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What is Continuous Integration (CI)?

Continuous Integration is a software development method where team members integrate their work at least once a day. In this method, every integration is checked by an automated build to detect errors. This concept was first introduced over two decades ago to avoid “integration hell,” which happens when integration is put off till the end of a project.

In Continuous Integration after a code commit, the software is built and tested immediately. In a large project with many developers, commits are made many times during a day. With each commit code is built and tested. If the test is passed, build is tested for deployment. If the deployment is a success, the code is pushed to Production. This commit, build, test, and deploy is a continuous process, and hence the name continuous integration/deployment.

In this CI tutorial, you will learn:

What is Continuous Delivery (CD)?

Continuous Delivery is a software engineering method in which a team develops software products in a short cycle. It ensures that software can be easily released at any time. The main aim of continuous delivery is to build, test, and release software with good speed and frequency. It helps you to reduce the cost, time, and risk of delivering changes by allowing for frequent updates in production.

What is the difference between CI and CD?

CI vs CD : Continuous Integration (CI) is an approach of testing each change to codebase automatically, whereas Continuous Delivery (CD) is an approach to obtain changes of new features, configuration, and bug fixes.

Development without CI vs. Development with CI

Here are key differences between development using CI or without CI:

Development without CI Development with CI

Lots of Bugs Fewer bugs

Infrequent commits Regular commits

Infrequent and slow releases Regular working releases

Difficult integration Easy and Effective Integration

Testing happens late Continuous Integration testing happens early and often.

Issue raised are harder to fix Find and fix problems faster and more efficiently.

Poor project visibility Better project visibility

Difference between Compilation and Continuous Integration

Activities in Continuous Integration

While compilation only compiles a code, CI does the following activities

DB integration:

Ensure DB and code in sync

Automated creation of DB and test data.

Code Inspection:

Ensures a healthy codebase

Identifies problems early and applies best practices

Automated Deployment:

Allows you to release product anytime

Continually demo-able state and it is works on any machine

Document generation:

Ensure documentation is current

Removes burned from the developer

Produces build reports and metrics


Compilation is the process the computer takes to convert a high-level programming language code into a machine language that the computer able to understand. It ensures a code compiler on every target platform.

When do I build?

At every check-in

Every time a dependency changes

What steps are in continuous integration?

CI process

Ideally, the build should come from the command line and should not depend on an integrated development environment (IDE).

The build should happen continuously using a dedicated Cl server, not a cron job.

CI built should be triggered on every check-in and not just at midnight

The build should provide immediate feedback and Require no developer effort

Identify key metrics and track them visually. More importantly, act on them immediately

What do you need to conduct CI process?

Here, are the key elements which you need to perform the entire CI process:

Version Control System (VCS): It offers a reliable method to centralize and preserve changes made to your project over time.

Virtual Machine: You should have a spare server or at least one virtual machine to build your system.

Hosted CI Tool Solutions: To avoid servers or virtual machines, you should go for hosted CI tool solutions. This tool helps in the maintenance of the whole process and offers easier scalability.

Tools: If you select a self-hosted variant, you will need to install one of the many CI tools like Jenkins, TeamCity, Bamboo, GitLab, etc.

How Continuous integration work?

You are surely aware of the old phone Nokia. Nokia used to implement a procedure called nightly build. After multiple commits from diverse developers during the day, the software built every night. Since the software was built only once in a day, it’s a huge pain to isolate, identify, and fix the errors in a large codebase.

Later, they adopted the Continuous Integration approach. The software was built and tested as soon as a developer committed code. If any error is detected, the respective developer can quickly fix the defect.

Example of Continuous Integration

Features of CI

Here, are important features and benefits of Continuous Integration:

Allows you to maintain just a single source repository

You can test the clone of the production CI environment

The built environment should be close to the production environment.

The complete process of build and testing and deployment should be visible to all the stack holders.

Why Use CI?

Here are important reasons for using Continuous Integration:

Helps you to build better quality software

CI process helps to scale up headcount and delivery output of engineering teams.

CI allows software developers to work independently on features in parallel.

Helps you to conduct repeatable testing

Increase visibility enabling greater communication

Helps develop a potentially shippable product for fully automated build

Helps you to reduced risks by making deployment faster and more predictable

immediate feedback when issue arrives

Avoid last-minute confusion at release date and timing

Best practices of using CI Systems

Here, are some important best practices while implementing

Commit Early and Commit Often never Commit Broken Code

Fix build failures immediately

Act on metrics

Build-in every target environment Create artifacts from every build

The build of the software need to be carried out in a manner so that it can be automated

Do not depend on an IDE

Build and test everything when it changes

The database schema counts as everything

Helps you to find out key metrics and track them visually

Check-in often and early

Stronger source code control

Continuous integration is running unit tests whenever you commit code

Automate the build and test everyone

Keep the build fast with automated deployment

Here, are cons/drawbacks of Continuous Integration process:

Initial setup time and training is required to get acquainted with Cl server

Development of suitable test procedures is essential

Well-developed test-suite required many resources for Cl server

Conversion of familiar processes

Requires additional servers and environments

Waiting times may occur when multiple developers want to integrate their code around the same time

Tools for CI process

Here, are some most essential CI/CD tools:


Jenkins is an open-source continuous integration software. It is written using the Java programming language. It facilitates real-time testing and reporting on isolated changes in a more massive codebase. This software helps developers to quickly find and solve defects in their codebase & automate testing of their builds.


Bamboo is a continuous integration build server that performs – automatic build, test, and releases in a single place. It works seamlessly with JIRA software and Bitbucket. Bamboo supports many languages and technologies such as CodeDeply, Ducker, Git, SVN, Mercurial, AWS, and Amazon S3 buckets.


