power every 18 months, while mechanical hard drives improve only incrementally. The result is that not only do modern SSDs have capacities comparable to hard drives, but have performance in both transfer rates and access speeds that far outstrip hard drives. In fact, the latest SSDs can move data faster than the SATA bus that has been the standard for attaching hard drives to the motherboard for the last 20 years.

M.2 NVMe SSDs use a newer bus since their speeds are enough to easily overwhelm the 500-600 megabytes per second (MB/s) that the SATA bus will handle. The latest SSDs — like the Samsung 970 PRO — can reach speeds of 2,500 MB/s over the NVMe bus. For less demanding games, or cost-sensitive applications, SATA SSDs such as the Samsung 860 PRO or Samsung 860 EVO still provide 10 times the performance of hard disk drives, at a lower cost point than NVMe SSDs.

New motherboards, especially high performance gaming motherboards, usually have at least one and as many as four M.2 PCIe NMVe slots, allowing the use of NVMe SSDs without an add-on PCIe card (known as a sled), which uses a 16x PCIe slot to support one to four NVMe SSDs.

Creating the Ideal Gaming PC

In addition to the blistering speed of SSDs, other factors make them ideal for a gaming PC. Gaming PCs with multiple graphics cards and a heavy-duty CPU can generate a lot of heat, requiring optimized airflow or even liquid cooling systems. Since SSDs use less power and generate less heat than a hard drive, they can lighten the burden on the cooling system and the power supply more than a hard drive or multiple hard drives would.

Given the size of some games today (as high as 60-100GB), some go to the lengths of specifying two types of storage – extremely fast for whatever is currently being played, and a slower, but higher capacity drive for other data that doesn’t need to be accessed as quickly. This combination might be a SATA SSD and a hard drive, or an NVMe SSD and a SATA SSD. This optimizes performance while keeping costs lower.

In either case most games will show great improvements in initial load times, smoothness ,and latency during game play, if the gaming PC comes equipped with SSDs.

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What Are Solid State Batteries And Why Are They Important?

However, batteries could always be better! 

Table of Contents

What Does “Solid State” Mean?

Whether it’s a lead acid car battery, alkaline disposables, or lithium polymer batteries in a phone, they all use a liquid electrolyte. The electrolyte is a conductive substance that connects the two internal terminals of the battery. Electrons flow through the electrolyte, allowing the battery to either build up an electrical charge or to discharge it.

A solid state battery uses a solid electrolyte, instead of the traditional liquid electrolyte. That’s the only fundamental difference between the two battery technologies. It sounds simple enough, but engineers and scientists have been struggling for decades to come up with a solid material that can act as an electrolyte.

What’s Hard About Solid State Batteries?

Various materials, such as ceramics and lithium metals, offer potential as solid state electrolytes. The problem is that the ceramic approach has resulted in poor battery performance. Lithium metals are promising, but have a fatal flaw. As the battery is charged and discharged, metal “dendrites” grow through the electrolyte. The battery can short-circuit and turn into a hazard.

Finding practical and economically viable solutions to these issues has been the mission of several companies and research teams over the past few years. Now that work is about to pay off. 

Why go through all this trouble? Let’s look at the benefits that solid state batteries promise over traditional ones.


Batteries store large amounts of energy and there’s always a danger that this energy can be released in an uncontrolled way. When that happens, it can mean fire, explosions and other unwanted outcomes. Solid state batteries, assuming the dendrite issue is resolved, promise to be safer and more stable. For one thing, they aren’t flammable, so battery fires should be a thing of the past.

This is not only important for electric vehicles such as cars and drones, but also for personal electronics such as smartphones and laptops. Many people are injured every year by battery fires in their electronic gadgets. Entire houses have been burned to the ground as a result!

Recharge Speed

Modern lithium batteries can charge at impressive speeds, but they still take a long time to fill up. There’s a limit to how much energy you can pour into a traditional lithium ion battery before it all goes sideways. Solid state batteries promise to charge as much as six times faster than the batteries we currently use. That means charging up your phone from empty to full in five minutes or charging an electric car to 80% in 15.

