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The banning of a Wikipedia page by a U.K. Internet watchdog is raising tough questions over how far online censorship should go — and the decisions made in the coming days could prove crucial to how we balance free speech with content regulation in the future.

“Indecent” Decision

The Internet Watch Foundation — a nonprofit, nongovernment-affiliated organization — added the Wikipedia page for the Scorpions’ 1976 album “Virgin Killer” onto its blacklist Friday. The IWF’s concern comes over the image on the album’s original cover, which shows a young girl completely nude. (A cracked glass effect obscures a direct view of her genital area.) Someone had reported the image as inappropriate through the IWF’s online submission tool, the organization says, and its internal assessment found the photo to be “a potentially illegal indecent image of a child under the age of 18.”

The IWF’s blacklist is used by the vast majority of British Internet service providers to maintain decency standards for their subscribers. As a result of the ban, affected U.K. Internet users are unable to view the page or access Wikipedia’s article editing function.

Ethical Quandary

Here’s where things get tricky: The image, by all accounts, has never been flagged as illegal. The FBI did reportedly launch an investigation this past May, but no resulting decision has been announced. If you read over the legal definition of “child pornography,” you can see where this image might fall outside of its lines.

That’s the main complaint of those who oppose the IWF’s ban — the idea that this image may be deemed “distasteful” by many people, but as long as it’s not illegal, a self-governing group has no right to impose its own moral assessment onto millions of others. The image is also printed in books accessible in libraries, a spokesperson for Wikipedia’s U.K.-based volunteers pointed out to the BBC.

The IWF ultimately acts as the morality police for about 95 percent of the U.K.’s Internet users, and the fact that one nongovernment company has so much control over what’s decent and what isn’t is a bit alarming. Where does the U.K. government stand on all of this? Should its opinion count?

Broader Implications

The questions reach further than this single image on this specific Wikipedia page. If an independent group such as the IWF can make its own assessments as to the appropriateness of content, many are asking, where do we draw the line? A complaint has already been filed with the IWF against Amazon for hosting the album’s image on its store pages. Should Internet users in the U.K. be banned from accessing Amazon, too? Does a group of self-appointed moral judges have the right to make that call? And how far do we take it — should we block other sites like, say, the Internet Archive’s Wayback Machine, since one could pull up the image there as well?

Don’t get caught in the “not my problem” line of thinking, either — this model of private censorship could easily be exported to the U.S. In fact, we’ve already seen a taste of it. Clear Channel faced claims of banning “offensive” songs shortly after 9/11, and Verizon blocked an activist group from sending text messages over its network late last year. Verizon said the content, which focused on the issue of abortion, could be considered “controversial or unsavory.”

Slippery Slope

It’s a potentially slippery slope, and one reminiscent of other battles as to the appropriateness of various content. Just this month, a representative from The Family Foundation — a nonprofit group from Virginia — put out a statement suggesting “porn has no place in civil society.”

Regardless of your feelings about the image on the Scorpions’ album cover, is this group’s stance any different than the IWF’s on its most basic operating level? Each organization is asserting its own right, outside of the law, to determine what legally acceptable content you should or should not be allowed to see. The IWF just presently has the power to enact its decisions, while The Family Foundation does not.

To be clear, I’m by no means suggesting an image of a young girl nude is comparable to adult pornography. I’m not even saying that the image of the young girl should necessarily be legal. I’m just saying that I’m in no position to make that determination — and, so long as the image is legal, I’m in no position to keep you from looking at a Web site about it. And I’m not sure if a group like the IWF should be, either.

These are tough questions, and there may not be any definitively correct answers. I sure don’t have them. But there’s no doubt an important debate brewing here that’s far bigger than this one case — and everyone who uses the Internet has reason to be invested in its outcome.

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Text To Speech In Python

Introduction to Text to Speech in Python

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Syntax:

Object_name = SpeechRecogonition.Recognizer()

The above code is the key syntax position to be assed. It explains the process of object creation through the Recognizer class of speech recognition objects.

How to Convert Text to Speech in Python?

The method of speech recognition in python happens in the below ways. The ways are the steps or the technical algorithm which could be involved for speech recognition conversion. Moreover, these are the step-by-step process of speech recognition. These step by steps helps to set the speech recognition process.

