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Rita El Khoury / Android Authority

Smart rings are unique in the world of fitness trackers. Instead of wrist-worn devices with large displays and flexible straps, smart rings are more rigid bands made for wear on a finger. As a consequence of this design, smart rings usually require a measurement process before purchase, which is no less true with the Oura Ring. The right fit is vital for user comfort and fitness tracking accuracy. Here’s how to choose the right size Oura Ring.

Which finger should I wear my Oura Ring on?

Rita El Khoury / Android Authority

Theoretically, you can choose to wear the Oura Ring on any finger, but Oura suggests wearing the third generation ring on the index finger with the three sensor nubs on the palm side of your hand. A notch on the outside of the ring makes it easy to orientate the device. The index finger should provide the best tracking accuracy, but it’s not always the most comfortable option unless you’re used to wearing rings on that finger.

Our reviewer Rita El Khoury noted that this was the case for her. She constantly felt the Oura Ring’s presence on her index finger but almost forgot about it while placed on her middle finger. If neither digit works for you, you can wear the ring on your ring finger.

How to choose the right size Oura Ring

Rita El Khoury / Android Authority

Aside from choosing an Oura Ring model, picking the correct size is arguably the most important step in your smart ring purchasing journey.

Ordering an Oura Ring size kit

Before ordering an Oura Ring, you must determine the best size for you. We suggest requesting a Free Sizing Kit in your Oura Ring order to aid your quest. The company will ship out the sizing kit first, allowing you to wear all sizes, pick the best for your circumstance, and confirm the size before your actual ring is delivered.

Alternatively, if you don’t fancy waiting for a sizing kit to arrive and own a 3D printer, you can print your own sizing rings using these official files.

Oura Ring size table

Oura Ring’s sizing kit includes eight plastic rings ranging from size 6 (the smallest) and size 13 (the largest). In our measurements, the rings are roughly the same thickness, falling between 2.5mm and 2.9mm. In terms of height, all eight fall just short of 8mm. However, the important measurement for fit and feel is internal diameter. You can find the approximate internal dimensions of each ring below.

Picking the correct Oura Ring size

Rita El Khoury / Android Authority

Once you’ve printed your sizing rings and received a sizing guide, you can now go ahead and experiment. There are a few important points to remember when choosing an Oura Ring size. We’ve outlined these below.

Oura recommends that you pick a finger on which to wear the ring, then choose a size that feels best on that particular finger. However, we believe that testing the sizer rings on a few fingers is a better bet. This more thorough method will give you a better idea of how each ring size feels on multiple fingers and whether wear on one digit is more comfortable.

If you usually wear other rings on your fingers, don’t remove them. This will give you a better real-world experience of wearing the Oura Ring alongside your usual kit.

You should wear a sizer ring for at least 24 hours, taking into account body and temperature changes throughout the day. Wearing the sizers for longer should allow you to make a more informed decision.

Go about your normal routine while wearing the sizer rings, whether that includes training, washing dishes, driving, or sleeping.

Similarly, the ring must be comfortable to wear for long hours. During our review, the Oura Ring 3 endured around seven days on a single charge.

When wearing the sizer rings, ensure that the sensor bumps are positioned on the palm side of your finger.

Ideally, the rings should be worn at the base of your finger.

Finally, Oura warms that the plastic sizing rings may have a seam due to the mold used, which can cause discomfort for some. The actual titanium Oura Ring doesn’t have this issue.

Return to the company’s site to complete your order when you’ve found the perfect size Oura Ring. Once you’ve received the ring and find it too loose or tight, it’s not the end of the world. Oura allows users one exchange if the ring they received is the wrong size or color.

Notably, the sizing process is one of the downsides of the smart ring experience, as the fit fundamentally affects health tracking accuracy. This isn’t the case for smartwatches or fitness trackers, like the Apple Watch, where the straps can be easily adjusted. Bear this in mind if this is the first time you’re buying a smart ring.

As the sizing rings use plastic and the actual ring is a metal alloy, there will be slight sizing differences. However, these are largely negligible.

Yes, Oura’s return and exchanges policy entitles users to one exchange for a different size or color device in the same price range.

Yes, you’ll need an Oura Ring sizer before buying the actual device. The Oura Ring must be the correct size for your finger for comfort and fitness tracking accuracy. You can request a sizing kit from Oura or 3D print your own dummy rings using the company’s free 3D printing files.