TeamCity is a Continuous Integration server that supports many powerful features. It maintains a CI server healthy and stable even when no builds are running. It provides better code quality for any project


Continuous Integration definition: Continuous integration is a software development method where members of the team can integrate their work at least once a day

CI/CD meaning combination of Continuous Integration and Continuous Delivery or Continuous Deployment.

Development without CI creates lots of bugs whereas Development with CI offers Fewer bugs

Important activities of Continuous Integration are 1) DB integration, 2) Code Inspection, 3) Automated Deployment, Document generation, and Compilation.

The build should happen continuously using a dedicated Cl server, not a cron job.

Important elements of CI are 1) Version Control System 2) Virtual Machine 3) Host CI Tool solutions 4) Tools

Continuous Integration system allows you to maintain just a single source repository

CI/CD process helps you to build better quality software

The most important best practices of Azure Continuous Integration process is to Commit Early and Commit Often never Commit Broken Code

The major drawback of the CICD pipeline process is that well-developed test-suite required many resources for Cl server

Jenkins, Bambook, and Team City are some useful AWS Continuous Integration tools.

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20 Best Ci/Cd Tools (2023 Update)

With many Continuous Integration tools available in the market, it is quite a tedious task to select the best tool for your project. Following is a list of top 20 CI tools with popular features and download links.

Best CI/CD Tools: Top Picks

15-minute configuration in clear & telling UI/UX

Lightning-fast deployments based on changesets

Builds are run in isolated containers with cached dependencies

Supports all popular languages, frameworks & task managers

Dedicated roster of Docker/Kubernetes actions

Integrates with AWS, Google, DigitalOcean, Azure, Shopify, WordPress & more

Supports parallelism & YAML configuration

2) Jenkins:

Jenkins is an open-source continuous integration tool. It is written using the Java programming language. It is one of the best Continuous Integration tools that facilitates real-time testing and reporting on isolated changes in a larger code base. This software helps developers to quickly find and solve defects in their code base & automate testing of their builds.


Provide support to scale out to a large number of nodes and distribute the workload equally among them

Easily updated with all OS and versions of Linux, Mac OS or Windows

It offers easy installation as Jenkins comes as a WAR file all you need to drop into your JEE container and your setup up ready to run.

Jenkins can be easily set up and configured with the help of its web interface

It’s can easily distribute work across several machines,

3) TeamCity:

TeamCity is a Continuous Integration server which supports many powerful features.


Extensibility and Customization

Provides better code quality for any project

It maintains CI server healthy and stable even when no builds are running

Configure builds in DSL

Project level cloud profiles

Comprehensive VCS integration

On-the-fly build progress reporting

Remote run and pre-tested commit

4) GoCD:

GoCD is an Open source Continuous Integration server. It is used to model and visualize complex workflows with ease. This CI tool allows continuous delivery and provides an intuitive interface for building CD pipelines.


Supports parallel and sequential execution. Dependencies can be easily configured.

Deploy any version, anytime

Visualize end to end workflow in realtime with Value Stream Map.

Deploy to production securely.

Handle user authentication and authorization

Keep orderly configuration

Tons of plugins to enhance functionality.

Active community for help and support.

5) Bamboo:

Bamboo is a continuous integration build server which performs – automatic build, test, and releases in a single place. It is one of the best CI tools that works seamlessly with JIRA software and Bitbucket. Bamboo supports many languages and technologies such as CodeDeply, Ducker, Git, SVN, Mercurial, AWS and Amazon S3 buckets.


Run parallel batch tests

Setting up Bamboo is pretty simple

Per-environment permissions feature allows developers and QA to deploy to their environments

It can trigger builds based on changes detected in the repository, push notifications from Bitbucket

Available as hosted or on-premise versions

Facilitates real-time collaboration and integrated with HipChat.

Built-in Git branching and workflows. It automatically merges the branches.

6) Gitlab CI:


GitLab Container Registry is a secure registry for Docker images

It provides APIs for most features, so it allows developers to create deeper integrations with the product

Helps developers to put their idea into production by finding areas of improvement in their development process

It helps you to keep your information secure with Confidential Issues

Internal projects in GitLab allow promoting inner sourcing of internal repositories.

7) CircleCI:

Circle CI is a flexible CI tool that runs in any environment like cross-platform mobile app, Python API server or Docker cluster. This tool reduces bugs and improves the quality of the application.


Allows to select Build Environment

Supports many languages like Linux, including C++, Javascript, NET, PHP, Python, and Ruby

Support for Docker lets you configure customized environment

Automatically cancel any queued or running builds when a newer build is triggered

It split and balance tests across multiple containers to reduce overall build time

Forbid non-admins from modifying critical project settings

Improve Android and iOS store rating by shipping bug-free apps.

Optimal Caching and Parallelism for fast performance.

Integration with VCS tools

8) Codeship:

Codeship is a powerful CI tool that automates the development and deployment workflow. It triggers automated workflow by simplifying pushing to the repository.


It provides full control of the design of your CI and CD systems.

Centralized team management and dashboards

Easily access debug builds and SSH which helps to debug right from CI environment

Codeship gives complete control over customizing and optimizing CI and CD workflow

It allows encrypted external caching of Docker images

Allows to set up teams and permissions for your organizations and team members

Comes in two versions 1) Basic and 2) Pro

9) Buildbot:

Buildbot is a software development CI which automates the compile/test cycle. It is widely used for many software projects to validate code changes. It provides distributed, parallel execution of jobs across different platforms.


It provides support for multiple testing hosts with various architectures.

Report kernel crashes of hosts

Maintains a single-source repository

Automate the build

Every commit build on mainline on an integration machine

Automate deployment

It’s Open Source

10) Integrity:

Integrity is a continuous integration server which works only with GitHub. In this CI tool whenever users commit the codes, it builds and runs the code. It also generates the reports and provides notifications to the user.