The process of importing the corresponding libraries is a very key aspect. Here the speech recognition libraries are imported. This speech recognition is imported is useful in setting the corresponding methods associated to the speech recognition process. Some of the famous speech recognition libraries in the market are SpeechRecogoition library from the pyspace library. These libraries set the remaining tone of operations for setting the speech recognition to happen in python code.

Next is the most important step. This step is responsible for setting the python object for helping to make the recognition process happen. This step is named as object-level initialization process. The class used here is the recognizer class which comes under the speech recognition process. So the process is to initialize the recognizer class to pick up the recolonize process to happen. The speech recognition library used by us here is google speech recognition.

Let’s look at the various file formats supported by the speech recognition process. So the google library supports various input formats of speech. These formats are mentioned below. Wav format a lossless audio format, AIFF, AIFF-C ,FLAG. These are among the key types supported for this process of speech recognition briefly.

The audio clip has to be verified to determine the type of word used in the speech to confirm whether the conversion happens exactly as needed.

The default recognition language of speech recognition software is English. With English being the default language used it supports various other languages of speech recognition too. The below-listed table below mentions some of the most famous languages supported by speech recognition software support. The below table mentions only some languages in it but googles search recognition software support several other languages.

Example of Text to Speech in Python

Given below is the example mentioned:

Code:

#import library import speech_recognition as Speech_item # The recogonizer class is initialized at the below code. recogonizer_class = Speech_item.Recognizer() #the audio file is mentioned here in the below location with Speech_item.AudioFile('input.wav') as input_source: retrived_audio = recogonizer_class.listen(input_source) # The method of recogonize will involve an error item when the expected value in the audio file is not found # using google speech recognition Extracted_text_value = recogonizer_class.recognize_google(retrived_audio) print('Audi converion') print('Extracted_text_value') except: print('Exception occured')

Explanation:

The first item in the above-given code is the process of declaring the corresponding libraries. This is the most important step. In the case of this problem the speech recognition library of google is been declared. This is the foremost and the critical step. Next, an object is declared for this item using the recognized method. In our above given example, the recognized class is declared by the name recogonizer_class. The next thing to be noted is the audio sample is gathered into a variable. The audio sample is gathered by the means of listening to the method in the recognizer class.

The listen method is useful in converting the voice item into a python understandable item into a variable. In our example, the values are stored in the retrieved audio variable. So the retrieved audio variable holds the expected value. This variable is then passed to the recognized google class.

This is the most important section. The recognizer google is again a method of speech recognition class. It can be again retrieved from the class of speech recognition by means of the object item declared. The object item, in this case, is the recognizer object named as recognizer class. As a result of this operation, the out text values get filled up in the extracted text value variable. So this variable holds the output now. The last process now remaining is the process of printing the extracted output. This is done next. This is the last process where the extracted output will be printed onto the console. We can notice the output in the output section screenshot.

Conclusion

The above-given article clearly explains the various ways through which the speech recognition can be performed in the google recognition system. A suitable example is also shared for the same with the output snapshots attached.

Recommended Articles

This is a guide to Text to Speech in Python. Here we discuss the introduction, how to convert text to speech in Python? and an example. You may also have a look at the following articles to learn more –

Readers Debate Election Fraud Allegations

I wrote in this space last weekthat chúng tôi an election-reform group, had issued a report signed by several Ph.D.s claiming there must have been vote tampering in one or more U.S. states in the 2004 presidential election.

The analysts, most of whom are professors of computer science or mathematics at such institutions as the University of Notre Dame and Southern Methodist University, made their claim after finding that exit polls, which are usually reliable, had diverged 5.5 percentage points from official vote tallies. (This disrepancy was larger than was found in one of two Ukrainian exit polls, which played key roles in overturning the December 2004 election in that nation.) Statistically significant variations between the U.S. exit polls and official results were concentrated in five states, four of which were “battlegrounds,” such as Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Florida.

In Defense Of The Official Tallies

Steve Weeks is an attorney in Ohio, one of the most hotly contested states in the 2004 election. Weeks argues that the exit polls and the official tallies were far apart because Bush voters felt social pressure to say they were Kerry voters. This possibility is distinct from the one I described last week that was offered in a study of the discrepancies by the National Election Pool (NEP) exit pollsters themselves. They theorize that Bush voters were less likely than Kerry voters to participate in exit polls at all (a premise that was then statistically disproved by the Ph.D. group).