Energy Capacity and Size

Lithium ion batteries currently have the highest energy density of any battery type sold to the public. Yet it’s still many times less dense than gasoline. While solid state batteries don’t bring batteries up to par with gas, it does promise to more than double the energy density per volume. 

In other words, if you changed the battery in your phone using a solid state model, it could theoretically run twice as long without increasing in size. This is yet another big selling point for electric vehicles, which aren’t as popular as they could be, thanks to range anxiety.

Lifespan and Durability

Most current lithium ion batteries start to degrade after about 500 full charge-discharge cycles. After that point the battery begins to lose its capacity until it can barely hold a charge at all. In smartphones, which now tend to have sealed batteries, this puts a hard limit on device lifespan. Solid state batteries promise to greatly increase that limit. As much as five times. 

So, where a typical daily-use phone battery might start to degrade after two to three years, a solid state battery would remain at its rated capacity for up to fifteen years. In electric cars, where the replacement of batteries is extremely costly, that could have a dramatic effect on the cost of ownership for this class of vehicles. 

Solid State Battery Weaknesses

If this all sounds too good to be true, there are a few caveats to the technology. Some of these still need to be solved before widespread adoption of solid state battery technology is achieved.

Cost is perhaps the greatest foe. Research teams and startup companies are working hard on making the production process for these batteries cheaper and scalable. Some companies claim to be close, but we won’t know how successful they’ve been until we see the actual prices on products with these batteries.

These batteries also struggle at low temperatures. Therefore, solutions that involve insulating them or keeping them at a good operational temperature are part of the challenge.

When Can You Buy Solid State Batteries?

Solid state batteries by Solid Power

There are a few companies like Solid Power and QuantumScape, which claim to be at the cusp of commercial solid state battery applications. 

Toyota plans to have solid state battery electric vehicles for sale as early as 2023. Both Solid Power and QuantumScape are aiming for a rollout of batteries for vehicles in 2023 and 2024 respectively.  This means that in the next couple of years we could be right at the start of a battery revolution. 

That’s before we even get into the possibilities that come from using graphene. This wonder material promises even better batteries, whether they have liquid or solid electrolytes in them. Getting graphene to play ball has eluded scientists and engineers for longer than expected, but you can already buy a hybrid graphene powerbank right now. Truly, the future is here.

The State Of The Ipad In 2023

It’s hard to believe that the iPad is now eight years old. I still remember hearing the rumors of the Apple tablet, watching the keynote, and being shocked to see the price at $499. When you go back and watch the original introduction, Steve Jobs asks the question: “Is there room for a third category of device in the middle?”

In order to create this device, Steve said it would need to be “far better at some key things.”

What did he say it would have to be better at over a smartphone and laptop? He mentioned browsing the web, email, photos, video, music, games, and eBooks.

In 2010, when this device launched, iPhone screens were still tiny, and laptops were still heavy. In 2023, iPhone screens can be gigantic, and laptops are lighter and thinner than ever. Is the iPad still better at those key things today? What’s the state of the iPad today? These are the questions I want to answer.

Is iPad the best web browser?

Back in June, I wrote about how I felt that mobile Safari was holding the iPad back.

I am constantly asking myself the question: why are certain tasks tedious to do on an iPad compared to on a Mac? It’s certainly not a hardware limitation. In 2023, 9to5Mac reported the iPad Pro even outperformed a MacBook Pro in certain situations. iPad doesn’t have a hardware problem, but rather a software one.

I would argue that the lack of a full web browser is one of the things holding the iPad back the most. Until it can access all websites natively as you would on a Mac, it’s a crippled device. The Mac has a better web browser than the iPad. The iPhone browser is crippled in some ways, but it’s more portable.

Is iPad the best email tool?