You're reading Your Complete Guide To Picking The Right Size Oura Ring

Picking The Right Apple: A Guide To Apple’s Mac Lineup

Computers tend to be one of those big-ticket items that make it on to many holiday shopping lists. With the current state of the economy, choosing the best machine for your money is probably a bigger concern for would-be computer shoppers this year than in the past.

If you’re thinking about buying a Mac for your family (or even yourself), understanding Apple’s product line can be important to making that right choice, whether you’re a longtime Mac fan or someone just considering switching from a PC.

MacBooks – From Air to Pro

Notebook computers on the whole tend to be more popular than their desktop counterparts and Apple’s lineup is no exception. With models that pack as much power as a desktop but with portability, the attraction is obvious. Apple’s current MacBook line includes four models, three of which were unveiled last month. Each model is aimed at specific tasks and types of users.

A step up in price is the new aluminum MacBook starting at $1299. These machines offer some new features, including the unibody construction and a very high-end display.

The display is probably the one thing that differentiates these machines at first sight from both the lower-end white MacBook and from many bargain PC notebooks. Based on an LED backlight, the display of the MacBook is incredibly bright and crisp and really should be seen in person to be appreciated (at the same time the LED backlighting reduces power consumption and increases battery life). If you’re looking for a machine to watch any visual content (even if only movies while on a plane), but still want a smaller form factor and lower cost, the MacBook is a great choice.

Beyond its screen, the MacBook packs a fair amount of power for most users with a 2.0GHz or 2.4GHz Core 2 Duo processor and NVIDIA GeForce 9400M integrated chipset. Like the lower-end MacBook, this is more than ample for home, office, and Internet tasks. Hard core gamers or graphics and video professionals might want to consider a higher-end MacBook Pro with its greater power and graphics chipset options as well as its larger (but equally bright and crisp) display. However, many users will be quite happy with the new MacBook.

But there is major caveat to the new MacBook, particularly for long-time Mac users: the lack of a Firewire port. Firewire, originally introduced by Apple in the late nineties, provides an interface for connecting high-speed peripherals like hard drives. It also provides an interface to many digital video cameras (sometimes under the name IEEE 1394 or Sony iLink).

If you currently rely on Firewire hard drives or plan to use a video camera with your Mac, this could be a major issue. If you have a video camera (or are planning to buy one) and are considering the new MacBook, you’ll want to ensure the camera supports USB 2.0 connectivity and that it offers support for using it with a Mac (you may also want to check camera reviews on retailer or manufacturer websites to be sure a model you’re considering actually works well with a Mac).

Depending on the cost and availability of an appropriate camera, you may find a different Mac model is a better option – Firewire camera support has been around both the digital video camera industry and the Mac for much longer and may be more reliable.

Up from the new MacBook is the new 15-inch MacBook Pro. Apple has always positioned the MacBook Pro (like the PowerBook line that it replaced) as a solution for professionals that have more computationally intensive needs.

As such, it offers somewhat faster processors (either 2.4 GHz or 2.53GHz Core 2 Duo) and graphics chipsets (the new MacBook Pro actually offers two graphics chipsets in each machine, the NVIDIA GeForce 9600M GT with 512MB of video memory for greater performance and the same integrated GeForce 9400M as the new MacBook for better power conservation and battery life with no dedicated video memory).

In addition to power, the MacBook Pro also offers greater screen real estate and it comes with a full set of common ports. The only exception is again with Firewire. While the MacBook Pro does still ship with Firewire, it does so using a Firewire 800 port. This port, which is the latest version of the Firewire standard, offers twice the data transfer speeds of the original Firewire port (Firewire 400). But because the port is itself different, you’ll need to use a Firewire 800 to Firewire 400 adapter to connect older devices.

Next up is the 17-inch MacBook Pro. Unlike the new MacBook and 15-inch MacBook Pro, the 17-inch model did not get updated with the rest of the lineup in October. However, that doesn’t mean it’s lacking in power. With a 2.5GHz Core 2 Duo processor and NVIDIA GeForce 8600 M GT graphics chipset with 512MB of dedicated video memory, this machine can still give the new MacBook Pro a run for its money.

