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ADB’s focus areas include infrastructure development, support for small and medium-sized enterprises, regional cooperation and integration, human development, environmental sustainability, and governance and institutional development. ADB has been instrumental in supporting the economic growth of many countries in the region, and it continues to play a significant role in promoting sustainable development in Asia and the Pacific.

History of ADB

The Asian Development Bank (ADB) was established in 1966 with the aim of fostering economic and social development in the Asia and Pacific region. The bank was founded to promote regional cooperation and economic growth by providing loans and technical assistance to its member countries.

ADB’s first loan was granted to the government of the Philippines to fund a highway project in 1967. Since then, ADB has grown to become one of the leading development banks in the world, with 68 member countries, including 49 from the Asia and Pacific region. The bank’s headquarters are located in Manila, Philippines. Over the years, ADB has expanded its operations to cover various sectors, including infrastructure, private sector development, and environmental sustainability.

ADB has also been at the forefront of promoting social development, including education, health, and poverty reduction. In recent years, ADB has focused on supporting renewable energy and sustainable development initiatives to help mitigate the impacts of climate change. ADB’s history reflects its commitment to promoting inclusive and sustainable economic growth in the region, and the bank continues to play an important role in supporting the development efforts of its member countries.

Aims and Objectives of ADB

The aims and objectives of ADB are as follows

To promote economic and social development in Asia and the Pacific region.

To help reduce poverty in its developing member countries.

To help its member countries achieve sustainable economic growth and regional cooperation.

To provide loans, technical assistance, grants, and other forms of development assistance to its member countries.

To promote environmentally sustainable development.

To support private sector development and private sector-led growth.

Programs and Projects of ADB

ADB’s programs and projects are diverse and cover various sectors to support its mission of promoting economic and social progress in the Asia and Pacific region. Infrastructure development is a significant focus area for the bank, and it provides funding for transportation, energy, water supply, and sanitation projects.

ADB also supports the development of small and medium-sized enterprises through technical assistance, training, and direct lending. The bank also supports environmental sustainability initiatives, including promoting renewable energy, energy efficiency, sustainable transport, climate change mitigation and adaptation, and natural resource management. ADB’s projects also focus on human development, including support for education, health, and social protection.

Furthermore, ADB supports regional cooperation and integration through cross-border infrastructure projects and trade facilitation. ADB’s governance and institutional development programs support the development of sound economic policies, public sector management, and the rule of law.

The bank’s projects aim to promote inclusive and sustainable development, reduce poverty, and create jobs, particularly among vulnerable groups, such as women and marginalized communities. Overall, ADB’s programs and projects cover a broad range of sectors and aim to support the bank’s mission of promoting sustainable economic growth and regional cooperation in Asia and the Pacific.

Evaluation and Impact of ADB

ADB conducts regular evaluations of its programs and projects to assess their impact and effectiveness. Independent evaluators assess the ADB’s projects and programs to determine their success in achieving their intended outcomes and to identify areas for improvement.

The ADB also conducts surveys and studies to assess the impact of its programs on poverty reduction, environmental sustainability, private sector development, and other key development indicators.

The ADB’s impact is often measured in terms of the number of people who have benefitted from its programs, the economic growth that has been stimulated, and the improvement in social indicators such as education and health.


In conclusion, the Asian Development Bank has played a significant role in promoting sustainable development in Asia and the Pacific region. ADB has provided financial and technical support to its member countries to help reduce poverty, improve infrastructure, and support economic growth.

Despite the challenges that remain, ADB’s commitment to sustainable development and its strong partnerships with governments, civil society, and the private sector position it as a key player in promoting inclusive and sustainable development in Asia and the Pacific.


Q1. What kinds of projects does ADB finance?

Ans. ADB finances a wide range of projects, including infrastructure development, support for small and medium-sized enterprises, environmental sustainability, human development, regional cooperation and integration, and governance and institutional development. ADB’s portfolio includes projects in transportation, energy, water supply and sanitation, education, health, and social protection, among others.

Q2. How does ADB support environmental sustainability?

