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Random Walk Theory

In a “random walk”, a variable does not follow a trend and it moves at random. When we apply this theory to stock prices, it suggests that the stock prices move at random and it is impossible to predict their movement, either through fundamental or technical analysis.

According to the Random Walk Theory, the stock prices of any listed company follows a random walk. The theory also assumes that movement of stock prices of two different companies are independent of each other.

Randomness of Share Prices

The randomness of share prices is related to the concept of fair pricing and efficient capital markets. In an efficient market, the security prices are determined depending on supply and demand. When the demand is high, the prices of shares go up. And, if the supply is more than the demand, the prices of shares come down.

So, how do the investors make a decision to buy or sell shares in the market? This is done depending on the cognizance of various factors associated with the company and its shares.

In a fair market, the information about a share is known to all investors and they can decide upon the fate of a share depending on the information.

In an efficient market, the price and the outstanding number of shares are known to all. When a share has favorable conditions, its price goes up. It happens because the market acts as a mediator between the sellers and buyers. The seller cannot increase the price of a share without sufficient support from the market. That is, the condition must be fair for the company to increase the price of the share.

In an efficient market, there is no actual third-party body that wants conditions to turn in its favor. In other words, the trade of a share happens only between the buyer and the seller in an efficient market. Therefore, the prices of shares may move up and down for several instances. This is known as the “randomness of share prices.”

Randomness is Natural in an Efficient Market

In an efficient market, the randomness of share prices is a natural phenomenon. As the prices are only dependent on supply and demand, the price of shares vary randomly in a market. That is why, when the company has strong fundamentals and when the news and events of the company are found profitable, its share prices go up randomly. In the reverse case, when situations are not good, the price of a share may go down too.


The share prices are not constant. Rather, it is a random variable that goes up and down depending on market conditions. When the demand for a share is high, the share price goes up while when the conditions are not in favor, the share prices may go down.

The randomness of share prices is a known and accepted phenomenon among shareholders and they know and act accordingly. Therefore, in an efficient market, all the necessary information is supplied to the investors and shareholders so that they can make an informed decision depending upon the facts.

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Ipad Could Grab Huge Share (Of The Enterprise)

After enormous hype, Apple unveiled its latest creation – The iPad. While tech pundits and Apple fans seems to be divided over whether this new device is a WIN or a FAIL, one thing is clear: Apple is making a clear grab for several poorly defended market segments.

It’s a bold move, and one that could make the iPad a bigger than the iPhone.

Before I go on, let me first address why I think that pundits and Apple fans are divided over the iPad, whereas most seemed to supportive of the iPhone. It comes down to knowns and unknowns.

When Apple unveiled the iPhone, the emphasis was on the phone side of the device. Yes, the platform for apps was embryonic, but the iPhone was still a known – a smart phone with web and email built in. People were happy with that and concluded that the iPhone would be a success almost purely based on the fact that it as an Apple branded phone.

The iPad is different. There is no real comparison to it, and that makes people uncomfortable and nervous. While they want Apple to be innovative, at the same time they want the company to do things that are normal and predictable. The iPad is neither of those things.

First thing that you notice when you peruse an Apple Store is how currently you cannot currently buy a computer for under $500. The cheapest system that you can buy is the screen-less, keyboard-less Mac mini, which starts at $599.

Apple CEO Steve Jobs once said, “we don’t know how to make a $500 computer that’s not a piece of junk.” Well, that has now changed. The budget 16GB iPad comes in at a dollar under the $500, opening up the opportunity of Apple ownership to a totally new market.

It could be argued that the iPad isn’t a computer in the same way as a Windows- or Mac-based system is. The proliferation of smartphones that have a pared down operating system (such as the iPhone) makes this a moot point.

The iPad is an Apple-branded device that has a keyboard and screen, runs programs and games, handles emails and can browse the web. To most buyers, that is a computer. Yes, it’s an Apple computer, and it can be bought for $500.

That alone has the potential to make the iPad a huge hit, not only because the buying public will love that price, but enterprise will also love that price.