This CI tool currently only works with git, but it can easily mirror with other SCM

This CI tool supports numbers of notification mechanisms like AMQP, Email, HTTP, Amazon SES, Flowdock, Shell, and TCP.

HTTP Notifier feature sends an HTTP POST request to the specific URL

11) Strider:

Strider is an open source tool. Its written in chúng tôi / JavaScript. It uses MongoDB as a backing store. Hence, MongoDB and chúng tôi are essential for installing this CI. The tool offers supports for different plugins that modify the database schema & register HTTP routes.


Strider integrates with many projects like GitHub, BitBucket, Gitlab, etc.

Allows to add hooks to execute arbitrary build actions

Build and test your software projects continuously

Integrates seamlessly with Github

Publish and subscribe to socket events

Create and modify Striders user interfaces

Powerful plugins to customize default functionalities

Supports Docker

12) Autorabit:

AutoRABIT is an end-to-end Continuous Delivery Suite to speed up the development process. It is one of the best Continuous Integration systems that streamlines the complete release process. It helps the organization of any size to implement Continuous Integration.


The tool is specially designed to deploy on Salesforce Platform

Lean and faster deployments based on changes supporting all the 120+ supported metadata types.

Fetch changes from Version Control System and deploy them into Sandbox automatically

Auto-commit changes into Version Control System directly from Sandbox

13) Final builder:

FinalBuilder is Vsoft’s build tool. With FinalBuilder there is no need to edit XML, or write scripts. You can define and debug build scripts when it schedules them with windows scheduler, or integrate with Jenkins, Continua CI, etc.


It presents build process in a logically structured, graphical interface

It includes try and catch actions for localized error handling

It provides tight integration with the Windows scheduling service, which allows builds to be scheduled

FinalBuilder supports more than a dozen version control systems

It provides support for scripting

The output from all actions in the build process is directed to the build log.

14) Container Registry:

Container Registry is a CI tool that automates builds and deploys the container. It is one of the best Continuous Integration servers which creates automated pipelines which can be executed through the command line interface.


Fully integrated with Github & Bitbucket

Use Container Registry CLI for faster local iterations

Execute builds concurrently to keep your team moving

Run parallel tests to reduce wait time of your team

Integrate with 100s of external tools

Receive system notification in product and by email

15) Buildkite:

The buildkite agent is a reliable and cross-platform build runner. This CI tool makes it easy to run automated builds on your infrastructure. It is mainly used for running build jobs, reporting back the status code and output log of the job.


This CI tool runs on a wide variety of OS and architectures

It can run code from any version control system

Allows to run as many build agents as you want on any machine

It can integrate with the tools like Slack, HipChat, Flowdock, Campfire and more

Buildkite never sees source code or secret keys

It offers stable infrastructure

16) Semaphore:

Semaphore is a continuous integration tool that allows to test and deploy your code at the push of a button. It supports many languages, framework and can be integrated with Github. It can also perform automatic testing and deployment.


Easy process for setup

Allows automatic parallel testing

One of the fastest CI available in the market

It can easily cover number of projects of different sizes

Seamless integration with GitHub and Bitbucket

17) CruiseControl:

CruiseControl is both CI tool and an extensible framework. It is used for building a custom continuous build process. It has many plugins for a variety of source controls, build technologies which include email and instant messaging.


Integration with a many different Source Control systems like vss, csv, svn, git, hg, perforce, clearcase, filesystem, etc.

It allows building multiple projects on single server

Integration with other external tools like NAnt, NDepend, NUnit, MSBuild, MBUnit and Visual Studio

Provide support for Remote Management

18) Bitrise:

Bitrise is a Continuous Integration and Delivery Platform as a Service. It offers Mobile Continuous Integration and Delivery for your entire team. It allows integrations with many popular services like Slack, HipChat, HockeyApp, Crashlytics, etc.


Allows to create and test workflows in your terminal

You get your apps without the need of manual controls

Every build runs individually in its own virtual machine, and all data is discarded at the end of the build

Support for third party beta testing and deployment services

Support for GitHub Pull Request

19) Urbancode:

IBM UrbanCode Deploy is a CI application. It combines robust visibility, traceability, and auditing feature into a single package.


Increase frequency of software delivery by automated, repeatable deployment processes

Reduce deployment failure

Streamline the deployment of multi-channel apps to all environments whether on-premises or in the cloud

Enterprise level security and scalability

Hybrid cloud environment modeling

This CI/CD Tools provides Drag-and-drop automation


CI/CD Tools are the software applications that help users efficiently integrate the code and develop the software build. These tools help developers to automate the software development process with ease. CI/CD tools also allow teams to integrate with other tools for efficient teamwork and collaboration.

Here is a CI/CD tools list of the best tools which support Continuous Integration:








IBM UrbanCode

Best continuous integration (CI/CD Tools)

Name Features Link

Buddy • Supports all popular languages, frameworks & task managers Learn More

Jenkins • It’s can easily distribute work across several machines, Learn More

TeamCity • Extensibility and Customization Learn More

Binance Strives In Its Continuous Efforts To Secure The Crypto Space

In 2023, a pandemic-driven shift in investment prospects sparked a surge in investor interest in cryptocurrencies. However, the craze was not without its drawbacks as the number of frauds and scams associated with it increased too. 

Hacks, scams, and ransomware attacks cost the crypto industry billions of dollars last year, with major projects falling prey to the frauds of malicious attackers. 

Authorities are catching up slowly but surely, and the need for experienced individuals capable of monitoring, tracking down, and decimating such illicit activities has become a necessity in the crypto space. 

Binance, the world’s leading blockchain ecosystem and cryptocurrency infrastructure provider, is on the leading edge of securing crypto for everyone. As an organization, Binance is investing significantly in its capabilities, especially on the security and investigations front. 

Binance strengthens security

Binance made a significant step forward in security assurance by bringing in Aron Akbiyikian as the Director of Audit and Investigations. 