Ans. ADB supports environmental sustainability through its projects and programs by promoting renewable energy, energy efficiency, sustainable transport, climate change mitigation and adaptation, and natural resource management. ADB also helps countries develop policies and strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, protect biodiversity, and improve water and waste management.

Q3. How does ADB work with the private sector?

Ans. ADB works with the private sector in a variety of ways, including through direct lending to private companies, support for public-private partnerships, and technical assistance for private sector development. ADB also promotes policy and regulatory reforms to create a more favorable business environment and attract private investment. ADB’s private sector operations aim to stimulate economic growth, create jobs, and promote sustainable development.

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What Is The Full Form Of Amie

What is AMIE?

AMIE stands for Associate Member of the Institution of Engineers. It is a professional certification program in the field of engineering that enables engineering professionals to obtain a degree-level qualification in engineering. AMIE is equivalent to a bachelor’s degree in engineering and is recognized by the Government of India and many other countries around the world. AMIE is designed for working professionals who are unable to attend regular college due to work or other commitments. The program is available in various streams of engineering and covers a broad range of topics in the chosen stream. AMIE is a distance education program, which means that students can pursue it from anywhere in the world, at their own pace, without the need to attend regular classes.

Eligibility for an AMIE

To be eligible for AMIE, candidates must fulfill certain academic and professional requirements. These requirements are as follows −

Academic Requirements

10+2 (or equivalent) with Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics as main subjects

A three-year polytechnic diploma in engineering (after 10th standard) or a four-year diploma in engineering (after 10+2)

A degree in science (B.Sc.) with Mathematics as a subject

Professional Requirements

Working professionals who have completed a minimum of 3 years of work experience in the engineering field after passing their 10+2 or polytechnic diploma in engineering are also eligible for AMIE. The work experience should be in a relevant field of engineering, and the candidate must be working in a reputed organization.

Non-working professionals who have completed a minimum of 4 years of work experience in the engineering field after passing their 10+2 or polytechnic diploma in engineering are also eligible for AMIE. The work experience should be in a relevant field of engineering.

Candidates who fulfill the academic and professional requirements can apply for AMIE. They must fill the application form and pay the required fees to become a member of the Institution of Engineers (India). Once the application is accepted, candidates can register for the AMIE program and begin their studies.

Overall, the eligibility criteria for AMIE are designed to ensure that candidates have the necessary academic and professional qualifications to pursue the program. This helps to maintain the standard and quality of education offered by AMIE and ensures that only qualified candidates are awarded the certification.

Responsibilities of AMIE

As a professional certification program, AMIE comes with certain responsibilities that its members must adhere to. These responsibilities are as follows −

Professional Requirements

Professional Conduct − AMIE members are expected to adhere to a high standard of professional conduct. They should conduct themselves in an ethical and professional manner, avoiding any actions or behaviors that could bring disrepute to the engineering profession.

Continuous Learning − AMIE members are expected to engage in continuous learning and professional development. They should stay up-to-date with the latest developments in their field of engineering and participate in relevant training and professional development programs.

Mentoring − AMIE members are encouraged to mentor and guide junior engineers and engineering students. They should share their knowledge and expertise with others in the profession and help to promote the growth and development of the engineering community.

Contribution to the Profession − AMIE members are expected to contribute to the engineering profession in meaningful ways. This could involve publishing research papers, presenting at conferences, participating in professional organizations, or serving on committees or boards related to the engineering profession.

Promoting Safety and Sustainability − AMIE members are expected to prioritize safety and sustainability in their work. They should take into account the environmental and social impact of their work and ensure that their projects are designed and implemented with the safety of all stakeholders in mind.

By adhering to these responsibilities, AMIE members can contribute to the growth and development of the engineering profession and help to ensure that it remains a respected and valuable field. These responsibilities also help to maintain the high standard of education and professional conduct associated with AMIE.