The iPad is an excellent tool for powering through email, but I wouldn’t say it’s the best tool. I can work through massive amounts of email on my iPhone. But I’d rather process my email on macOS. In my opinion, for email, the iPad brings the worst parts of iPhone email to a larger form factor. The mail app on the iPad needs to be completely rethought in the future.

Is iPad the best way to enjoy photos?

Even if you would rather organize your photos on macOS, the iPad has become a fantastic device for photo editing. In fact, the entire iOS ecosystem has become a first-class citizen when it comes to photos (taking, organizing, sharing, editing, etc.). It’s hard to discount the iPad as the best way to enjoy your photos.

Is iPad the best way to watch a movie?

Due to its incredible screen, the iPad is my preferred way to watch video on the go. It has all of the apps/services you’d want. You certainly don’t need the iPad Pro to do this, though. The 6th generation iPad will work fine here.

Is iPad the best gaming device?

When it comes to gaming, the iPad is undoubtedly better than the iPhone due to the increased screen size. Is it the best portable gaming device? While the iPad is a fine device for basic gaming, the Nintendo Switch is drastically better as a pure gaming device.

Is iPad the best eBook reader?

I would argue that the iPad mini is probably the best way to read eBooks using iOS, but it’s hard to justify buying it for this feature alone. A Kindle Paperwhite is a better device for pure reading. On the flip side, an iPhone XS Max has a plenty big enough screen for reading.

What’s the state of the iPad in 2023?

The $329 iPad is an incredible value. If you want to use it for much the same things that Steve mentioned in the original iPad keynote, you are getting an incredible device for even less than what it debuted at in 2010. When it comes to the iPad Pro models, the hardware is writing checks that the software can’t cash. If an iPad is going to be at Mac level prices, it needs to be able to do everything a Mac can do.

An iPad that costs as much as a Mac should be able to do all the things a Mac can do, but it just can’t. Often, even if a task can be done, it’s so cumbersome that it takes twice as long on iPad. I shouldn’t have to write a Siri Shortcut to accomplish basic tasks.

Even with the outstanding new iPad Pro models that have just been released, the software is essentially the iPhone software blown up for a larger form factor. Yes, there are some multitasking features, but outside of that, how is it that different than iOS on the iPhone?

When I see people comparing iPad hardware power to Mac hardware in 2023, it reminds me of when PC users would compare the price to specs ratio with Macs in the early 2000s. People that want a Mac want it for the software. In my opinion, most people that want an iPad want it for the form factor. We should be way less concerned with the hardware specs of the iPad, and way more concerned with the software.

So what’s the state of the iPad in 2023? The hardware specs of the iPad stopped mattering around the iPad Air 2. iOS can rarely push the iPad hardware in meaningful ways for most people. It’s way past time for the iPad software to grow up and match the hardware. It’s time for Apple to make a big bet on the next generation of computing devices because right now, they are trying to keep everything at the status quo in terms of iOS and macOS.

There are a number of aspects where the iPad that still frustrates me. Why can’t a photo editing app (or the Files app) open items directly from an attached camera? Why doesn’t iOS have the ability to create a .zip file without using a 3rd party app? Why does “Request Desktop version” of a website rarely work?

Can some people use the iPad to do 100% of their work? Absolutely, but I feel like it’s been the same people for the past five years without much of a change. Why is the iPad not getting better at tasks that the Mac excels at? This tweet sums up my feelings on the iPad perfectly.

I can do 90% of my work on iPad. The problem is that it’s been at 90% for years now.

— Wojtek Pietrusiewicz (@morid1n) November 7, 2023

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State Of The Pay Per Call Industry

The pay per call industry is growing and making waves, but how is it impacting businesses using it?

I recently spoke with Daryl Cowell from Matomy at a recent affiliate marketing conference. We got to talking about how many companies are seeing great success with affiliates in the space.  Here is my interview with him about what’s going on in the pay per call industry.

What is the current state of pay-per-call marketing?

What are the next verticals to get into the game?