The big difference between the two is the 17-inch display and the new features of the more recent 15-inch models. Although form fact may limit the portability of the machine, it is one of the most amazing notebook displays (again, it is LED-based for bight and clear visuals) on the market. The sheer size of the screen makes this machine a complete desktop replacement. It also offers the complete range of ports. Of course, all of this does come with a price range of $2799.

The final MacBook contender is the ultra-portable MacBook Air starting at $1799. Originally introduced last winter and updated in October, the MacBook Air offers the most limited performance with either 1.6GHz or 1.86GHz Core 2 Duo and integrated NVIDIA GeForce 9400M graphics chipset.

It also is the most limited in terms of ports (offering only a USB, audio, and video) and other frills. To keep the size down, Apple designed the MacBook Air without a built-in CD/DVD drive or the ability to be expanded in any way. (But an external DVD drive is available and the MacBook Air can access disks inserted in another computer on a home or office network.)

The results of those trade-offs is a very lightweight machine that is easily carried anyplace. Although the Air isn’t going to replace an existing machine, it is a great second machine to complement an existing Mac or PC desktop.

Desktops – From Mini to Pro

While Apple’s notebook lineup tends to be more popular, the company also offers a range of desktop models. As with the MacBook line, Apple has differentiated its desktop offerings into three core groups: the Mac Mini, iMac, and Mac Pro.

The Mac Mini is the lowest cost Mac model on the market, starting at $599. The Mini is a desktop machine that is designed to provide decent but not stellar performance in a minimal form factor. Roughly the same size and shape of five CD jewel cases stacked on top of each other, the mini is as much a miracle of engineering as most notebooks. The mini ships without a display, keyboard, or mouse and without a built-in camera, but it does include a range of common ports and, like all Apple’s products, includes support for wireless Bluetooth devices and for all major wireless networking standards.

With Core 2 Duo processors at 1.83GHz and 2.0GHz and an integrated Intel GMA 950 graphics chipset, the mini won’t be winning many speed contests, but it will meet the needs of most users in terms of office and Internet tasks, as well as home media functions like working with home movies and photos using Apple’s iLife suite.

While the mini can seem a little bare bones, the iMac line ships with everything you need in a one box. Apple’s well-known all-in-one machine offers a very crisp display that rivals the screen quality of most HDTVs of similar sizes. The iMac ships with a full range of ports and is available in 20-inch and 24-inch models with processors ranging from 2.4GHz at the low end to 3.06GHz at the high end. There are varying graphics chipset options from both ATI and NVIDIA, though all offer dedicated video memory. The result is somewhat better performance and a complete out of the box solution than the Mac Mini.

The current iMacs offer everything that most home users (and many office users) will need both in terms of performance and features. Like the MacBooks, the iMac includes a built-in iSight camera and (like all Macs save the Mac Pro), it includes support for the Apple Remote and Front Row media center, which can make it a perfect home entertainment machine.

The one potential downside to the iMac is that it is an all-in-one. Should one component be damaged or should you eventually decide to upgrade, you will be forced to repair or replace the iMac as a single unit. This contrasts to the Mac mini and Mac Pro (and most PCs) where you can replace just the computer and retain an existing display. In fact, the freedom to use an existing display and thus reduce the cost of buying a new Mac can be a solid argument in favor of the Mini over the iMac.

The final Mac on the list is Apple’s high-end Mac Pro desktop. The Mac Pro is designed to offer performance and expandability. It is the most upgradable of Mac options on the market (offering four internal hard drive bays, two optical drive bays, and three PCI Express expansion card slots – one PCI Express 2.0×16 slot and two PCI Express x4 slots). Unlike the rest of Apple’s lineup, which offer no more than two RAM slots, the Mac Pro offers up to eight.

The Mac Pro is the only Mac model (aside from the Xserve rack-mounted server) to offer more than two processor cores. It is available with one or two quad-core Intel Xeon 5400 processors, offering up to eight cores, meaning that it can pack far more punch than any other Mac available. While this level of performance may be overkill for most consumers, gamers and media professionals will more than appreciate the computational and rendering power offered by the Mac Pro.

Of course, all that performance comes a price, with the Mac Pro ranging in cost from $2299 to $4399 depending on the processor options chosen alone. The base configuration, which can be customized at Apple’s online store, is an dual quad-core model at 28GHz for $2799. Like the iMac line, a number of graphics chipsets from both ATI and NVIDIA are available (the Mac Pro can also support multiple graphics cards).