“You should be old enough to remember GIGO [garbage in, garbage out],” Weeks writes. “The fanciest statistical analysis ever done is meaningless if it is based on false premises.

“The fundamental premise of any poll is that the respondents are telling the truth about the candidate they prefer (or that falsehood rates are substantially the same for all candidates). In 2004, that was manifestly not the case. Bush was vilified far beyond anything that I have seen in a Presidential campaign in my lifetime (I am 55); even when Johnson toasted Goldwater with the A-bomb ad in 1964, the personal attacks did not approach those seen this year.

“As a result, it became unacceptable in politically-correct society for ANYONE to support Bush. When cornered by exit pollsters, a few percent of Bush voters were too embarrassed to admit it. The pre-election polls were incorrectly biased in favor of Kerry for the same reason.”

I’m primarily interested in using computer technology to prevent future voting problems, not to overturn any previous election. I wholeheartedly agree that Weeks’ theory is worth testing.

A variation in the exit poll at a particular precinct from the final, official tally is called Within Precinct Error (WPE). The USCountVotes group summarizes this theory by citing NEP’s own study, saying, “the required shift toward Kerry in the exit polls must have been 6.5%. They [NEP] note that this number is greater than any WPE from past presidential elections going back more than 20 years, to a time when polling science was less sophisticated and less reliable than at present. They also note that this 6.5% WPE stands out in comparison to an average 1.9% WPE from 2004 state primaries exit polls.”

The Ph.D.s behind the latest analysis have called on NEP to release the raw, precinct-level data that were used to calculate the 2004 exit poll figures. As of this date, the raw data that would allow testing of the WPE theory have not been made available.

How Vote Tallies Might Have Been Changed

Maribeth McIntyre believes the NEP exit polls may show a pattern of vote tampering. This wouldn’t require a massive army of crooked election workers, she writes, but only a hidden routine in the vote-counting software:

“As an IT professional with 25+ years of experience (and, yes, a very partisan Democrat), I have been concerned about the ease with which election fraud can occur with the voting technology in place today,” says McIntyre. “It would not require anything like a large conspiracy; one or two programmers for the voting software companies could easily pull it off.

“After studying both the Edison/Mitofsky report and the chúng tôi analysis, I am completely convinced that the 2004 Presidential election was stolen. In addition to good old-fashioned voter suppression (lack of sufficient machines in predominately Democratic precincts but an overabundance of them in Republican precincts, among other tactics), there were numerous reports of vote-hopping on touch-screen machines — a vote for Kerry records as a vote for Bush, but never the other way around.”

The provision of extra voting machines in Republican areas of Ohio and “vote hopping” that affected some machines was reported in a Washington Post article last December. An interview with an election equipment worker who indicated that very few people would be required to pull off vote tampering on some of today’s machines was published by Christopher Hitchens, no Kerry fan himself, in a March 2005 Vanity Fair article.

Solutions For Future Elections

Finally, reader Lance Franklin (my choice to represent Independent voters) proposes printed records as a way to ensure that vote counts are tamper-proof:

“My solution would have been a device that would have been placed between the voting machine and the printer generating the paper trail,” Franklin writes.

“In essence, the device would have displayed the vote that was going to the printer, asked the voter to verify their vote, and then passed the OK/Revote response back to the voting machine, for it to either save the vote or reacquire a new vote.”

This sounds like a decent requirement for all elections. In fact, groups seeking reform of the U.S. election process consistently call for a “voter-verified paper ballot.” How citizens have voted should be clearly visible to them on their own paper ballots, which should comprose the official tally of an election, regardless of what any “quick-count” electronic devices may say.

The problem, according to chúng tôi is that approximately 30% of America’s votes are now cast on equipment that has no paper trail and can’t be audited in any way, shape or form.

In my opinion, Americans can either go through this trauma every election (“The count was fair!” “No, the count was hacked!”) or they can demand that all election equipment maintain auditable paper ballots. Computer experts, especially those who are asked to work on vote-counting systems, should insist on this. It won’t by itself eliminate all vote fraud — history has shown that ballot-stuffing is all too common — but it should prevent any partisan programmer from single-handedly goosing the results.

For information on the electoral studies at the heart of the matter, see the March 31 chúng tôi analysis and the Jan. 19 Edison/Mitofsky report on the exit-poll discrepancies. (These PDF documents require the free Adobe Reader.)