Currently the biggest tablet users are financial, insurance, scientific and media. The tablets these folks use are heavy, clumsy, and expensive. By comparison, the iPad is light, sleek, sexy and cheap. Lack of software might initially be a problem. But iWork apps for the iPad is a clear sign that Apple is starting to take enterprise apps more seriously, so there’s a good chance we’ll see more of the same in the App Store soon.

Another market that the iPad is targeting is the ebook reader market. So far, Amazon and Barnes & Noble have had this market pretty much to themselves. And while they both have their own ebook readers (Amazon has the Kindle and B&N have the Nook), both these devices are pretty basic and do little more than allow you to read books on them.

Both these devices now have serious competition, from not only a dominant consumer electronics maker, but also a company that has its own content distribution system all set up, with millions of customers already familiar with how it works. This puts the Kindle and the Nook both in a very vulnerable position as Apple puts the squeeze on them.

Also, it’s a fair bet that, internally within Amazon and B&N, the product managers for the ebook distribution will be trying to come up with ways to leverage the hype hysteria surrounding the iPad (at the same time the product managers for the ebook readers will hate any move that could weaken their position). If Apple can leverage iTunes (and its massive user base) to push down the price of ebooks, this could put severe pressure on the likes of Amazon and B&N.

Another market that the iPad is targeting is gaming. The iPhone and iPod touch are both competent gaming platforms, especially for the casual gamer. With the iPad, which has a more powerful 1GHz A4 processor (about which we know very little else, but we can assume that it’s ARM-based), has the potential to become a very powerful platform.

With games studios such as EA firmly onboard with Apple, we could see the iPad start to eat into game console sales (especially when you look at the price of games for consoles, and compare that to games for the iPhone platform).

As you can see, while the iPhone initially went after a single, well established, market (the smartphone market), the iPad is simultaneously making a grab for several markets. Most of these markets are of interest to Apple because it can use iTunes as a conduit for new content streams, which in turn means new revenue streams.

In a year’s time, consumer electronics will be different, and in part, that will be down to the influence of the iPad.

What Is The Internet Of Things (Iot)?

Z-Wave Alliance

If you’ve been following technology during the past decade, you’ve inevitably seen the term “Internet of Things” at some point. But what does that mean exactly, and what’s its real-world impact?


The Internet of Things (IoT) refers to interconnected “smart” devices that aren’t phones, tablets, or computers. While the term is most familiar in a smart home context, it also applies to medical, industrial, commercial, and military systems.

What is the Internet of Things?


The Internet of Things — IoT from here on in — is a linkage of digitally-enhanced objects connected to each other via the internet or some other network. Specifically however the definition focuses on things that aren’t computers in and of themselves, even if a smartphone or PC is usually required for control. This translates to embedding computing into otherwise “dumb” products, such as lights, thermostats, sensors, and security systems.

If this sounds familiar, it’s because the most public face of IoT is smart home hardware. It’s by no means limited to this however, which is why IoT serves as a useful umbrella, covering industrial, commercial, and military applications as well as those Nest speakers and smart bulbs you’ve got in your apartment.

What technology does the Internet of Things rely on?

Andrew Grush / Android Authority

IoT is too broad to get into specifics, but we can boil things down to categories.

Embedded processors provide varying degrees of onboard computing. This can be minimal, say in the case of a sensor, smart bulb, or smart plug, but may have to scale up for devices like smart speakers and displays, or central automation systems.

Wireless technologies can include everything from short-range protocols such as Bluetooth, NFC, and RFID through to long-range ones like 5G and satellite systems. In between you’ll see formats like Wi-Fi, Zigbee, Z-Wave, and Thread.

Wired connections are less important in many cases, but Ethernet and powerline communications (PLC) can serve to carry both power and data. The internet, of course, relies heavily on fiber-optic lines.

Hubs are often necessary to bridge short- to mid-range wireless devices with the internet and other WANs (wide-area networks). Zigbee and Z-Wave accessories for example talk to a hub connected to your Wi-Fi router, which enables remote control as well as linkage with third-party platforms.

Standardized software platforms allow devices from different manufacturers — or at least, all of those by the same manufacturer — to talk to each other and act in sync. In the smart home space, the big three platforms are Amazon Alexa, Apple HomeKit, and Google Assistant. There are other options though, and you’ll find very different platforms in business and government applications.