In conclusion, AMIE is a professional certification program that provides engineering professionals with a degree-level qualification. AMIE is designed for working professionals who are unable to attend regular college due to work or other commitments. The eligibility criteria for AMIE ensure that candidates have the necessary academic and professional qualifications to pursue the program, and the responsibilities of AMIE members promote ethical and professional conduct, continuous learning, mentoring, contribution to the profession, and promotion of safety and sustainability.

AMIE is a valuable program for engineering professionals who wish to enhance their skills, career prospects, and contribute to the growth and development of the engineering profession. The certification is recognized by the Government of India and many other countries around the world. Pursuing AMIE can provide numerous benefits to engineering professionals, including greater career opportunities, higher salaries, and improved job satisfaction.


Q1. What is the duration of the AMIE program?

Ans. The duration of the AMIE program varies depending on the stream of engineering and the pace of the student. Generally, it takes around 4-5 years to complete the program.

Q2. Is AMIE recognized by the Government of India?

Ans. Yes, AMIE is recognized by the Government of India as equivalent to a bachelor’s degree in engineering.

Q3. Can I pursue AMIE while working?

Ans. Yes, AMIE is designed for working professionals who are unable to attend regular college due to work or other commitments. It is a distance education program, which means that students can pursue it from anywhere in the world, at their own pace, without the need to attend regular classes.

The Future Of Hurricanes Is Full Of Floods—A Lot Of Them

Future hurricanes will bring more extreme flooding to coastal cities in the eastern United States due to a double hit from worsening storm surge and heavy rainfall, scientists reported on February 3 in Nature Climate Change.

The researchers simulated how climate change could alter the impacts of tropical cyclones through the end of the 21st century. They found that the combined frequency of intense storm surge and rainfall that clobbers the coastline may increase by seven to 36 times in the southern US and 30 to 195 times in the Northeast. 

“The results that are presented in the paper give us a pretty good idea of what to possibly expect in the future,” says Thomas Wahl, a coastal engineer at the University of Central Florida who wasn’t involved in the research. “There will likely be a pretty dramatic change in…the likelihood that different flooding drivers occur simultaneously.”

Since 1880, climate change has caused the average global sea level to rise by about 8 to 9 inches. Additionally, climate change is altering the intensity, size, track, and frequency of hurricanes, says Ning Lin, an environmental engineer at Princeton University and coauthor of the new findings. These storm characteristics and sea level rise both influence how much damage hurricanes can wreak on coastal cities.

[Related: The average hurricane season is officially more intense]

During a hurricane, one cause of flooding is storm surge, which is caused by powerful winds pushing seawater to the shore. Drenching rains, like those seen during Hurricane Harvey in 2023, can also be devastating. “In the past, our group and others have been looking at these hazards more or less separately,” Lin says. For the new research, she and her team wanted to understand what happens when storm surge and rainfall join forces.

The researchers investigated how thousands of simulated storms would impact the Gulf and Atlantic coasts under late 20th century and projected future climate conditions. The team homed in on so-called joint extreme events, during which the amount of rainfall produced during a 24-hour period and the storm tide—the total seawater level from storm surge and normal tide—each had a 1 percent probability of occurring in any given year. 

“Such events actually are very rare in the historical period,” Lin says. Joint extreme events would be expected to occur about once every 200 to 500 years along the Gulf of Mexico, and less than once every thousand years on average along the New England coastline under historic climate conditions. However, Lin and her colleagues calculated that by 2100, these extreme floods might strike every 10 to 30 years along the Gulf Coast and southeast Atlantic, and every 3 to 10 years along New England and the Mid-Atlantic. 

“In the future climate it’s more likely that we’ll get extreme surge and extreme rainfall at the same time, so that you will have much higher total flooding,” she says.

The researchers also estimated that, in most areas, the increasing intensity and sluggish speed of future hurricanes will play a more important role in these extreme floods than sea level rise.

The findings do come with several caveats. There’s still uncertainty about how much hurricane frequency and sea level rise will change in the coming decades, and the researchers focused on a climate scenario in which greenhouse gas emissions are not curbed. As a next step, Lin and her team will explore how their predictions might change under less dire emissions scenarios.