Tool School: Let The Sparks Fly

While Letterman’s Grinder Girls proved that the best use for an angle grinder is to let beautiful women in bondage gear make sparks, it’s actually one of the more versatile tools you can keep in the shop. Of course, with great power comes great responsibility: Get too trigger happy and you can quickly destroy your project and your fingers. Here’s your crash course to wielding one of the more badass of the handheld power tool genre.

What: Angle Grinder

Why: There are few faster ways to abrasively remove material from steel, expecially with something handheld.

Where: $20 at Harbor freight, $100 for a name brand at Home Depot, and $200 for a sweet Metabo like mine. A Harbor Freight grinder literally caught fire in my hands. A series of DeWalt grinders from Home Depot lasted for a while, but eventually broke again and again and again. I’ve owned my Metabo for years and I can run it all day without discomfort because it vibrates so little. You get what you pay for. That said, you can destroy 10 Harbor Freight grinders before you’ve paid for a Metabo. If you are only going to have one grinder in your ship, I’ve found the 4.5-inch size to be the most useful.

When: Really, as infrequently as possible. There are better, quieter, and less messy ways to remove metal, but when you need one, you need one. They are ideal for de-burring, rounding corners, some shaping, and even sharpening drill bits when you are in the field. They are indispensable for fixing fitment issues when you go to assemble and weld.

Who: You, if you ever work with metal at all.

Angle Grinder

Metabo 4 1/2″ Angle Grinder. Nice, but spendy.

Angle Grinding 101

As with power tools, always wear the proper safety equipment and pay attention to your environment. Wear safety glasses and hearing protection. Sparks fly everywhere and don’t mix well with eyeballs: Strongly consider wearing a flip down face shield.

The angle grinder is about as simple as a tool can get. There is a housing, a handle, and a motor that spins as fast as 11,000 rpm. To the shaft of that motor, wheels of various types—almost all abrasives of one kind of another—are attached.

The angle grinder is great for doing some quick shaping and metal removal. I often use it to roughly round off corners and remove burrs from shearing or cutting. Just as you would with a sander on wood, keep it moving and try not to dig in. It can remove a lot of metal in a hurry, and if you are not careful, you’ll make a mess of your workpiece. Go lightly.

If you find that you are using the angle grinder to remove a large amount of material, it is time to rethink what you are doing. There are other ways to remove a lot of metal, and almost all of them are cleaner and quicker than the angle grinder. Look at plasma cutting, oxy-acetylene cutting and a band saw or port-a-band.

Advanced Angle Grinding

Grinding wheels are just the beginning. Take a look at flap wheels (not worth the money in most cases in my opinion, but still neat), cutoff wheels, flat sanding discs with a backing wheel and wire wheels.

Cutoff wheels can make quick work of small cuts, especially those where it is impractical to get a cutting torch or band saw into position. I often use cutoff wheels to dig myself out of the mess if I have some tack welds that need to be cut out so that I can adjust something.

Sanding discs and the corresponding backing pad are the most useful application of an angle grinder, in my opinion, and spend far more time on mine than do grinding wheels. The backing pad will help you to make a flat surface with your grinding and the sanding discs are far less aggressive than a grinding wheel, leaving a smoother finish.

A lot of people love flap wheels. They behave like a refined version of the flat sanding discs and are undeniably nice. However, in my experience, they never last very long, and they are far more expensive.

Wire Wheels on the angle grinder are great for the brave among you. Hundreds of little tiny wires attached to a wheel spinning at thousands of RPMs—eventually a few come loose and become projectiles that have no problem penetrating cotton shirts and even jeans. I use them from time to time out of necessity and/or stupidity to remove paint, galvanization and rust. I was removing under coating from an old car body with a wire wheel on a Harbor Freight grinder when the grinder caught fire. I far prefer the cupped wire wheels, both for their effectiveness and their ability to stay together.

There are also some wheels out there to cut various types of masonry, making the angle grinder useful for at least a little more than just metal.

Which Industries Can Benefit From Text To Speech Technology?

In this post, I will highlight some of the best uses with text to speech technology and how it really is causing breakthroughs in certain industries.  Keep in mind that these are not certainly the only industries, because there are a lot of industries that are benefitting from this technology.

I have included some of the major impacts that text to speech is having on some of the biggest industries in the world.  It will obviously continue to have a huge positive impact on these industries and others that are not listed.