Machine learning isn’t required, but it’s increasingly common as a way to have IoT systems adapt to needs and refine their responses. The Nest Learning Thermostat, for instance, can build its own heating and cooling schedule based on frequent manual adjustments.

Mesh networking is another optional technology, but allows IoT devices to talk directly to each other and extend their reach. Zigbee, Z-Wave, and Thread are inherently mesh-based. Mesh Wi-Fi routers expand the scope of Wi-Fi networks without requiring multiple network IDs.

Cloud computing is used to handle things that can’t be processed on-device. Consider smart speakers, which typically only process a handful of voice commands locally, uploading the rest to remote servers for interpretation. Scheduled automations are often triggered via the cloud too, though hub-based systems can run automations offline. Cloud networks frequently bridge outside services.

Internet of Things applications

Kaitlyn Cimino / Android Authority

We’ve already addressed smart homes, but it’s worth pointing out uses in other spheres.

Medical applications are generally focused on diagnosis, long-term trends, and alerts. A smart bed, for example, can tell whether a bed is occupied, and when a patient is trying to get up. This field sometimes extends into the consumer space, since data from fitness trackers, smartwatches, and smart scales can optionally be shared with physicians.

Transportation and infrastructure uses are plentiful, among them traffic control, toll collection, energy monitoring, and fleet management. V2X (vehicle-to-everything) communications will probably be essential towards making self-driving cars commonplace, preventing accidents by talking to infrastructure and nearby vehicles.

Manufacturing may actually be the biggest use of IoT, since modern factories are loaded with sensors and automated machines handling production, quality control, inventory, and safety.

Military purposes are unfortunately diverse, ranging from monitoring soldiers to smart munitions, automated turrets, and attack or recon drones. A major issue is keeping IoT devices connected on the battlefield, since networks can be taken down by enemy fire or cyberwarfare.

Interesting IoT products to make your home smarter

Read more: The smart home privacy policies of Amazon, Apple, and Google


No. They do often play an important role in controlling IoT systems, though.

Yes, and for smart homes, they’re often de facto as a way of enabling voice commands and/or linking other accessories.

Some of them can, yes. Many operate on private networks, and hub-based products can often run automations offline, even if they need to connect to the internet eventually.

As mentioned, two of the biggest ones are power consumption and reliable wireless. Power often dictates when and how devices can be made “smart,” and there’s no IoT at all if a device doesn’t have necessary bandwidth.

A lot of progress has been made in those areas, but another recurring challenge is platform fragmentation. In the smart home space, Alexa and Google Assistant accessories often won’t work with HomeKit, or vice versa. The Matter standard will hopefully address this, but it’s still very new.

What Is The Full Form Of Adb?


ADB’s focus areas include infrastructure development, support for small and medium-sized enterprises, regional cooperation and integration, human development, environmental sustainability, and governance and institutional development. ADB has been instrumental in supporting the economic growth of many countries in the region, and it continues to play a significant role in promoting sustainable development in Asia and the Pacific.

History of ADB

The Asian Development Bank (ADB) was established in 1966 with the aim of fostering economic and social development in the Asia and Pacific region. The bank was founded to promote regional cooperation and economic growth by providing loans and technical assistance to its member countries.

ADB’s first loan was granted to the government of the Philippines to fund a highway project in 1967. Since then, ADB has grown to become one of the leading development banks in the world, with 68 member countries, including 49 from the Asia and Pacific region. The bank’s headquarters are located in Manila, Philippines. Over the years, ADB has expanded its operations to cover various sectors, including infrastructure, private sector development, and environmental sustainability.

ADB has also been at the forefront of promoting social development, including education, health, and poverty reduction. In recent years, ADB has focused on supporting renewable energy and sustainable development initiatives to help mitigate the impacts of climate change. ADB’s history reflects its commitment to promoting inclusive and sustainable economic growth in the region, and the bank continues to play an important role in supporting the development efforts of its member countries.

Aims and Objectives of ADB

The aims and objectives of ADB are as follows

To promote economic and social development in Asia and the Pacific region.

To help reduce poverty in its developing member countries.