The findings offer a “big-picture view” on how storm surge and rainfall will worsen flooding in the future, Wahl says, and offer a jumping-off point to identify vulnerable locations within each region. More localized, detailed modeling could help unpack how climate change is creating storm conditions that lead to more flood risk, he says.

There are a number of ways that coastal cities can prepare for the onslaught, including restoring natural buffers, such as wetlands and oyster beds, and constructing seawalls and other barriers. Floods driven by both extreme rainfall and storm surge may pose a particular challenge, Wahl says, because barriers that block incoming storm surge may also prevent rainwater from draining into the ocean.

“That’s where studies like this that tell us about the chances that storm surge and rainfall coincide in the future…can help us make better decisions when it comes to adapting for both inland flooding and coastal flooding,” he says.

What Is Full Hd – Difference Between Hd Ready And Full Hd Resolution

Researching the right device can be quite a task, especially when you are bombarded with terms like Full HD, HD ready, 4K Ultra HD and more. What do these letters mean? If you are not aware, don’t worry! This article will explain to you what is Full HD and the difference between HD Ready and Full HD resolution.

FHD vs HD explained

What is HD

HD or High Definition, the new gold standard for image resolution is often being used interchangeably with ‘Full HD’ to describe a product’s image resolution- but it has only led to confusion. Let’s attempt to clear this. The concept of HD has completely changed the level of visual detail and clarity we’ve come to expect from our screens.

What is Full HD

Full HD is a term used to denote the resolution of the TV screen. It basically means an image with a resolution of 1920 by 1080 pixels. The measurement of the number of pixels is done by estimating the height and width. So, if a display unit like a TV holds 1920 x 1080p resolution then, it means its height is 1080 pixels and the width is 1920 pixels and the total number of pixels this resolution can carry is 1920 x 1080 = 2073600 pixels. The more the number of pixels, the better picture quality is as the number of pixels together compose a picture on the TV. This resolution is commonly seen in widescreen TVs or monitors with an aspect ratio of 16:9.

What is Ultra HD

On the upper end of the spectrum, there is Ultra HD (UHD or 4K). This image resolution is larger, crisper, and clearer than even 1080p. However, the Ultra HD image resolution hasn’t yet been universally adopted. Why? Although in technical terms “4K” means a horizontal resolution of pixels containing 4096 pixels, there’s no vertical resolution specified for it. So, Ultra HD TV’s are not technically 4K.

Read: 4K vs HDR vs Dolby Vision.

Difference between HD Ready and Full HD resolution

The primarily difference between HD Ready resolution and Full HD Resolution refers to the actual image size. HD may refer to 720p or 1080p, but Full HD can only refer to 1080p. On the other hand, the phrase HD Ready refers to just 720p. So, when the term ‘HD Ready’ is used to describe a television or monitor/laptop/PC, it means the device has an image resolution of 720p. The term ‘HD’ may also be used. As such, HD Ready image resolution will contain 720 lines of pixels along the vertical axis, and 1,280 lines of pixels along the horizontal axis thereby making the image is 720 pixels tall and 1,280 pixels wide.

This will results in a total pixel count of 921,600, the lowest image resolution that can be considered as high definition.

On the other hand, Full HD resolution means 1080p tall (height) and 1920 pixels wide. This results in a total pixel count of approximately 2 million total pixels.

The more pixels there are in an image, the better because more pixels in each area will allow for an image to contain little to no visible pixels (known as a retina display) allowing sharper visual detail and clarity. In a retina display, there are more pixels in a specific area than can be individually seen by the human eye.

What Is The Internet Of Things (Iot)?

Z-Wave Alliance

If you’ve been following technology during the past decade, you’ve inevitably seen the term “Internet of Things” at some point. But what does that mean exactly, and what’s its real-world impact?


The Internet of Things (IoT) refers to interconnected “smart” devices that aren’t phones, tablets, or computers. While the term is most familiar in a smart home context, it also applies to medical, industrial, commercial, and military systems.

What is the Internet of Things?