Learning disabled children struggle to learn this skill right away, and there are practical uses for a text to speech converter to step in and aid them with their reading.  Not only can text to speech help learning disabled people, but it can help other conditions and disorders like dyslexia.

Learning and education are one of the biggest beneficiaries of this technology and it will likely continue to adapt and improve for the better of the industry.

Have you ever been to a large gathering of people or busy places and an automated message is coming from the main speakers?  Well, there is a good chance that text to speech technology is at work.

It makes sense for people to use this for public announcements instead of having a person say a message over and over.  It is also probably cheaper for the establishment because they do not need to pay a person to sit there and say things into the microphone.

An automated message that uses text to speech conversion technology is beneficial to both the company and the people inside.

The last industry that I will mention is the automotive industry.  If you have an old car and have not been in a new one, then be ready for your mind to be blown.  A lot of newer cars in the last 5 years or so have adapted to use text to speech.

Their technology is incredible in many ways, and it has made the user experience something to remember.  A car uses text to speech conversion tools to let the driver know about something and keep the driver’s eye on the road.

Instead of a bunch of words on a screen that could be distracting, the text to speech converters works to reduce the risk of distractions and still let the driver know about anything that is necessary.  It is pretty cool to think about how text to speech is saving lives and improving them at the same time.

If you found this post helpful, then please share it with anyone that is interested in the main industries that are affected by text to speech converter

Even the travelers use the text to speech technology while traveling in a country where people do not speak english. Text to speech helps the traveler to type and explain what he or she is trying to say.

Moreover, this feature is very accurate and helps the travelers in various ways. Google and Apple have trained their TTS technology a lot and the accent, pronunciation matches with that of the locals of the specific country, however this may vary in some languages.

Have you seen a small audio bar icon in some top news sites? Well, some sites use a pre recorded audio in a human’s voice while some sites make use of the TTS technology to convert text into audio.

One can use this feature to listen to news while doing his or her work or sipping a hot cup of coffee.

Moreover, media industries prefer TTS over a voice over as TTS is a free to use technology whereas hiring a voiceover artist is quite expensive. Also, there are no chances of error.

Audiobooks are a new way of consuming content in the form of audios. One can complete a book without having to read it and do it while traveling, playing, or doing household chores.

Some audiobook companies use the TTS technology to convert text novels into audio form.

However, the only con of this is that the audio tone is flat, which is not as pleasing as a human narrating the novel.

The TTS technology is definitely a better way to convey our messages which are in textual form. This technology has been adapted by various industries however, everything has its own pros and cons, TTS technology too has some flaws such as lack of emotions, flat tone and inaccuracy in pronunciation.

Five Key Science Takeaways From The First Presidential Debate

In the throes of a pandemic, the 2023 US election has a different feel.

Last night, President Donald Trump and former Vice President Joe Biden went to head to head in an extraordinary first debate, hosted by the Cleveland Clinic and Case Western Reserve University in Ohio. Everyone in attendance (family, media, and campaign staff only) was masked up and tested for COVID-19 prior to arrival. The candidates didn’t shake hands when they took the stage, again to limit transmission of the virus.

The pandemic cropped up multiple times during the 90-minute debate—but it wasn’t the only science issue on the table. Here are five important takeaways about the candidates’ platforms and priorities in public health, the environment, and more.

The future of the Affordable Care Act looks murky.

Passed and signed by then-President Barack Obama in March of 2010, the Affordable Care Act (ACA) has been subject to plenty of change in the past decade. But recent proposals to revise the law, which provides insurance coverage for at least 20 million people in the US, could be more impactful.

In July the Supreme Court of the US (SCOTUS) ruled that more companies could refuse to provide contraceptive coverage for employees on the grounds of religious freedom. SCOTUS will face another big decision regarding the ACA when it takes on a lawsuit filed by 18 states and the Trump administration this November. The case argues that the policy is unconstitutional because it forces the American people to enroll in insurance without offering necessary tax relief.

Mention of the ACA came early last night, with Biden arguing its importance during a global pandemic. “There are 100 million people who have pre-existing conditions, and [their insurance] will be taken away,” he said. Trump countered with the fact that he signed an executive order last week that protects patients with pre-existing conditions from being denied coverage. The text of the plan doesn’t outline how those protections differ from those already provided by the ACA.

Read President Trump and Biden’s full health care platforms online.

The US still needs a pandemic-response plan.