To help its member countries achieve sustainable economic growth and regional cooperation.

To provide loans, technical assistance, grants, and other forms of development assistance to its member countries.

To promote environmentally sustainable development.

To support private sector development and private sector-led growth.

Programs and Projects of ADB

ADB’s programs and projects are diverse and cover various sectors to support its mission of promoting economic and social progress in the Asia and Pacific region. Infrastructure development is a significant focus area for the bank, and it provides funding for transportation, energy, water supply, and sanitation projects.

ADB also supports the development of small and medium-sized enterprises through technical assistance, training, and direct lending. The bank also supports environmental sustainability initiatives, including promoting renewable energy, energy efficiency, sustainable transport, climate change mitigation and adaptation, and natural resource management. ADB’s projects also focus on human development, including support for education, health, and social protection.

Furthermore, ADB supports regional cooperation and integration through cross-border infrastructure projects and trade facilitation. ADB’s governance and institutional development programs support the development of sound economic policies, public sector management, and the rule of law.

The bank’s projects aim to promote inclusive and sustainable development, reduce poverty, and create jobs, particularly among vulnerable groups, such as women and marginalized communities. Overall, ADB’s programs and projects cover a broad range of sectors and aim to support the bank’s mission of promoting sustainable economic growth and regional cooperation in Asia and the Pacific.

Evaluation and Impact of ADB

ADB conducts regular evaluations of its programs and projects to assess their impact and effectiveness. Independent evaluators assess the ADB’s projects and programs to determine their success in achieving their intended outcomes and to identify areas for improvement.

The ADB also conducts surveys and studies to assess the impact of its programs on poverty reduction, environmental sustainability, private sector development, and other key development indicators.

The ADB’s impact is often measured in terms of the number of people who have benefitted from its programs, the economic growth that has been stimulated, and the improvement in social indicators such as education and health.


In conclusion, the Asian Development Bank has played a significant role in promoting sustainable development in Asia and the Pacific region. ADB has provided financial and technical support to its member countries to help reduce poverty, improve infrastructure, and support economic growth.

Despite the challenges that remain, ADB’s commitment to sustainable development and its strong partnerships with governments, civil society, and the private sector position it as a key player in promoting inclusive and sustainable development in Asia and the Pacific.


Q1. What kinds of projects does ADB finance?

Ans. ADB finances a wide range of projects, including infrastructure development, support for small and medium-sized enterprises, environmental sustainability, human development, regional cooperation and integration, and governance and institutional development. ADB’s portfolio includes projects in transportation, energy, water supply and sanitation, education, health, and social protection, among others.

Q2. How does ADB support environmental sustainability?

Ans. ADB supports environmental sustainability through its projects and programs by promoting renewable energy, energy efficiency, sustainable transport, climate change mitigation and adaptation, and natural resource management. ADB also helps countries develop policies and strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, protect biodiversity, and improve water and waste management.

Q3. How does ADB work with the private sector?

Ans. ADB works with the private sector in a variety of ways, including through direct lending to private companies, support for public-private partnerships, and technical assistance for private sector development. ADB also promotes policy and regulatory reforms to create a more favorable business environment and attract private investment. ADB’s private sector operations aim to stimulate economic growth, create jobs, and promote sustainable development.

What Is The Full Form Of Amie

What is AMIE?

AMIE stands for Associate Member of the Institution of Engineers. It is a professional certification program in the field of engineering that enables engineering professionals to obtain a degree-level qualification in engineering. AMIE is equivalent to a bachelor’s degree in engineering and is recognized by the Government of India and many other countries around the world. AMIE is designed for working professionals who are unable to attend regular college due to work or other commitments. The program is available in various streams of engineering and covers a broad range of topics in the chosen stream. AMIE is a distance education program, which means that students can pursue it from anywhere in the world, at their own pace, without the need to attend regular classes.