The Internet of Things — IoT from here on in — is a linkage of digitally-enhanced objects connected to each other via the internet or some other network. Specifically however the definition focuses on things that aren’t computers in and of themselves, even if a smartphone or PC is usually required for control. This translates to embedding computing into otherwise “dumb” products, such as lights, thermostats, sensors, and security systems.

If this sounds familiar, it’s because the most public face of IoT is smart home hardware. It’s by no means limited to this however, which is why IoT serves as a useful umbrella, covering industrial, commercial, and military applications as well as those Nest speakers and smart bulbs you’ve got in your apartment.

What technology does the Internet of Things rely on?

Andrew Grush / Android Authority

IoT is too broad to get into specifics, but we can boil things down to categories.

Embedded processors provide varying degrees of onboard computing. This can be minimal, say in the case of a sensor, smart bulb, or smart plug, but may have to scale up for devices like smart speakers and displays, or central automation systems.

Wireless technologies can include everything from short-range protocols such as Bluetooth, NFC, and RFID through to long-range ones like 5G and satellite systems. In between you’ll see formats like Wi-Fi, Zigbee, Z-Wave, and Thread.

Wired connections are less important in many cases, but Ethernet and powerline communications (PLC) can serve to carry both power and data. The internet, of course, relies heavily on fiber-optic lines.

Hubs are often necessary to bridge short- to mid-range wireless devices with the internet and other WANs (wide-area networks). Zigbee and Z-Wave accessories for example talk to a hub connected to your Wi-Fi router, which enables remote control as well as linkage with third-party platforms.

Standardized software platforms allow devices from different manufacturers — or at least, all of those by the same manufacturer — to talk to each other and act in sync. In the smart home space, the big three platforms are Amazon Alexa, Apple HomeKit, and Google Assistant. There are other options though, and you’ll find very different platforms in business and government applications.

Machine learning isn’t required, but it’s increasingly common as a way to have IoT systems adapt to needs and refine their responses. The Nest Learning Thermostat, for instance, can build its own heating and cooling schedule based on frequent manual adjustments.

Mesh networking is another optional technology, but allows IoT devices to talk directly to each other and extend their reach. Zigbee, Z-Wave, and Thread are inherently mesh-based. Mesh Wi-Fi routers expand the scope of Wi-Fi networks without requiring multiple network IDs.

Cloud computing is used to handle things that can’t be processed on-device. Consider smart speakers, which typically only process a handful of voice commands locally, uploading the rest to remote servers for interpretation. Scheduled automations are often triggered via the cloud too, though hub-based systems can run automations offline. Cloud networks frequently bridge outside services.

Internet of Things applications

Kaitlyn Cimino / Android Authority

We’ve already addressed smart homes, but it’s worth pointing out uses in other spheres.

Medical applications are generally focused on diagnosis, long-term trends, and alerts. A smart bed, for example, can tell whether a bed is occupied, and when a patient is trying to get up. This field sometimes extends into the consumer space, since data from fitness trackers, smartwatches, and smart scales can optionally be shared with physicians.

Transportation and infrastructure uses are plentiful, among them traffic control, toll collection, energy monitoring, and fleet management. V2X (vehicle-to-everything) communications will probably be essential towards making self-driving cars commonplace, preventing accidents by talking to infrastructure and nearby vehicles.

Manufacturing may actually be the biggest use of IoT, since modern factories are loaded with sensors and automated machines handling production, quality control, inventory, and safety.

Military purposes are unfortunately diverse, ranging from monitoring soldiers to smart munitions, automated turrets, and attack or recon drones. A major issue is keeping IoT devices connected on the battlefield, since networks can be taken down by enemy fire or cyberwarfare.

Interesting IoT products to make your home smarter

Read more: The smart home privacy policies of Amazon, Apple, and Google


No. They do often play an important role in controlling IoT systems, though.

Yes, and for smart homes, they’re often de facto as a way of enabling voice commands and/or linking other accessories.

Some of them can, yes. Many operate on private networks, and hub-based products can often run automations offline, even if they need to connect to the internet eventually.