As you might expect from such a highly expandable machine, the Mac Pro offers a full range of ports, including digital optical TOSLINK in and out. However, given it’s aim of being high-powered pro workstation, it comes without support for some of the features common in other Mac models, such as the iSight camera or support for the Apple Remote. (But the Front Row environment is still available when using keyboard short cuts or the Remote application for the iPhone/iPod Touch).

Display Support

Beyond the considerations of the various Mac lines, you should be aware that the most recent models introduced in October (the new MacBook, MacBook Pro, and iMac models) rely on a new display connector known as Mini DisplayPort. This emerging standardfor connecting computers to displays is currently only used on Apple’s Cinema Display line. You will need to use an adapter for any other displays. Adapters are available to convert from to both DVI and VGA for use with older or non-Apple displays.

Another, more recent revelation, is that Apple has implemented content protection on the computers to prevent copyrighted content purchased from the iTunes Store to be played on devices that might digitally record it. (This is based on the same technology that is implemented by Blu-ray players and most HD set top boxes such as those from cable companies).

You may want to keep this in mind when planning purchases of any devices (such as third-party displays, projectors, and HDTVs) – either looking for compatible displays or opting for an earlier Mac model with a standard DVI port output.

Used or Refurbished Macs

If your budget is limited, you might also consider purchasing a used or refurbished Mac. Like a good car, most Macs tend to offer pretty good performance even if they’re a couple of years out of date.

You can sometimes find good deals on sites like eBay or Craigslist or other classified outlets. If you are in the market for a used Mac, however, you should investigate the age and models within your price range. In some cases, the difference in price between a used Mac and a newer model aren’t worth opting for the lower cost in the long term (also like a good car, Macs tend to hold their resale value).

With support for pre-Intel Macs uncertainin Apple’s upcoming Snow Leopard release of Mac OS X, your best bet for a used Mac is most likely one of the Intel models introduced in the past two years (all of which also offer the ability to run Windows if needed).

That said, an earlier iMac or Mac mini can make a very good option for someone who just needs basic Internet access. EveryMac and Low End Macare two sites that can be helpful for researching past Mac models.

Apple itself also offers offers refurbished Macs for sale. Refurbished Macs can come from a variety of sources (such as used demo machines, business leased machines that are returned at the end of the lease, and customer returns). Apple does certify that these Macs have been restored to factory conditions and functionality and does offer a one year warranty. While many users report no problems with refurbished Macs, you may want to opt for extended warranty coverage if you purchase one, just to be on the safe side.

Complete Guide To Powershell Administrator

Introduction to PowerShell Administrator

PowerShell administrator is a person who is responsible for maintaining the overall windows-based servers of an organization. They are also responsible for maintaining the integrity of the data of the organization. They also play a pivotal role in maintaining the on-boarding and off-boarding of employees as they are the ones responsible for maintaining the active directory of the organization. PowerShell administrators are also known as windows administrators.

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Different ways of Running as PowerShell Administrator

There is a major difference between running a cmdlet or a script in PowerShell in a normal mode from that of an administrator mode. It is because most of the operations require admin access and only a PowerShell administrator has the privilege to perform those operations.

Open PowerShell using the run command. Once the PowerShell window is opened, type as Start-Process PowerShell -verb run as and press the enter key.

By using task manager, create a new task. In the name, type PowerShell and check the “Create this task with administrative privileges” and press enter.

Roles and Responsibilities of PowerShell Administrator

Given below are the roles and responsibilities :

1. Check for patches

One of the main responsibilities of a PowerShell administrator is to check for the latest patches that are available and install them. This is a crucial part for any organization to prevent the resources from vulnerabilities attacks and other security related issues. Most of the organization’s patches are installed on a monthly basis to avoid any threats. Get-Hotfix cmdlet is used to find the patches. If we know the id of the patch, then that KB article value should be passed.





It will display the list of all patches that are installed in the local computer.

2. Monitoring the disk space availability

The other important task of the PowerShell administrator is to monitor the available disk space in the system. This process will be tedious in case if there are multiple servers in the system and can’t be done manually. This job is automated by most of the admins with the help of a script which regularly checks for the disk space and sends a trigger based on the condition. These scripts are run using a task scheduler, which will run during non-business hours.