Eligibility for an AMIE

To be eligible for AMIE, candidates must fulfill certain academic and professional requirements. These requirements are as follows −

Academic Requirements

10+2 (or equivalent) with Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics as main subjects

A three-year polytechnic diploma in engineering (after 10th standard) or a four-year diploma in engineering (after 10+2)

A degree in science (B.Sc.) with Mathematics as a subject

Professional Requirements

Working professionals who have completed a minimum of 3 years of work experience in the engineering field after passing their 10+2 or polytechnic diploma in engineering are also eligible for AMIE. The work experience should be in a relevant field of engineering, and the candidate must be working in a reputed organization.

Non-working professionals who have completed a minimum of 4 years of work experience in the engineering field after passing their 10+2 or polytechnic diploma in engineering are also eligible for AMIE. The work experience should be in a relevant field of engineering.

Candidates who fulfill the academic and professional requirements can apply for AMIE. They must fill the application form and pay the required fees to become a member of the Institution of Engineers (India). Once the application is accepted, candidates can register for the AMIE program and begin their studies.

Overall, the eligibility criteria for AMIE are designed to ensure that candidates have the necessary academic and professional qualifications to pursue the program. This helps to maintain the standard and quality of education offered by AMIE and ensures that only qualified candidates are awarded the certification.

Responsibilities of AMIE

As a professional certification program, AMIE comes with certain responsibilities that its members must adhere to. These responsibilities are as follows −

Professional Requirements

Professional Conduct − AMIE members are expected to adhere to a high standard of professional conduct. They should conduct themselves in an ethical and professional manner, avoiding any actions or behaviors that could bring disrepute to the engineering profession.

Continuous Learning − AMIE members are expected to engage in continuous learning and professional development. They should stay up-to-date with the latest developments in their field of engineering and participate in relevant training and professional development programs.

Mentoring − AMIE members are encouraged to mentor and guide junior engineers and engineering students. They should share their knowledge and expertise with others in the profession and help to promote the growth and development of the engineering community.

Contribution to the Profession − AMIE members are expected to contribute to the engineering profession in meaningful ways. This could involve publishing research papers, presenting at conferences, participating in professional organizations, or serving on committees or boards related to the engineering profession.

Promoting Safety and Sustainability − AMIE members are expected to prioritize safety and sustainability in their work. They should take into account the environmental and social impact of their work and ensure that their projects are designed and implemented with the safety of all stakeholders in mind.

By adhering to these responsibilities, AMIE members can contribute to the growth and development of the engineering profession and help to ensure that it remains a respected and valuable field. These responsibilities also help to maintain the high standard of education and professional conduct associated with AMIE.


In conclusion, AMIE is a professional certification program that provides engineering professionals with a degree-level qualification. AMIE is designed for working professionals who are unable to attend regular college due to work or other commitments. The eligibility criteria for AMIE ensure that candidates have the necessary academic and professional qualifications to pursue the program, and the responsibilities of AMIE members promote ethical and professional conduct, continuous learning, mentoring, contribution to the profession, and promotion of safety and sustainability.

AMIE is a valuable program for engineering professionals who wish to enhance their skills, career prospects, and contribute to the growth and development of the engineering profession. The certification is recognized by the Government of India and many other countries around the world. Pursuing AMIE can provide numerous benefits to engineering professionals, including greater career opportunities, higher salaries, and improved job satisfaction.


Q1. What is the duration of the AMIE program?

Ans. The duration of the AMIE program varies depending on the stream of engineering and the pace of the student. Generally, it takes around 4-5 years to complete the program.

Q2. Is AMIE recognized by the Government of India?

Ans. Yes, AMIE is recognized by the Government of India as equivalent to a bachelor’s degree in engineering.

Q3. Can I pursue AMIE while working?

Ans. Yes, AMIE is designed for working professionals who are unable to attend regular college due to work or other commitments. It is a distance education program, which means that students can pursue it from anywhere in the world, at their own pace, without the need to attend regular classes.

What Is The Role Of Collaboration In Quality Management?

Collaborative Quality Management is an effective strategy for raising the bar on service and product quality through the use of cross-functional teams. Employees, clients, and vendors must all work together in this process to reach the organisation’s quality goals. Productivity, communication, knowledge sharing, and iterative improvement are just some of the many benefits of collaborative quality management.