Notably, Aron joins Binance with a wealth of experience. He is an expert in criminal investigations and has worked on high-profile cases, including the ‘Welcome2Video’ case where he played an instrumental role in taking down the crypto-funded child porn ring. He also has extensive experience investigating and helping to prevent criminals from using blockchain when he was at TRM Labs and Chainalysis. 

Focusing on identifying criminals seeking to exploit Binance’s platform and monitoring their activities across the blockchain sector, Aron will assist law enforcement authorities around the world in taking them down. His work helps to create a safer environment for all users within Binance and the larger crypto industry.

The platform also bolstered its Audit and Investigation team through the appointment of Nils Andersen-Röed from Europol as another Director of Audit and Investigations. 

During his time as the Project Leader of the Dark Web Unit of the Dutch National Police, Nils oversaw the takeover and takedown of ‘Hansa Market’ and ‘Alphabay’ which were the biggest black markets for drugs operating in the dark web. This global operation gathered a huge amount of information regarding illicit trades which was shared with other law enforcement agencies. It led to many arrests around the globe and contributed greatly to cleaning up the crypto industry.

At Europol, Nils was a specialist on the Dark Web team. He is using his expertise to conduct internal and external investigations at Binance, with the purpose of detecting criminals attempting to commit crimes on Binance’s platforms and protecting its users’ funds.

Anti-Money Laundering program

Binance has appointed Greg Monahan as the Global Money Laundering Reporting Officer, to expand the international anti-money laundering program and investigation programs.

With nearly 30 years of credited government service, a majority of which as a US Treasury Criminal Investigator responsible for tax, money laundering and other related financial crime investigations, Greg has led complex international investigations that have resulted in the takedown of some of the world’s most notorious cybercriminals and terrorist groups.

Binance has always emphasized the need for regulations to facilitate mass adoption of crypto across the globe. They believe regulatory licenses are required to integrate crypto with traditional financial systems, banks, payment services to give authorities more clarity about the activities in the space.

Crypto adoption is probably around 2% now. Let’s go get the other 98% onboard.

— CZ 🔶 Binance (@cz_binance) July 30, 2023

Greg will work on aligning the platform’s interests with that of the regulatory bodies by strengthening the organization’s relations with law enforcement bodies worldwide. This will be a massive step to curb money laundering activities in the crypto sphere. 

Taking down fraudsters

The platform is determined to restrain unlawful activities by cybercriminals and has brought in Tigran Gambaryan as the VP of Global Intelligence and Investigations. 

Tigran is a former special agent of the Cyber Crimes Unit in Washington, D.C., and has led several multi-billion dollar cyber investigations, including the ‘Silk Road’ corruption investigations, ‘BTC-e bitcoin exchange’, and the’ Mt. Gox’ hack. 

Mt. Gox, the most popular Bitcoin exchange at the time, responsible for almost 80% of all exchange operations on the network, filed for bankruptcy in 2014. It claimed hackers stole the equivalent of $460 million from its online coffers. 

The news rocked the Bitcoin world as crypto enthusiasts lost huge amounts of money. The work and investigative findings of Tigran were monumental in retrieving millions of dollars of lost funds which brought back users’ trust in the currency.

With Tigran on the team, Binance will continue to focus on internal and external investigations to prevent threats and financial losses while closely complying with law enforcement agencies and regulators around the world to take down cybercriminals. 

Sustained measures for cyber-security 

Binance CEO Changpeng Zhao (CZ) said:

 “We have always held Binance to the highest standard to safeguard our users’ interests, and to that end, we are always expanding our capabilities to make Binance and the wider industry a safe place for all participants.” 

Binance is taking a huge leap forward in enforcing crypto security and propelling the platform to become the safest crypto ecosystem by strengthening an already strong team of security specialists.

For more information on Binance, please check out their official website.

What Is System Integration Testing (Sit) Example

What is System Integration Testing?

System Integration Testing is defined as a type of software testing carried out in an integrated hardware and software environment to verify the behavior of the complete system. It is testing conducted on a complete, integrated system to evaluate the system’s compliance with its specified requirement.

System Integration Testing (SIT) is performed to verify the interactions between the modules of a software system. It deals with the verification of the high and low-level software requirements specified in the Software Requirements Specification/Data and the Software Design Document. It also verifies a software system’s coexistence with others and tests the interface between modules of the software application. In this type of testing, modules are first tested individually and then combined to make a system. For Example, software and/or hardware components are combined and tested progressively until the entire system has been integrated.

Why do System Integration Testing?

It helps to detect Defect early

Earlier feedback on the acceptability of the individual module will be available

Scheduling of Defect fixes is flexible, and it can be overlapped with development

Correct data flow

Correct control flow

Correct timing

Correct memory usage

Correct with software requirements

How to do System Integration Testing

It’s a systematic technique for constructing the program structure while conducting tests to uncover errors associated with interfacing.

Correction of such errors is difficult because isolation causes is complicated by the vast expansion of the entire program. Once these errors are rectified and corrected, a new one will appear, and the process continues seamlessly in an endless loop. To avoid this situation, another approach is used, Incremental Integration. We will see more detail about an incremental approach later in the tutorial.

There are some incremental methods like the integration tests are conducted on a system based on the target processor. The methodology used is Black Box Testing. Either bottom-up or top-down integration can be used.

Test cases are defined using the high-level software requirements only.

Software integration may also be achieved largely in the host environment, with units specific to the target environment continuing to be simulated in the host. Repeating tests in the target environment for confirmation will again be necessary.

Confirmation tests at this level will identify environment-specific problems, such as errors in memory allocation and de-allocation. The practicality of conducting software integration in the host environment will depend on how much target specific functionality is there. For some embedded systems the coupling with the target environment will be very strong, making it impractical to conduct software integration in the host environment.