As the candidates dove deeper into the debate, they hit on the past, present, and future of the current coronavirus crisis. Last week, the US COVID-19 death toll passed 200,000, a number that the Centers for Disease and Control (CDC) estimate would be the upper limit for mortalities in the country. The daily case rate has taken a dip since the peak of the first wave in July, but epidemiologists expect another spike in the winter months ahead.

President Trump assured the public that a vaccine would be out this year, contradicting the “Operation Warpspeed” timeline set by the Centers for Disease and Control (CDC), which slates initial doses for January of 2023 at the earliest. “We could have the answer by November 1,” the president said. “We have the military logistically all set up [to distribute the drug].”

Biden noted that the back and forth between the White House and public health agencies like the CDC has seeded distrust in Americans. He cited polls showing that at least half of the country is wary of getting vaccinated for COVID-19, and also pointed out that better guidelines on mask wearing could have helped save lives earlier in the pandemic. President Trump responded that the casualty rate would have been worse if it weren’t for his international-travel ban, which mainly targeted China. The US’s first outbreaks, however, likely stemmed from Europe.

Neither candidate offered specifics when grilled on how they’d counter the virus and all its ripple effects over these next few months. Shutdowns stood out as a hot-button issue, as the two debaters went back and forth on the effectiveness of closing down schools and businesses to limit community spread. Trump also noted that he’s speaking at two large rallies this weekend in Wisconsin, but downsized the threat of viral spread because they’re being held outdoors.

The pandemic has exposed the effects of systemic racism in the US.

The event then veered into issues of race, equality, and police brutality. On the topic of how systemic social issues affect public health, Biden pointed out that Black and Latino people have suffered the toughest losses from COVID-19, largely due to imbalances in medical care and resources. “One in 500 African Americans will have been killed by COVID-19 by end of the year” if the country doesn’t take direct action, he said. Neither politician addressed the outbreaks on tribal reservations in Western states.

You can’t talk about climate change without talking about the economy.

With an entire discussion question on climate change, both Trump and Biden had plenty of time to expand on their plans to deal with carbon emissions and major storms and wildfires that have ravaged the country this year. Trump agreed that humans are responsible for global warming (in part), but he doubled down on his decision to withdraw the US from the Paris Accord. He also noted that he wants to grow billions of new trees to make the air and water cleaner for Americans—a correlation that isn’t quite scientifically sound—and give more tax incentives to electric vehicle makers and buyers.

Biden, for his part, summarized a $2 trillion proposal, which he stressed was different from the “radical” Green New Deal, to combat the climate crisis, resolve environmental justice issues, and jumpstart economic recovery. “We can get to net zero energy by 2035,” he said, referring to the benchmark for carbon-free power sources set by many other countries. To reach that goal, the US would have to rebuild much of its utility infrastructure, invest in new engineering, weatherize homes and offices, and add charging stations along every highway. This movement, Biden said, would create hundreds of thousands of new jobs, while saving the country billions in damages from storms and wildfires exacerbated by climate change. He pointed specifically to the floods that washed out cropland in South Dakota and other Midwestern states last year, costing some farmers their properties and livelihoods.

Trump also spoke to the disastrous wildfire situation on the West Coast. “We need forest management,” he said, in reference to prescribed burns and selective logging. “The floor is covered with dead trees.” Back in March, the US Forest Service put a temporary hold on prescribed burns due to the pandemic.

COVID-19 could throw voting into a tailspin.

In preparation for this virus-plagued election season, nine states have switched to mostly mail-in voting, while 36 others are allowing residents to request mail-ballots, no questions asked. The goal is to keep people’s civic rights intact, while also keeping them from flocking to tight spaces and swapping pathogens. Poll workers, who are typically 60 years of age and older, would be particularly vulnerable.

Biden conceded that tallying mail-in ballots can be difficult, especially with the US Postal Service’s strapped budget, which is causing major lag in deliveries. But he also pointed out that as long as voters drop their ballots into a mailbox on time, their choice should matter, even if the envelope arrives in local election offices after November 3. The most foolproof option, however, is to fill out and return the ballot as soon as it arrives. Early voting could be the one boon in this extremely uncertain election process.

The first vice presidential debate is on October 7 in Salt Lake City, Utah. The next presidential debate is on October 15 in Miami, Florida.

Correction: The article previously misidentified the university hosting the debate as Case Western. It is Case Western Reserve.

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