3. Adding users from csv to an AD Group





4. Check if patch is installed in a server or not



In the above example, a list of servers is maintained in one csv and the list of patch ids to be checked for installation in maintained in another csv. For each of the servers mentioned in the csv, all the patch ids are checked if it is installed or not. The server details and patch id’s can be mentioned in the same csv but it would be convenient to have them in different csv’s.

5. Deleting IIS logs older than 10 days




In the above script, a list of log locations is mentioned in the text file. Then in each of the paths, the files that are greater than 7 days are deleted. This can also be scheduled in a task scheduler and can be run daily during non-business hours.


Thus, the article covered in detail who is a PowerShell administrator and what are his roles and responsibilities. The mentioned roles are only a few but there are more tasks than a PowerShell administrator does on his day-to-day activities. The roles are explained with appropriate examples. In some cases, the PowerShell administrator is also responsible for the overall infrastructure of an organization.

Recommended Articles

This is a guide to PowerShell Administrator. Here we discuss the introduction to PowerShell Administrator, 5 different ways of running administrator with roles and responsibilities. You may also have a look at the following articles to learn more –

Complete Guide To Logstash Version

Introduction to Logstash

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Various Logstash Version 1. Logstash 6.3.0 Version

All the versions before 6.3.0 supports for 6.2.x versions or earlier versions including 5.x versions which are considered as PQ versions prior to Logstash 6.3.0 therefore making persistent queue enabled therefore recommending deleting all the persistent queue and its associated activities before upgradation.

2. Logstash 6.0 Version

There are some core and major changes in Logstash 6.0 version which are as follows:

Changes in Logstash Core: These changes can affect any of the instance for Logstash which further impacts lot of features. All changes related to Logstash is mainly related to plugins associated with it.

Application settings segment with config.reload.interval parameter has been changed to use all the time related values and convert this to millisecond values for themselves in their desired units of time.

There are certain changes in terms of rpm and deb packages which in turn makes the overall config files match the required configuration with conf.d pattern matching the glob pattern for transformation.

Command line interface behavior also got changed providing options to -e and -f for mutual exclusion and configurations appending the stdin input and stdin output respectively.

There were many plugins which were deprecated from the default bundle based on the usage of data and still those plugins can be used before these versions.


3. Logstash 7.0.0-alpha1

Changes in Logstash Core: In this version the execution of java has been made as default.

There are major changes in core java specifications and all the associated activities.

Referencing to field is also made strict by default.

Bugfix: There is also a bugfix which is related to data type conversions including byte, short as in RabbitMQ input plugin.

Logstash-filter-aggregate is one of the plugins which has an ability to add new feature consisting of custom timeout or inactivity timeout in the block of entire code.

There are many logstash metrics specific to aggregate plugin having aggregate_maps, error_codes, pushed_events to track for.

Another Plugin Added is logstash-filter-jdbc_static: This plugin is used for adding additional information that emphasize on the documentation and signifies ordering in the table ordered.

Logstash-filter-xml: Plugin to add xpath to the failed empty set of arrays, it also fixes the forced_array behavior with nested elements.

4. Logstash 7.0.0-alpha2 Version

It also has some more improvised Plugins which are supported in this release version which are as follows:


Also, it supports one more plugin like logstash-flash-memcached for making cache of stuffs.

Logstash input beats is another plugin which consists of loosen jar-dependencies to allow plugins to work with JRubies including later version.

5. Logstash 7.0.0-beta1 Version

Removal of Removed obsolete lru_cachesize field from the logstash-filter-geoip.

Removal of logstash-filter_jdbc streaming which help in swap out of postgresql for testing and streaming.

Minor documentation fixes and enhancements as well.

Logstash input-beats changed vault of add_hostname with some security aspects to be maintained.

The plugin consists of some kafka dependency that is also being removed.

6. Logstash 7.0.0-rc1 Version

Issues to be fixed for unqualified domains where it will fail for resolving the running instances with Logstash 5.x versions.

It included logstash-filter-kv which acts as a timeout parameter in this version.

7. Logstash 7.0.0-rc2 Version

It has a change related to plugins where the logstash-input-snmp plugin is updated and has a support for SNMP tables which can be queried religiously.

Enhancements related to get more cleared form of logs where three error messages in the client gets saved via target address related.

8. Logstash 7.0.0 Version

Logstash 7.0.0 version includes features from most of the already supported versions from 7.0.0-alpha1, alpha2, beta1, rc1 and rc2 versions.