Large software developments will divide software integration into a number of levels. The lower levels of software integration could be based predominantly in the host environment,with later levels of software integration becoming more dependent on the target environment.

Note: If software only is being tested then it is called Software Software Integration Testing [SSIT] and if both hardware and software are being tested, then it is called Hardware Software Integration Testing [HSIT].

Entry and Exit Criteria for Integration Testing

Usually while performing Integration Testing, ETVX (Entry Criteria, Task, Validation, and Exit Criteria) strategy is used.

Entry Criteria:

Completion of Unit Testing


Software Requirements Data

Software Design Document

Software Verification Plan

Software Integration Documents


Based on the High and Low-level requirements create test cases and procedures

Combine low-level modules builds that implement a common functionality

Develop a test harness

Test the build

Once the test is passed, the build is combined with other builds and tested until the system is integrated as a whole.

Re-execute all the tests on the target processor-based platform, and obtain the results

Exit Criteria:

Successful completion of the integration of the Software module on the target Hardware

Correct performance of the software according to the requirements specified


Integration test reports

Software Test Cases and Procedures [SVCP].

Hardware Software Integration Testing

Hardware Software Integration Testing is a process of testing Computer Software Components (CSC) for high-level functionalities on the target hardware environment. The goal of hardware/software integration testing is to test the behavior of developed software integrated on the hardware component.

Requirement based Hardware-Software Integration Testing

The aim of requirements-based hardware/software integration testing is to make sure that the software in the target computer will satisfy the high-level requirements. Typical errors revealed by this testing method includes:

Hardware/software interfaces errors

Violations of software partitioning.

Inability to detect failures by built-in test

Incorrect response to hardware failures

Feedback loops incorrect behavior

Incorrect or improper control of memory management hardware

Data bus contention problem

Incorrect operation of mechanism to verify the compatibility and correctness of field loadable software

Hardware Software Integration deals with the verification of the high-level requirements. All tests at this level are conducted on the target hardware.

Black box testing is the primary testing methodology used at this level of testing.

Define test cases from the high-level requirements only

A test must be executed on production standard hardware (on target)

Things to consider when designing test cases for HW/SW Integration

Correct acquisition of all data by the software

Scaling and range of data as expected from hardware to software

Correct output of data from software to hardware

Data within specifications (normal range)

Data outside specifications (abnormal range)

Boundary data

Interrupts processing


Correct memory usage (addressing, overlaps, etc.)

State transitions

Note: For interrupt testing, all interrupts will be verified independently from initial request through full servicing and onto completion. Test cases will be specifically designed in order to adequately test interrupts.

Software to Software Integration Testing

It is the testing of the Computer Software Component operating within the host/target computer

Environment, while simulating the entire system [other CSC’s], and on the high-level functionality.

It focuses on the behavior of a CSC in a simulated host/target environment. The approach used for Software Integration can be an incremental approach ( top-down, a bottom-up approach or a combination of both).

Incremental Approach

Incremental testing is a way of integration testing. In this type of testing method, you first test each module of the software individually and then continue testing by appending other modules to it then another and so on.

Incremental integration is the contrast to the big bang approach. The program is constructed and tested in small segments, where errors are easier to isolate and correct. Interfaces are more likely to be tested completely, and a systematic test approach may be applied.

There are two types of Incremental testing

Top down approach

Bottom Up approach

Top-Down Approach

Starting with the main control module, the modules are integrated by moving downward through the control hierarchy

Sub-modules to the main control module are incorporated into the structure either in a breadth-first manner or depth-first manner.

Depth-first integration integrates all modules on a major control path of the structure as displayed in the following diagram:

The module integration process is done in the following manner:

The main control module is used as a test driver, and the stubs are substituted for all modules directly subordinate to the main control module.

The subordinate stubs are replaced one at a time with actual modules depending on the approach selected (breadth first or depth first).

Tests are executed as each module is integrated.

On completion of each set of tests, another stub is replaced with a real module on completion of each set of tests

To make sure that new errors have not been introduced Regression Testing may be performed.

The process continues from step2 until the entire program structure is built. The top-down strategy sounds relatively uncomplicated, but in practice, logistical problems arise.

The most common of these problems occur when processing at low levels in the hierarchy is required to adequately test upper levels.

Stubs replace low-level modules at the beginning of top-down testing and, therefore no significant data can flow upward in the program structure.

Challenges Tester might face:

Delay many tests until stubs are replaced with actual modules.

Develop stubs that perform limited functions that simulate the actual module.

Integrate the software from the bottom of the hierarchy upward.

Note: The first approach causes us to lose some control over correspondence between specific tests and incorporation of specific modules. This may result in difficulty determining the cause of errors which tends to violate the highly constrained nature of the top-down approach.

The second approach is workable but can lead to significant overhead, as stubs become increasingly complex.

Bottom-up Approach

Bottom-up integration begins construction and testing with modules at the lowest level in the program structure. In this process, the modules are integrated from the bottom to the top.

In this approach processing required for the modules subordinate to a given level is always available and the need for the stubs is eliminated.

This integration test process is performed in a series of four steps

Low-level modules are combined into clusters that perform a specific software sub-function.

A driver is written to coordinate test case input and output.

The cluster or build is tested.

Drivers are removed, and clusters are combined moving upward in the program structure.

As integration moves upward, the need for separate test drivers lessons. In fact, if the top two levels of program structure are integrated top-down, the number of drivers can be reduced substantially, and integration of clusters is greatly simplified. Integration follows the pattern illustrated below. As integration moves upward, the need for separate test drivers lessons.

Note: If the top two levels of program structure are integrated Top-down, the number of drivers can be reduced substantially, and the integration of builds is greatly simplified.

Big Bang Approach

In this approach, all modules are not integrated until and unless all the modules are ready. Once they are ready, all modules are integrated and then its executed to know whether all the integrated modules are working or not.