Collaborative quality management strategies for small businesses, cross-functional teams, and the connection between collaboration and continuous improvement are all covered in this article, along with the role of teamwork and leadership in quality assurance. Embracing collaboration and teamwork allows businesses to cultivate a quality culture that drives continuous improvement and yields the best possible outcomes for their customers.

The Benefits of Collaborative Quality Management

Collaborative quality management practises can increase productivity by as much as 25%, according to a McKinsey study. This is because a more streamlined and effective process is the result of team members working together to identify and address any problems that may arise.

Increased communication and sharing of information are two additional benefits of Quality Management collaboration that can contribute to ongoing progress. Team members benefit from increased learning and development when they are encouraged to share their own expertise and experiences.

Collaborative Approaches to Quality Improvement

A collaborative approach to quality improvement is one in which multiple parties work together to boost the quality of a given product, service, or process. It means getting input from all levels of the organization, such as workers, clients, and vendors.

Collaboration is a great way to make sure that everyone is on the same page and that everyone’s opinions are heard. By working together, businesses can boost output while decreasing expenses.

Last but not least, quality management relies on teamwork to foster an environment where people consistently strive to do better and are held accountable for achieving the best outcomes they can.

The Role of Teamwork in Quality Management

The goals of quality management can only be reached through a collaborative effort. When people come together to solve problems and make choices, they can benefit from the combined expertise of the group. This cooperative method is useful for spotting and fixing problems before they escalate and threaten the product’s integrity.

Improved quality and productivity can result when team members share their ideas and methods. Successful teams have open lines of communication, a common understanding of their goals, and a willingness to listen to and learn from one another. By encouraging communication and cooperation among employees, businesses can develop a culture that promotes the constant improvement and benefits their customers.

Collaborative Quality Management Strategies for Small Businesses

Small businesses can benefit from Collaborative Quality Management by working with other companies in their field to share and implement best practices and enhance existing procedures. By pooling their resources, small businesses can save money, boost productivity, and delight their clientele.

Collaborative Quality Management techniques like “quality circles” are just one example. Quality circles are informal groups of workers who get together regularly to brainstorm ways to enhance the quality of their work environment. By pooling their resources and expertise, workers can find ways to enhance the value of their output.

The formation of partnerships with suppliers, customers, and other market participants is another tactic. When companies work together, they can pool their expertise and resources to create superior goods and services. If a small company is a supplier to a large one, for instance, the two companies could work together to raise the standard of the supplied components.

The Role of Leadership in Fostering Collaboration for Quality Improvement

Quality improvement through collaboration is impossible without strong leadership. Collaboration, in quality management, means working together to achieve a common goal, such as improving the quality of the services or goods being offered.

A good leader is one who encourages workers to work together for the greater good. They need to create a place where workers feel heard and respected, and where new ideas are welcomed and encouraged. Leaders need to make sure everyone is on the same page and knows what they need to do to succeed in reaching the objective through clear and consistent communication.

Leaders can encourage teamwork by encouraging the sharing of knowledge and skills from a variety of sources. In addition to creating a more positive and productive work environment, collaboration helps build trust and relationships among team members.

Collaborative Quality Management Techniques for Cross-Functional Teams

Methods used by interdisciplinary groups to coordinate effectively and deliver superior work are known as “Collaborative Quality Management Techniques for Cross-Functional Teams.” The purpose of quality management is to guarantee that delivered goods and services are up to par. The team’s ability to work together and share information, materials, and strategies is crucial to the success of this endeavor.

When teams from different departments work together, they can spot problems sooner in the process, come up with solutions more quickly, and boost the quality of the final product or service. Cross-functional teams can benefit from collaborative quality management strategies such as brainstorming sessions, process mapping, and continuous improvement initiatives. These methods facilitate two-way communication, teamwork, and conformity to agreed-upon quality benchmarks.

The Relationship Between Collaboration and Continuous Improvement

Working together towards a common goal is what we mean when we say “collaborate.” Looking for ways to make things better is at the heart of the concept of “continuous improvement.” Quality management relies on constant improvement, and this can only be achieved through teamwork. Better solutions often arise when people work together and share their thoughts.

The end result is better goods and services. Individuals working in isolation are more likely to miss something vital. When people pool their resources and talents, they may be able to spot errors or develop superior solutions.

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