We expect to see increased appetite for pay-per-call campaigns in the following verticals: retail, travel, drug and alcohol rehabilitation, as well as products and services aimed at seniors.

What are the benefits to publishers to running pay-per-call campaigns?

What are the most successful or proven media channels in which to run a pay-per-call campaign?

In the case of PC and tech support it’s often the consumer’s computer that has complications. The best place to reach this consumer in need of help is in the spot they’re encountering issues – on the desktop Web.

Does one media channel seem to yield better calls/customers than the other?

In short, the media channel that is going to work best for a marketer running a pay-per-call campaign is going to be the channel that they know and have the most experience in.

Advertisers must keep a close eye on where the consumer calls in from whenever they run pay-per-call campaigns. They need to make sure that the ad creative and copy a publisher runs is approved and is focused on enticing the ideal consumer.

How do you see pay-per-call evolving over the next year?

As the percentage of time consumers spend on their mobile devices increase, we expect mobile pay-per-call ad spend to increase as well. It’s the best way to capture a customer on the mobile Web.

We are expecting to see more pay-per-call ad units developed by ad networks and publishers. Publishers and networks alike are both struggling to make mobile ad placements profitable. New pay-per-call ad units that can get a consumer to dial in based on their interest and intent, rather that fat fingers, will command a much higher CPM.

Have you had experience with pay per call, how did it work for your business?

Featured Image Credit: Wikipedia

What Is Public In Java?

Introduction to the public in Java

Web development, programming languages, Software testing & others

The syntax of public is shown below. In the below example, the variable word is declared as public inside the class Example. The variable word is available in the functions. The functions are Sum() and average(). So, the variable word is readily available in other functions, although it has not been specifically called in the respective function. In case of a variable that has been declared as private cannot be accessed in other functions or classes. Therefore, in the case where the variable is not allowed to get accessed in other functions, the access modifier private is used.


class Example { public int hello; public void sum(int a) { } public void average(int a) { } } Examples of public in Java

Given below are the examples mentioned:

Example #1

Now we see a coding example in which the public access modifier is used, and then it is used to add two numbers. There are two classes. One is the main() in which we create an object of Addition(), and then we call the other class through two numbers. The name of the object created is obj, and it is very useful in calculating the sum. There can also be other functions and classes such as Multiply as well as Divide. The coding example is a simple program where there are two classes.


class Addition { public int add(int a, int b){ return a+b; } } public class Main{ public static void main(String args[]){ Addition obj = new Addition(); System.out.println(obj.add(50, 50)); } }

The two numbers which are included are 50 both. When we add the two numbers, we get the final output as 100, as shown. The function used to add the two numbers is add(), and an object is created. We can also create other classes where we can have other functionalities, and we can create that object in the main() of the program.

Example #2

In this coding example, we create an object in the main(). The below program is used to multiply two numbers and produce the multiplication output. There is a single object obj that is created and is used to call two numbers. One is the number that has double as its type, which is used in the same class. In the Hello class, there is a main() which is created and is used to call the square() as well as the number which has its type as double.

class XYZ{ public double num = 100; public int square(int a){ return a*a; } } public class Hello{ public static void main(String args[]){ XYZ obj = new XYZ(); System.out.println(obj.num); System.out.println(obj.square(10)); } }


The sample output is a clear depiction of the two variables, which are called inside the main(). First, the number 100, which has double as its type, is shown as well as the square of a number which is there in a function. There is a function square() which shows the square of a number and is created inside another class, and then inside another class, there is a main(), which calls the Square(), and the number is shown as input. The number which is shown as input, in this case, is 10, and the square of the respective number is 100, which is shown in the output panel.

Advantages of public in Java

Unlike the private access modifier, which is the most restricted modifier, public is used when functions are used to call in classes.

 It is available in classes, package, subclass(within the same package) and subclass(within other packages).

Also, the functions are also available in other classes.

Public functionality is used for running programs which has a single main(), and there are multiple other functions that have different functionality, which is called inside the main().


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