In this approach, it is difficult to know the root cause of the failure because of integrating everything at once.

Also, there will be a high chance of occurrence of the critical bugs in the production environment.

This approach is adopted only when integration testing has to be done at once.


Integration is performed to verify the interactions between the modules of a software system. It helps to detect defect early

Integration testing can be done for Hardware-Software or Hardware-Hardware Integration

Integration testing is done by two methods

Incremental approach

Big bang approach

While performing Integration Testing generally ETVX (Entry Criteria, Task, Validation, and Exit Criteria) strategy is used.

Slashgear 101: What Is Vine, And What Does It Do?

SlashGear 101: What is Vine, and what does it do?

Right this very moment you’re probably seeing a few Vine videos popping up on your Twitter feed wondering what on earth these tiny videos are taking hold when previous (rather similar) apps and services have done it so many different ways before. There are several reasons why this service is catching the public’s taps at a furious rate, the first of them being the fact that Twitter acquired the company and decided to tell their entire userbase to go ahead and make Vine videos as much as possible, right away! The second is the iTunes App Store choosing Vine as an Editor’s Choice download just yesterday.

Vine is an app that allows you to record videos from your smartphone or tablet device (though it’s optimized for smartphones) in segments or all at once. You can hold your finger down on the screen (also a viewfinder) to record one long 6 second video, or you can hold it down in bursts, recording as many short moments as you like inside 6 seconds total. These videos are processed extremely rapidly and are able to be uploaded to the internet (hosted by Vine) quickly as well.

Once you’ve created a video in Vine, you have the option to do several things with it, the first being absolutely nothing at all:

1. Save only to your device, a 6 second video existing on your smart device on its own.

2. Upload to Vine only.

3. Upload to Vine and share on Twitter.

4. Upload to Vine and share on Facebook.

5. Upload to Vine and share on Twitter and Facebook at the same time.

At the moment unless you exit the Vine app and upload the resulting video through some other non-Vine service, you’ll need to upload to Vine in order to see your video shared anywhere else. Also at the moment the two services you’re able to share with (besides the app-centric Vine itself) are Facebook and Twitter. Vine is very similar to the app Instagram in that you’re able to create media and share it only with your other friends in-app, but unlike that environment, Vine makes no effort to hide the fact that everything you upload to the web is, indeed, entirely public.

If you upload anything you record with Vine to the internet, it will be public. That’s the long and short of it. According to Vine’s Privacy Policy, anything you choose to share with Vine is considered information (and media) that you choose to be made public. This includes data of all kinds, video, location information, the profile you create, and everything in-between.

If you like Vine but you’d rather create your miniature moving images in gif form (that’s less like a video and more like a moving photo file), you may want to check out Cinemagram. They’ve been open for business for many months at this point and have just (this week) revealed a new way to create media called “Shorts” which combine several of their own “cine” clips to create a mini movie – that’s not a coincidental release at all – no way!

You’ll be able to download Vine from the iTunes App Store right this minute for free, if you feel the urge to jump in on this mini movie party – it’s optimized for iPhone and iPod touch, but you can use it on your iPad too if you don’t mind the tiny layout. This app will almost certainly be coming to Android very soon, and we wouldn’t be surprised if Windows Phone 8 got a taste of the joy before Summer rolls around.

What Is Microsoft Powershell? Functions And Uses

Instead, you can use a single line of code to complete complex procedures with finesse and ease. This might seem like a dream too good to be true, but it’s not.

Welcome to the world of Microsoft PowerShell!

Microsoft PowerShell is a modern task-based command-line shell, scripting language, and configuration management framework. It’s built on the .NET framework, which allows power users to control and automate the administration of operating systems and apps using code.

Initially built for Windows, PowerShell has evolved into an open-source project, making it accessible for installation on various platforms, including Windows, Linux, and macOS.

in this article, we’ll delve deep into the endless potential of Microsoft PowerShell. We’ll unlock the secrets behind cmdlets, scripts, and pipelines and demonstrate how you can leverage PowerShell to simplify your tasks and supercharge your productivity.

Let’s take a closer look at this powerful tool!

Microsoft PowerShell is a powerful open-source, cross-platform task automation and configuration management solution originally developed by Microsoft. Built on the .NET framework, PowerShell combines the best features of popular shells, providing a modern command shell experience.

One key aspect that sets PowerShell apart from traditional shells is its ability to accept and return .NET objects rather than just text. This functionality allows users to harness the power of .NET libraries when scripting, making complex tasks and automation more streamlined.

In recent updates, such as Windows 11 22H2, the default app used to host console windows has been changed to Windows Terminal. This means that Command Prompt, Windows PowerShell, WSL, and other console apps can now run within an instance of Windows Terminal!

Wide range of customizable scripts and commands suitable for different IT and development needs. It’s built on a Command Line Interface (CLI) that lets you automate repetitive tasks, manage remote machines, etc., using code.

Includes an integrated scripting environment (ISE) which serves as a user interface for creating, editing, and executing PowerShell scripts and commands. You can also use common Integrated Development Environments (IDE), like Visual Studio Code, to create and run PowerShell scripts.

Supports modules and command sets that are reusable and follow a common structure. These modules enhance its functionality and enable users to create and deploy specific solutions tailored to their requirements.

Features Desired State Configuration (DSC), which is a management tool within the solution that allows users to define, deploy, and maintain consistent configurations across various environments.

Additionally, the security features within PowerShell ensure that scripts and cmdlets are executed in a secure environment. It has a robust permissions system and supports various security protocols, including Secure Shell (SSH) for remote access.

This makes PowerShell an ideal tool for managing and automating numerous administrative tasks across local and remote systems.

This includes Azure, Microsoft’s cloud computing service, which has a dedicated Azure PowerShell module for automating tasks related to Azure resources.

Now that we’ve gone over the basics, let’s discuss how you can install and set up PowerShell in the next section!