Supports for most of the other plugins as well where it includes logstash-codec-cef, logstash-codec-netflow and many more.

9. Logstash 7.0.1 Version

It didn’t include much of the changes but majorly focused on bug fixing aspects of all the related 7.0.0 related versions.

10. Logstash 7.1.0 Version – Logstash 7.1.1 Version

In 7.1.0 version majorly updates for the changes to licensing of security features is emphasized on such as encrypted communications, files, and native authentication.

In this 7.1.1 version release majorly focused on bug fixing no user facing changes in the release.

11. Logstash 7.2.0 Version – Logstash 7.2.1 Version

Fixed that Java supports for Java 11 and Joni regexp is enabled.

Jinja2 docker dependency needs to be resolved.

12. Logstash 7.3.0 Version – Logstash 7.3.2 Version

There are major bug fixing related to ability to give multiple pipelines for all the settings.

13. Logstash 7.4.0 Version – Logstash 7.4.2 Version

Not much user-facing changes upto 7.4.2 version.

14. Logstash 7.5.0 Version – Logstash 7.5.2 Version

In 7.5.2 version the major emphasis is kept on improving the logstash start-time by moving class caching from compute steps to compiled pipeline.

Updated all jackson related dependencies.

15. Logstash 7.6.0 Version – Logstash 7.6.2 Version

Some fixes were made related to quoted plugin option key having many regression keys to stop pipeline from starting.

16. Logstash 7.7.0 – Logstash 7.13.4 Version

Have almost same fixes and changes related to plugins and manipulation in pipelines and its related components like GeoIP.

17. Logstash 7.14.0

This is the stable and latest version of Logstash which is currently into release segment.

Conclusion – Logstash Version

The Logstash Elastic Agent input plugin is available and is used with Elastic agents normal availability and elastic workplace search that has really aided in enhancing all the logs. Logging mechanism gets improvised and simplifies the job of maintaining logs in an efficient manner seamlessly. Logstash latest version has come a long way starting from its alpha release with lots of bug fixing and improvements.

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This is a guide to Logstash Version. Here we discuss the introduction and various Logstash version for better understanding. You may also have a look at the following articles to learn more –

How To Use The Chatgpt Api? A Complete Guide

Learn how to use ChatGPT API and explore its capabilities with this ultimate guide

OpenAI’s ChatGPT API is a strong language processing tool. It is built on the GPT model, which was trained on enormous amounts of text data to produce human-like language. The API makes it simple for developers to incorporate the power of GPT into their applications and construct sophisticated language-based features such as natural language processing, text production, and chatbot capabilities.

One of the ChatGPT API’s primary features is its ability to interpret and respond to natural language input. This makes it excellent for use in chatbot applications since it understands and responds to user inquiries in a natural and human-like manner. The API may also produce text, which can be used to generate automated answers, summaries, or whole articles. This is very beneficial in content creation and summarizing applications.

Another benefit of the ChatGPT API is its scalability. It can manage massive volumes of data and integrates seamlessly with various systems and platforms. It also enables developers to tailor the model to their requirements, which can increase the accuracy and relevancy of the generated content.

The ChatGPT API is also user-friendly, simple to use, and well-documented, allowing it to be used by developers of various skill levels. It also provides several SDKs and libraries to assist developers in integrating the API into their applications. This article serves as a guide to using ChatGPT.

 What is ChatGPT API?

The firm behind ChatGPT, OpenAI, has published an API that allows developers to incorporate ChatGPT’s sophisticated language processing capabilities into their apps, businesses, and services.

ChatGPT, or Chat-based Generative Pre-trained Transformer, is a chatbot built on a series of huge language models fine-tuned by human AI trainers utilizing massive quantities of training data and human input.

With an OpenAI API, you can make use of ChatGPT’s powerful AI technology to improve user experiences and provide personalized suggestions and interactive support that seems to be provided by humans.

AI retail assistants who give suggestions to consumers based on their queries are one common use of the OpenAI API.

Shopify, for example, has integrated ChatGPT into its Shop app, allowing users to utilize prompts to identify and locate desired goods.

Shop announced the connection in a tweet, saying the ChatGPT-powered assistant can “talk products, trends, and maybe even the meaning of life.” Through its unique interface, the OpenAI API allows for smooth interaction with various GPT models.