As mentioned, two of the biggest ones are power consumption and reliable wireless. Power often dictates when and how devices can be made “smart,” and there’s no IoT at all if a device doesn’t have necessary bandwidth.

A lot of progress has been made in those areas, but another recurring challenge is platform fragmentation. In the smart home space, Alexa and Google Assistant accessories often won’t work with HomeKit, or vice versa. The Matter standard will hopefully address this, but it’s still very new.

How To Form A Board Of Directors

Good boards are high-functioning workgroups whose members challenge and trust one another and engage directly with senior executives on critical issues facing the organisation.

Boards also set the long-term plans or direction of the company.

Boards can be found in many organisations, including for-profit businesses, charities, schools, and even nonprofits.

Many factors make up a great board. Here is an overview of some commonalities of successful boards.

How many people sit on a board of directors?

The composition of a board can make a difference between a successful board and a less successful one.

The board’s makeup can depend on the size and type of organisation.

However, it should have enough people to manage the organisation but not too many people that it is difficult to foster productive discussions.

For a small organisation, or SME, the board could be three people. For a more prominent firm, the board could be ten people.

It’s also crucial that there is a mix of skills on the board. This includes younger people with fewer years of experience who offer a different perspective and older people with a lot of industry experience.

Choose people with different skillsets to share their knowledge and develop innovative solutions and ideas.

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Stay compliant, stay competitive

Build a better future with the Diploma in Corporate Governance.

When there is a diverse group of people with varying backgrounds, there will be different perspectives on how to run the organisation.

This can lead to more efficient and effective decision-making, ultimately putting the company in a better position.

One of the most significant benefits of having a diverse board is that they’ll deliver better results because of their different points of view.

The board members will come up with different conclusions, making all the difference in managing an organisation.

What happens during board meetings?

A great board of directors meets regularly to further the organisation’s objectives.

The meeting duration can vary depending on the organisation’s size and goals.

There isn’t a set schedule where they have to meet every month or year.

The important thing is that they are getting things done, whether it’s once a month or once every six months.

When you form a board of directors, you should have a goal for each meeting to ensure that there is a focus on their time together.

Meetings must also be productive, so there isn’t much time wasted on discussions or activities that don’t contribute to those goals.

A good board of directors manages risks. They must minimise company losses and safeguard its assets.

This is done by assessing potential risk factors, like new competitors in the market and mitigating the risks with solutions.

It includes things like developing strategies and adequately executing them.

A great board will have members that know how to manage a business and its growth.

What else does a great board do?

A great board of directors is independent of other influences. It sees things separately from the company to objectively assess opportunities and threats.

This means that wherever the company is, the board should be able to make decisions on the matter without any involvement from other influential people in the executive team.

A great board of directors can help determine a company’s direction by making decisions and leading discussions.

In addition, board members shouldn’t have conflicts of interest that would hinder their ability to put the organisation’s needs first.

For instance, having a board of directors made up of local competitors would not put the organisation’s needs first.

Competitors may want to put the needs of their own companies first.

Any decisions they make wouldn’t be independent and beneficial to the organisation.

Effective board members should be able to stand on their own regarding what they believe. They shouldn’t immediately give at the first sign of conflict.

The most productive conversations can occur when board members can defend and explain their perspectives and ideas in a way that doesn’t hinder progress.

Board members must feel able to express their opinions and contribute.

Does the CEO always sit on the board?

While some level of independence from the company’s leadership is essential, the CEO should still be involved in board meetings.

The CEO and other executive leaders that work within the company environment can have invaluable knowledge about the workplace culture and what’s happening with employees and customers.

The CEO shouldn’t be the only voice at board meetings, but they know that the board will need to access them to make the most informed decisions.

The success of a company can be determined by its board of directors.

Strong boards of directors are diverse, independent, and influential. They steer the company in the right direction and help it grow.

Great boards work for the company’s benefit, not themselves. 

Are you interested in becoming a member of a board? Watch David W Duffy below, explain how the Diploma in Corporate Governance will give you the director training needed to excel in board meetings.

You can also download the course brochure below.

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