To get started with PowerShell, you can download the appropriate version for your operating system from various official repositories. Microsoft and other communities also provide extensive resources that you can use to learn how to use PowerShell effectively.

First, let’s look at how you can install it on different operating systems.

Supported versions of Windows provide multiple ways to install PowerShell. Each method supports different scenarios and workflows. Choose the method that best suits your needs.

Some of these methods include:

For Windows clients, the recommended way to install PowerShell is by using Winget. It’s a package manager that comes bundled with Windows 11 and certain versions of Windows 10.

To install PowerShell with it Winget, follow these steps:

Open Command Prompt by using the Windows + R shortcut, then typing cmd in the box.

Next, type the following command into the cmd window to search for the PowerShell package.winget search Microsoft.Powershell

The command will return the latest versions of PowerShell available. You can install either of them using either of the two commands below.winget install --id Microsoft.Powershell --source winget winget install --id Microsoft.Powershell.Preview --source winget

The first command will install the latest stable version of PowerShell on your machine, while the second will install the Preview(beta) version on your PC.

You can download Powershell’s MSI package from GitHub and install it on your machine just like any other program. Here is a link to the package release page.

Once you download the right version for your PC, install it. Then, once the installation is complete, you’ll be able to access the app through the start menu.

This method is best for beginners because it’ll automatically update PowerShell regularly and ensure that you always have the latest stable version installed on your computer.

However, you should know that using this method will run PowerShell in an application sandbox that virtualizes access to some systems. Changes to the virtualized file system won’t persist outside of the sandbox.

PowerShell can also be installed on macOS. Here’s a brief overview of the two main PowerShell installation processes for achieving this in Apple devices:

Homebrew is macOS’s native package manager, and you can easily use it to install Powershell from the command line. Here’s how:

Open up the terminal. Make sure you have Homebrew installed.

To install the latest stable version of PowerShell, run the command belowbrew install --cask powershell

To install the preview version, run the following commands:brew tap homebrew/cask-versionsbrew install --cask powershell-preview

To update PowerShell, you can run either of the commands:brew update brew upgrade powershell--cask This update the stable versionbrew update brew upgrade powershell-preview --cask This will updtae the rpreview version

PowerShell can be installed on various Linux distributions. To get started, visit the official PowerShell installation page from Microsoft and follow the instructions for your specific distribution.

After completing the installation on your chosen platform, you can start using PowerShell by launching the corresponding command-line application.

On Windows, you can launch PowerShell from Windows Terminal or the start menu.

On macOS and Linux, you can launch it from the Terminal by running the pwsh command.

In this section, we’ll explore the features and functionalities of PowerShell. This versatile tool has revolutionized task automation and configuration management in Windows environments, but its potential applications extend far beyond these domains.

A cmdlet is a single, lightweight command used to perform tasks in a PowerShell environment. They are specialized .NET classes that perform tasks by accessing data stores, processes, or other system resources.

After performing the tasks, they return a .NET object that can be piped into another cmdlet. PowerShell provides a robust command-line interface with history, tab completion, and command prediction.

It utilizes commands and cmdlets to perform tasks in the command prompt. A common example is the Test-Connection cmdlet used to test a PC’s connectivity.

You can also check out this cmdlet for creating a new directory using PowerShell.

A PowerShell function is another way of running commands in PowerShell, similar to cmdlets. It’s made up of PowerShell statement(s) intended to perform a specific task, grouped under a specific name.

To run the function, all you have to do is to call the function name on the cli. Just like cmdlets, functions can also take in parameters and return data.

Functions are very helpful for performing repetitive tasks in PowerShell. With them, you can write the task’s logic once in the function and call it several times.

Here’s an example of a simple function that takes in your name and greets you:

function Get-Name { param( [string] $name ) Write-Host "Hello $name!" }

PowerShell includes a powerful scripting language built on .NET Core, allowing users to create scripts and automate tasks.

Users can define functions and classes to encapsulate reusable logic within a PowerShell script or define complex data structures.

Using scripts and automation helps streamline administration tasks and manage systems more efficiently.

Modules are a way to organize and distribute PowerShell tools. They are self-contained packages containing cmdlets, functions, aliases, providers, and other resources required for their functionality.

Users can import modules to extend the functionality of PowerShell, making it a highly extensible platform. For example, you can install Power Bi cmdlets on Windows PowerShell.

You can learn how to do this in our video on How To Install And Use Windows PowerShell Cmdlets For Power BI:

PowerShell Desired State Configuration (DSC) is a configuration management platform built on PowerShell.

It allows administrators to define the desired state of a system and automates the process of bringing the system to that state.

DSC uses a declarative syntax called configuration to describe the desired state and ensures systems remain compliant with desired configurations. You can use the Get-DscResource cmdlet to get the available resource.

Azure PowerShell is a set of modules that enable administrators to manage Azure resources through PowerShell cmdlets.

It provides a simplified and automated way to perform administration tasks within Azure environments.

Users can easily manage virtual machines, storage accounts, databases, and other Azure resources using the familiar PowerShell language.

PowerShell remoting provides a means for system administrators to run PowerShell commands on remote machines. Using this feature, they can retrieve data, run commands or configure one or more machines across a network.

To run commands remotely, PowerShell supports many remoting protocols such as SSH, RPC (Only Windows), WMI, and WS-Management.

Windows PowerShell Integrated Scripting Environment (ISE) is a graphical host application for Windows PowerShell. It provides a user-friendly interface to work with PowerShell scripts and commands.

ISE facilitates the creation, execution, debugging, and testing of PowerShell scripts in a single Windows-based graphical user interface (GUI). It offers several features, such as:

Syntax coloring: Color-coding for different elements in scripts, like commands, parameters, and variables, enhancing readability.

IntelliSense: Auto-completion of commands and parameters based on the context, reducing the possibility of errors.