As a developer, you may utilize the OpenAI API to create apps that can generate text, have intelligent and interesting dialogues with end users, and deliver meaningful replies.

How to use ChatGPT API

Using the ChatGPT API involves a few steps:

Obtain an API key:

To utilize the ChatGPT API, you must first sign up for an API key. This is possible via the OpenAI website.

Choose a programming language:

SDKs and libraries for the ChatGPT API are available in a variety of programming languages, including Python, Java, and JavaScript. Choose the one with whom you feel most at ease.

Install the SDK:

After deciding on a programming language, you must install the SDK or library for that language. This is commonly done with package management like pip or npm.

Create a new instance of the API:

After installing the SDK, you may establish a new instance of the API by entering your API key and any other setup details.

Make requests to the API:

You may begin making requests to the API after you have created an instance of it. You can, for example, use the “generate” method to produce text based on a prompt.

Process the response:

A Complete Guide To Joomla Version

Introduction to Joomla Version

Web development, programming languages, Software testing & others

Different Joomla Versions

As we know, Joomla was a result of the dispute of Mambo, which was formed as a non-profit organization with the intention of protecting the project from lawsuits. It is used widely to create both simple and complex web applications. Joomla is a spelling of Swahili “jumla”, which means “all together”. In September 2023, the first official version of Joomla was released with some major bug fixes. It was basically a rebranding version. Over 3 years, many new versions with so many updates and new changes were released.

1. Joomla 1.x Series

Joomla 1.0: It was the first-ever release of Joomla on 22 September 2005. It is basically for the rebranding release of Mambo. The basic motive of this release is rebranding with major bug fixes. By voting in the community members, the company decided on the logo of Joomla on 29 September 2005.

Joomla 1.5: It was the first major version of Joomla, which was released on 22nd January 2008. This version has got new features and new power levels in the world of CMS (Content Management Systems). It has got full support and enthusiasm from the public. In this version, Joomla has got APIs as well, which helped it to become international CMS. This is the version of Joomla, which has got long term support from the public. Joomla 1.5 was officially ended in April 2012 with the release of Joomla 3.0. The last version of Joomla 1.5v was 1.5.26, which was released on 27th March 2012.

Joomla 1.7.0: This version of Joomla was released in July 2011. This version added some new and important features related to the security and improved migration tools. Features added in this version were very quite important from the user perspective.

2. Joomla 2.x Series

Joomla’s 2.x version was released in 2012 and was one of the major revisions announced after the version 1.x release.

It has got some necessary improvements like:

Making new APIs making it easier for the users to use the application.

One of the major features of multi-language was added in this release.

Bug fixes like registration form on the login page, display of currencies, light box for product images, etc.

SSL features for different pages like login, register, title, etc., were added.

Image resizing and adding new events for plugins were added.

This version of Joomla is an LTS (Long Term Support) release.

3. Joomla 3.x Series

This version focuses on some of the important features like:

The more intuitive backend of the website.

Mobile-friendly websites for the users.

Fixing some major bugs of the 2.x release.

After six months of the release of Joomla 3.0, Joomla 3.1 was released for the users. It included one of the important features of tagging for the users. With the release of Joomla 3.2 and 3.3, which released in November 2013 and April 2014, respectively, it became one of the most popular versions of Joomla making. Other versions obsolete as it helps in the ease of access of websites for the users.

Some features given below were introduced in this version of Joomla:

Ease of navigation in the website.

Editing the content of the website.

A search was added for the various website pages.

Checking the products in stock before ordering.

Ability to unlock an unfinished item on the website.

4. Joomla 4.x Series

With all the chaos that happened in the Joomla 3.x series, the team decided to develop a stable build to improve the relationship between the members. After long discussions on the current situations and the changes that needed to be done, the team was more productive and made many changes in the project.

Some of the features that were added in this release were:

Focused on the usability of the backend interface of Joomla 4.

Support for PHP5 was removed.

Support for SQL server has been removed.

The team members made a new strategy for the development.

Active engagement of team member in testing rather than criticizing the previous releases.

Admin code refactoring was done, along with some major bug fixes.

Conclusion – Joomla Version

The above description clearly explains the full version history of Joomla. It is one of the most popular and widely used systems for content management and designing of software. It is used worldwide and is considered one of the most reliable, easy to use and secure applications to use. It has got wide support and a lot of enthusiasm from the people in such a short period of time.

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