Tabbed Interface: Multiple script tabs for working on various files simultaneously.

Split-pane view: Script Pane and Console Pane are displayed side-by-side, allowing users to write and execute scripts concurrently.

Context-sensitive help: Quick access to relevant help documentation based on the current selection.

While ISE was the primary PowerShell development environment in the past, it’s important to note that it is now in maintenance mode.

Microsoft recommends using Visual Studio Code with the PowerShell extension for a more feature-rich and updated experience.

Writing a script in ISE is quite easy. Here’s how you can write a simple ISE script:

Open the PowerShell ISE. To do that, type in the following:powershell_ise

In the console that opens, type in the followingWrite-Host 'Hello Powershell world!'

Save the file somewhere on your PC. Make sure you remember the file path.

Note: To run scripts on your machine, you might need to change the Execution Policy first. The default policy restricts scripts from running on your local machine, so you will need to change it to RemoteSigned.

You can do this by running this command below in PowerShell or cmd admin:

Set-ExecutionPolicy RemoteSigned

In the menu that comes up, select Y to change the policy.

Debugging and testing scripts are essential for ensuring functionality and efficiency. Windows PowerShell ISE provides useful debugging features to simplify the process:

Breakpoints: Set breakpoints to pause script execution at specific lines, making it easier to identify issues within the script.

Step-through debugging: Execute the script line by line or step over functions and modules to observe script behavior.

Variable monitoring: In the interactive console, inspect and modify variables to observe changes in script output.

Error indication: Highlighting errors in the script, with explanations and suggestions on how to fix them.

ISE’s integrated features allow users to quickly identify problems, test solutions, and verify script functionality before deploying it in a production environment.

In an era where cybersecurity is of paramount importance, understanding and implementing security best practices for any computing platform or language is crucial. PowerShell, a powerful scripting language and automation framework from Microsoft, is no exception.

This section will delve into the comprehensive approach towards security considerations for PowerShell, focusing on strategies to harden the environment, secure scripts, and minimize potential attack vectors.

PowerShell’s execution policy is a safety feature that controls the conditions under which configuration files and scripts are loaded and executed. This helps prevent the execution of malicious scripts.

You can also use Group Policy settings to set execution policies for computers and users, but these policies only apply to the Windows platform. To enhance security further, always ensure to sign your scripts after having them vetted before importing them for usage.

Managing PowerShell modules effectively is essential for both security and functionality. The SecretManagement module, for example, provides a useful way to store and manage secrets (like API keys and credentials), while preventing unauthorized access.

To manage your modules, consider the following best practices:

Use a version control system (e.g., Git) to track and manage module changes

Regularly update your modules to receive the latest security patches and features

Use PSScriptAnalyzer to examine your modules for potential issues and follow its recommendations

When writing PowerShell scripts, adhering to best practices can improve security, maintainability, and performance. A few key practices to follow include:

Abstract away concepts as much as possible to simplify your scripts.

Avoid creating a parameter if you can come up with the value in the code.

Restrict the user from running unnecessary commands if they don’t have to

Use PSScriptAnalyzer to analyze your scripts and improve their quality

PowerShell is a powerful tool for system administration and automation. To help you learn and master PowerShell, it’s essential to be aware of the various resources and community platforms available.

In addition to Microsoft’s official resources, the PowerShell community plays a significant role in its development and support. This section will provide you with information on official documentation, community websites, and forums, as well as social media and community interactions.

PowerShell Gallery: The PowerShell Gallery is a central repository for PowerShell modules, making it easy to find useful scripts and tools shared by fellow PowerShell developers. It’s also a reliable platform for publishing your own modules.

chúng tôi : chúng tôi is a community-driven, non-profit organization dedicated to promoting PowerShell education. They provide free resources, including webinars, ebooks, and articles.

Tech Community: The Microsoft Tech Community is a forum where you can ask questions, share insights, and learn from industry experts on a wide array of Microsoft products, including PowerShell.

Stack Overflow: On Stack Overflow, PowerShell developers can ask and answer questions, helping each other solve scripting challenges.

r/PowerShell: The r/PowerShell subreddit is a popular forum where PowerShell users share scripts, solutions, and best practices.

Slack: A dedicated PowerShell Slack workspace hosts community discussions and allows users to collaborate on projects.

Discord: The PowerShell Discord server serves as yet another platform for users to engage in conversations, ask questions, and share resources.

Spiceworks: This PowerShell community on Spiceworks covers topics related to PowerShell, offers tips, tricks, and shares scripts.

GitHub: Many PowerShell projects are hosted on GitHub. You can find repositories with useful scripts, tools, and modules, as well as contribute to open-source initiatives.

As we wrap up our exploration of PowerShell, it becomes clear that this scripting language is an essential component of modern IT environments. With its rich set of features, PowerShell empowers users to tackle complex tasks with ease.

From system administration to managing cloud resources, PowerShell provides the flexibility and control needed to navigate the ever-evolving technological landscape.

Whether you’re a seasoned IT professional or a beginner, learning PowerShell opens up a world of possibilities for streamlining operations and maximizing productivity.

Fancy learning more about PowerShell? Check out this great article on PowerShell Global Variables.

Some common commands work, while others do not. Commands like touch, sudo, ifconfig do not work in PowerShell.

However, commands like ls, pwd, echo, rm, etc., work in PowerShell.

Some basic PowerShell commands include:

Get-ChildItem lists items in a directory

New-Item creates a new item, such as a file or directory

Remove-Item deletes an item

Rename-Item changes the name of an item

You can check out more cmdlets in this article on 10 PowerShell Examples You Need to Know. You can also list all the commands installed on your machine using the Get-Command cmdlet.

PowerShell comes pre-installed in Windows 10 and 11. You can open it as mentioned in the “How to Install and Set Up PowerShell” section.

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